click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Wakō, Saitama

Wakō is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 80,666, a population density of 7310 persons per km2, its total area is 11.04 square kilometres. Located in southern Saitama Prefecture bordering on Tokyo, Wakō is within easy commuting distance from downtown Tokyo. Saitama Prefecture Asaka Toda Tokyo Metropolis Itabashi-ku Nerima-ku Archaeological examination of several sites around Wakō has revealed the remains of a number of villages in the area, including a large amount of Jōmon period pottery, stone tools and other remains. Signs of early rice cultivation coinciding with the Yayoi period as well as quantities of Yayoi period pottery and implements have been found; the area of modern Wakō developed from the Muromachi period as Shirako-juku, a post station on the Kawagoe-kaidō highway. The villages of Shirako and Niikura were created within Niikura District, Saitama with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889.

Niikura District was abolished in 1894. The two villages were merged on April 1943, becoming the town of Yamato. Yamato was elevated to city status on October 31, 1970 and was renamed Wakō. Wakō was home to a Honda factory, but is now the location for the company's technical development section. Part of the headquarters function of Honda is scheduled to move from Tokyo; the head offices of RIKEN, a large natural sciences research institute in Japan, are located in the city. The city serves as a bedroom community for Tokyo. Wakō has eight elementary schools, three middle schools and two high schools, as well as two special education schools. Tobu Railway - Tobu Tojo Line Tokyo Metro - Yūrakuchō Line/Fukutoshin Line Wakōshi Tokyo Gaikan Expressway Japan National Route 254 Japan National Route 298 Longview, United States, since October 1, 1999 This temple was consecrated by Sudagoro Tokimitsu, the local administrator of Shimoniikura. A statue of Nichiren and a wooden plaque with the inscription: "Namu myoho rengekyo" reside in the temple.

They are important treasures of Wakō city. Per local legend, Nichiren called at the house of his old friend, Tokimitsu while on his way to exile in Sado. Tokimitsu's wife was going through a difficult childbirth; when Nichiren prayed for a safe delivery and made a blessing with a willow twig a spring of pure water sprang up on the spot. Nichiren had Tokimitu's wife hold the willow twig while water from the spring was poured into her mouth whereupon she soon gave birth to a healthy baby boy. There used to be a large willow tree beside the pond at the temple, it is said that this tree grew from the twig that Nichiren used to bless the birth; the tree is no longer there today. The Kawagoe Kaidō was a highway completed in 1633 when the third shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu visited Kawagoe Senpa Tōshōgū. At that time, Kawagoe Castle played an important role in governing the northern part of Musashi Province. Kawagoe was 10 Ri from Nihonbashi in the old part of Edo and there were six shukuba along the way, namely: Kamiitabashi, Shirako, Hizaori, Ōwada, Ōi.

These post stations were regulated settlements catering to travelers. Shirako-juku was 20 kilometres from Edo and travelers stopped there for lunch. After a steep winding hill and with ample spring water, Shirako-juku was a good rest stop. Travelers came from the direction of Nittazaka went up O-saka and down Kurayami-zaka, dark in the daytime; the origin of this Shingon sect temple pre-dates the Edo period. The temple was dedicated to the Juichimen Kannon; the wooden statue may have been made at the beginning of the Edo period. There is a huge Ginkgo tree in the temple grounds; the tree is estimated to be over 700 years old, has a diameter of more than 7.5 meters and stands nearly 30 meters tall. It is designated as a natural monument of the Wako City. Ikkan-ji is a Sōtō sect temple built during the Kan'ei era and was consecrated by Sakai Tadashige, a local administrator of Shimoniikura in the Edo period, it served as the family temple of the Sakai clan. Gorintō, or stone five level pagodas were placed at graves as a memorial and to console the spirits of the departed.

