Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji (. There are several different romanization systems; the three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most used. Japanese is written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese and syllabic scripts that ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language, it is used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, may be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.
All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese, most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji and kana; the earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography. It was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro. Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography; the most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written in 1603. In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels; some consonants were transliterated differently: for instance, the /k/ consonant was rendered, depending on context, as either c or q, the /ɸ/ consonant as f.
The Jesuits printed some secular books in romanized Japanese, including the first printed edition of the Japanese classic The Tale of the Heike, romanized as Feiqe no monogatari, a collection of Aesop's Fables. The latter continued to be read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan. Following the expulsion of Christians from Japan in the late 1590s and early 17th century, rōmaji fell out of use and was used sporadically in foreign texts until the mid-19th century, when Japan opened up again. From the mid-19th century onward, several systems were developed, culminating in the Hepburn system, named after James Curtis Hepburn who used it in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887; the Hepburn system included representation of some sounds. For example, Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan shows the older kw- pronunciation. In the Meiji era, some Japanese scholars advocated abolishing the Japanese writing system and using rōmaji instead; the Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement.
Several Japanese texts were published in rōmaji during this period, but it failed to catch on. In the early 20th century, some scholars devised syllabary systems with characters derived from Latin that were less popular since they were not based on any historical use of the Latin script. Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect and some independent organizations. During the Allied occupation of Japan, the government of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers made it official policy to romanize Japanese. However, that policy failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed. Hepburn romanization follows English phonology with Romance vowels, it is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. It was standardized in the United states as American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese, but that status was abolished on October 6, 1994. Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today in the English-speaking world.
The Revised Hepburn system of romanization uses a macron to indicate some long vowels and an apostrophe to note the separation of confused phonemes. For example, the name じゅんいちろう is written with the kana characters ju-n-i-chi-ro-u, romanized as Jun'ichirō in Revised Hepburn. Without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u; this system is used in Japan and among foreign students and academics. Nihon-shiki romanization, which predates the Hepburn system, was invented as a method for Japanese to write their own language in Latin characters, rather than to transcribe it for Westerners as Hepburn was, it follows the Japanese syllabary strictly, with no adjustments for changes in pronunciation. It is therefore the only major system of romanization that allows near-lossless mapping to and from kana, it has been st
Gobō is a city located in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on April 1, 1954; as of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 27,483 and the population density of 627.75 km². The total area is 43.78 km². Gobō has Kishū Railway Line, a short railroad, only 2.7 km. It runs between JR Gobō Nishi-Gobō Station at a speed of 20 km/h, taking eight minutes; this railroad is called "rinkō" by local people. Gobō's unofficial plant is the Hibiscus hamabo, a kind of hollyhock growing up to 3 to 5 metres in height, bearing yellow flowers in the summer; the hibiscus are found at the mouth of the Hidaka River with its warmer microclimate. Economically Gobō is well known for its horticulture. Gobō's slogan is "hanamaru Gobō"; the city's greenhouses produce a wide range of blooms. Gobō is well known as a mahjong tile and dice manufacturer. Gobō's leads Japan in the production of mahjong tile and dice. Gobō has "Gobō Synthesis Sport Park"; this park has training place and more. It is a popular relaxation spot among the locals.
Media related to Gobō, Wakayama at Wikimedia Commons Gobō City official website Gobō City official website
Hidaka District, Wakayama
Hidaka District is a district located in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. As of September 1, 2008, the district has an estimated Population of 56,219 and a Density of 85.8 persons/km². The total area is 655.49 km². Hidaka Hidakagawa Inami Mihama Minabe Yura On October 1, 2004 the village of Minabegawa merged into the expanded town of Minabe. On May 1, 2005 the towns of Kawabe and Miyama merged to form the new town of Hidakagawa. On May 1, 2005 the village of Ryūjin merged into the city of Tanabe
The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo and Shiga, sometimes Fukui and Tottori. While the use of the terms "Kansai" and "Kinki" have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable; the urban region of Osaka and Kyoto is the second-most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area. The Kansai region is a cultural center and the historical heart of Japan, with 11% of the nation's land area and 22,757,897 residents as of 2010; the Osaka Plain with the cities of Osaka and Kyoto forms the core of the region, from there the Kansai area stretches west along the Seto Inland Sea towards Kobe and Himeji and east encompassing Lake Biwa, Japan's largest freshwater lake. In the north, the region is bordered by the Sea of Japan, to the south by the Kii Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean, to the east by the Ibuki Mountains and Ise Bay.