Three gorinto can be found at Ikkan-ji at the graves of Tadashige Sakai, his wife, a former administrator's wife. Keisuke Kato, actor Toshio Kayama, politician Official Website

Ian McGibbon

Ian Callum McGibbon is a New Zealand historian, specialising in military and political history of the 20th century. He has published several books on New Zealand participation in the Second World Wars. Born on 7 December 1947 in Dannevirke, McGibbon was educated at Victoria University of Wellington, he earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1968, Honours the following year and in 1971, he graduated with a Master of Arts degree with distinction, majoring in history. His career as a historian began with an appointment in 1971 as the Defence Historian at the Ministry of Defence, where he worked for eight years. In 1979, he started work for the Department of Internal Affairs in the Historical Publications Branch. From 1982, he was the only staff member dealing with military history and produced the official history of New Zealand's involvement in the Korean War. In 1994 he earned a Doctor of Letters from Victoria University, he was General Editor at the Ministry for Culture and Heritage. His primary area of interest is New Zealand military history and politics, with particular focus on 20th-century warfare.

In the 1997 Queen's Birthday Honours, McGibbon was appointed an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to historical research. From 2010 to 2014, McGibbon was a participant in the Joint Historical and Archaeological Survey of the Anzac Battlefield, working alongside historians and archaeologists from Australia and Turkey. McGibbon's publications include:Author Blue-Water Rationale: The Naval Defence of New Zealand 1914–1942 The Path To Gallipoli New Zealand and the Korean War: Politics and Diplomacy New Zealand and the Korean War: Combat Operations The Western Front: A Guide to New Zealand Battlefields and Memorials Gallipoli: A Guide to New Zealand Battlefields and Memorials Kiwi Sappers: The Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers' Century of Service New Zealand and the Second World War: The People, the Battles and the Legacy New Zealand’s Vietnam War: A History of Combat and Controversy New Zealand's Western Front Campaign Editor Undiplomatic Dialogue: Letters Between Carl Berendsen and Alister McIntosh, 1943–52 Unofficial Channels: Letters between Alister Mcintosh and Foss Shanahan, George Laking and Frank Corner 1946–1966 Oxford Companion To New Zealand Military History One Flag, One Queen, One Tongue: New Zealand and the South African War New Zealand's Great War: New Zealand, the Allies and the First World War ANZAC Battlefield: A Gallipoli Landscape of War and Memory

Hairy-footed dunnart

The hairy-footed dunnart is a dunnart that has silver hairs on the soles of it hind feet accompanied by long hair on the side of its sole. It is an Australian marsupial similar to the Ooldea dunnart, with its upper body yellow-brown and lower body white in colour, its total length is 147–180 mm. Its ear length is 15 mm; this dasyurid weighs between 19 grams. Its tail is pinkish white, can be thickened at the base; this species inhabits 3 distinct areas. Its habitat includes arid and semi-arid woodlands, savannah grasslands; the hairy-footed dunnart lives in burrows built by spiders, bull ants and other similar burrowing type species. Not much is known about the breeding cycle but the young are in the pouch by October and juveniles emerge by late April, its typical diet includes small reptiles and arthropods. Menkhorst, P.. A field Guide to the Mammals of Australia. Oxford Press. ISBN 0-19-550870-X. Australian Biological Resources Study

The Bertrand Russell Case

The Bertrand Russell Case, known as Kay v. Board of Higher Education, was a case concerning the appointment of Bertrand Russell as Professor of Philosophy of the College of the City of New York, as well as a collection of articles on the aforementioned case, edited by John Dewey and Horace M. Kallen. In 1940, Bertrand Russell was hired by the City College of New York to teach classes on logic and metaphysics of science; this appointment was made controversial by Dr. William Thomas Manning, the Episcopal Bishop of New York City, who argued that due to Bertrand Russell's writings against religion and approval of sexual acts disapproved of by traditional Christian teachings, he should not be instated as a professor. Following Manning's denunciation, a group of religious individuals lobbied New York City government institutions to reject Bertrand Russell's position as professor. However, despite this pressure, Russell was confirmed by the New York Board of Higher Education. Following this decision, the matter was taken to the New York Supreme Court by Jean Kay, who argued that her daughter would be morally compromised should she study under Russell though her daughter was not a student at CCNY, nor could she have been, as CCNY enrolled male students at the time.

The judge hearing the case was the Irish Catholic John E. McGeehan, who ruled against Russell's appointment on three criteria. First, McGeehan argued that Russell should not be allowed to teach due to his status as a non-citizen of the United States, whom New York law prohibited from teaching in public schools. Second, McGeehan wrote that Russell was not given a competitive examination of his merit for the position to which he was appointed. Thirdly, McGeehan concluded that Russell held immoral views regarding sexuality on the basis of four of his popular and non-philosophic books, that his opinions regarding sexual relations between college-aged students amounted to an endorsement of abduction, rendering him morally unfit to teach philosophy and an advocate of lawlessness. In the books, Russell advocated for sex before marriage, temporary marriages, the privatization of marriage, among other things. Russell was prevented from appearing in court and an appeal by the American Civil Liberties Union was denied in several courts.

The City of New York's lawyers told the Board of Higher Education that the verdict would not be appealed. A few days Mayor La Guardia removed the funds for the position from the budget. Judge McGeehan's ruling was published as Kay v. Board of Higher Ed. of City of New York, 193 Misc. 943 18 N. Y. S. 821. When Russell published An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth, the lectures he gave at Harvard that fall, he added "Judicially pronounced unworthy to be Professor of Philosophy at the College of the City of New York" to the listing of distinctions and academic honors on the title page in the British version. Russell commented on Judge McGeehan, writing, "As an Irish Catholic, his views were prejudiced," and compared his case to the case against Socrates saying that "precisely the same accusations were brought — atheism and corrupting the young."Following his dismissal, Russell was hired by Albert C. Barnes, who wrote the forward for The Bertrand Russell Case, to teach for the Barnes Foundation. However, he was dismissed in December of 1942 due to his distaste for lecturing and his impolite attitude towards students, which Barnes saw as in violation to democracy and education.

In 1941, John Dewey and Horace M. Kallen published The Bertrand Russell Case, a collection of articles defending Russell's appointment and criticizing McGeehan's ruling, characterizing it as unjust and libelous. A major theme treated by the book is the necessity of academic freedom in American universities. Many of the essayists featured in the Bertrand Russell Case see Russell's dismissal as a microcosm of American democracy, in which freedom of expression is stifled by religious individuals. Additionally, many of the book's authors discuss at length the necessity for academic disciplines to feature counter-cultural thinkers, as they are skeptical of a framework of thought enforced by religious or political individuals; the Bertrand Russell Case contains an introduction by John Dewey, a foreword by Albert C. Barnes, nine essays. Kallen and Dewey each contributed a single essay to the collection. While most of the articles are written by philosophers and other academics and argue in favor of Russell and academic freedom, the article "The Attitude of the Episcopal Church," which argues that Manning's assertions do not reflect the opinion of the church as a whole, was written by Guy Emery Shipler, editor of The Churchman, "The Case as a School Administrator Sees it" was written by Carleton Washburne, an Illinois Superintendent.

The Bertrand Russell Case was celebrated by many academics for its defense of academic freedom. In a review for the American Association of University Professors, Peter A. Carmichael writes, "The authors of this book deserve praise for their able defense of intellectual freedom and of a great intellect," despite the book's lack of any religious perspective. Writing for the History of Science Society's publication Isis, M. F. Ashley Montagu characterizes The Bertrand Russell Case as "an important book" and argues that all scholars should read it in order to better resist the encroachment of religious forces into science and academic study. Bertrand Russell, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell: The Middle Years: 1914-1944. Bantam, 1969. Thom Weidlich. Appointment Denied: The Inquisition of Bertrand Russell. Prometheus Books, 2000

Earth Gravitational Model

The Earth Gravitational Models are geopotential models of the Earth consisting of spherical harmonic coefficients published by the Office of Geomatics at National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. EGM96 from 1996 is used as the geoid reference of the World Geodetic System. Three versions of EGM are published: EGM84 with n=m=180, EGM96 with n=m=360, EGM2008 with n=m=2160. N and m are the degree and orders of harmonic coefficients. EGM2008 contains expansions to n=2190. Developmental versions of EGMs are referred to Preliminary Gravitational Models; the NGA provides the model in two formats: in a raster image recording the geoid height at each coordinate at a given resolution, or in a format providing the numerical parameters – the coefficients – defining the model. The first EGM, EGM84, was defined as a part of WGS84. WGS84 combines the old GRS 80 with the then-latest data, namely available Doppler, satellite laser ranging and Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations, a new least squares method called collocation.

It allowed for a model with n=m=180 to be defined, providing a raster for every half degree of latitude and longitude of the world. NIMA computed and made available 30′×30′ mean altimeter derived gravity anomalies from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission. EGM96 from 1996 is the result of a collaboration between the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Ohio State University, it took advantage of new surface gravity data from many different regions of the globe, including data newly released from the NIMA archives. Major terrestrial gravity acquisitions by NIMA since 1990 include airborne gravity surveys over Greenland and parts of the Arctic and the Antarctic, surveyed by the Naval Research Lab and cooperative gravity collection projects, several of which were undertaken with the University of Leeds; these collection efforts have improved the data holdings over many of the world's land areas, including Africa, parts of South America and Africa, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union.

In addition, there have been major efforts to improve NIMA's existing 30' mean anomaly database through contributions over various countries in Asia. EGM96 included altimeter derived anomalies derived from ERS-1 by Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen, over portions of the Arctic, the Antarctic, as well as the altimeter derived anomalies of Schoene over the Weddell Sea; the raster from EGM96 is provided at 15'x15' resolution. EGM96 is a composite solution, consisting of: a combination solution to degree and order 70, a block diagonal solution from degree 71 to 359, the quadrature solution at degree 360. PGM2000A is an EGM96 derivative model that incorporates normal equations for the dynamic ocean topography implied by the POCM4B ocean general circulation model; the official Earth Gravitational Model EGM2008 has been publicly released by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency EGM Development Team. Among other new data sources, the GRACE satellite mission provided a high resolution model of the global gravity.

This gravitational model is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 2159, contains additional coefficients extending to degree 2190 and order 2159. It provides a raster of 2.5'x2.5' and an accuracy approaching 10 cm. "Test versions" of EGM2008 includes PGM2004, 2006, 2007. Geoid ETRS89 NAD83 WGS84 EGM96: The NASA GSFC and NIMA Joint Geopotential Model Earth Gravitational Model 2008 GeographicLib provides a utility GeoidEval to evaluate the geoid height for the EGM84, EGM96, EGM2008 Earth gravity models. Here is an online version of GeoidEval; the Tracker Component Library from the United States Naval Research Laboratory is a free Matlab library with a number of gravitational synthesis routines. The function getEGMGeoidHeight can be used to evaluate the geoid height under the EGM96 and EGM2008 models. Additionally, the gravitational potential and gravity gradient can be evaluated using the spherHarmonicEval function, as demonstrated in DemoGravCode

Quién como tú

Quién como tú is the 5th studio album by Mexican pop singer Ana Gabriel. It was released on November 17, 1989; this material was nominated to the Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Album in 1990, but lost to José Feliciano's ¿Por Qué Te Tengo Que Olvidar?. The album was awarded "Pop Album of the Year" at the 1991 Lo Nuestro awards; this album reached #1 in the Billboard Latin Pop Albums staying in the chart for 48 weeks. It sold 3,5 million worldwide. Tracks: Quién Como Tú - 03:35 Baila El Reggae - 03:36 Ni Un Roce - 04:32 En la Oscuridad - 03:56 Adiós Tristeza - 04:18 Algo - 03:19 Hice Bien En Quererte Version Corta - 04:04 Sólo Quiero Ser Amada - 03:30 Déjame Sola - 03:30 Fui Yo - 05:10 Quién como tú reached #1 on Hot Latin Tracks. Ni Un Roce reached #4 on Hot Latin Songs. Hice Bien En Quererte This release reached the #1 position in Billboard Latin Pop Albums, it's her second album to top the chart. List of number-one Billboard Latin Pop Albums from the 1980s