Four of Japan's national parks lie in whole or in part. The area contains six of the seven top prefectures in terms of national treasures. Other geographical features include Awaji Island in Hyōgo; the Kansai region is compared with the Kantō region, which lies to its east and consists of Tokyo and the surrounding area. Whereas the Kantō region is symbolic of standardization throughout Japan, the Kansai region displays many more idiosyncrasies – the culture in Kyoto, the mercantilism of Osaka, the history of Nara, or the cosmopolitanism of Kobe – and represents the focus of counterculture in Japan; this East-West rivalry has deep historical roots from the Edo period. With a samurai population of less than 1% the culture of the merchant city of Osaka stood in sharp contrast to that of Edo, the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate. Many characteristic traits of Kansai people descend from Osaka merchant culture. Catherine Maxwell, an editor for the newsletter Omusubi, writes: "Kansai residents are seen as being pragmatic, down-to-earth and possessing a strong sense of humor.
Kantō people, on the other hand, are perceived as more sophisticated and formal, in keeping with Tokyo’s history and modern status as the nation’s capital and largest metropolis."Kansai is known for its food Osaka, as supported by the saying "Kyotoites are ruined by overspending on clothing, Osakans are ruined by overspending on food". Popular Osakan dishes include takoyaki, kitsune udon and kushikatsu. Kyoto is considered a mecca of traditional Japanese cuisine like kaiseki. Kansai has many wagyu brands such as Kobe beef and Tajima cattle from Hyōgo, Matsusaka beef from Mie and Ōmi beef from Shiga. Sake is another specialty of the region, the areas of Nada-Gogō and Fushimi produce 45% of all sake in Japan; as opposed to food from Eastern Japan, food in the Kansai area tends to be sweeter, foods such as nattō tend to be less popular. The dialects of the people from the Kansai region called Kansai-ben, have their own variations of pronunciation and grammar. Kansai-ben is the group of dialects spoken in the Kansai area, but is treated as a dialect in its own right.
Kansai is one of the most prosperous areas for baseball in Japan. Two Nippon Professional Baseball teams, Hanshin Tigers and Orix Buffaloes, are based in Kansai. Koshien Stadium, the home stadium of the Hanshin Tigers, is famous for the nationwide high school baseball tournaments. In association football, the Kansai Soccer League was founded in 1966 and has 16 teams in two divisions. Cerezo Osaka, Gamba Osaka, Vissel Kobe belong to J. League Division 1 and Kyoto Sanga F. C. belongs to the top professional leagues in Japan. The terms Kansai and Kinai have a deep history, dating back as far as the nation of Japan itself; as a part of the Ritsuryō reforms of the seventh and eighth centuries, the Gokishichidō system established the provinces of Yamato, Kawachi and Izumi. Kinai and Kinki, both meaning "the neighbourhood of the capital", referred to these provinces. In common usage, Kinai now refers to the center of the Kansai region. Kansai in its original usage refers to the land west of the Osaka Tollgate, the border between Yamashiro Province and Ōmi Province.
During the Kamakura period, this border was redefined to include Iga Provinces. It is not until the Edo period. Like all regions of Japan, the Kansai region is not an administrative unit, but rather a cultural and historical one, which emerged much during the Heian Period after the expansion of Japan saw the development of the Kantō region to the east and the need to differentiate what was the center of Japan in Kansai emerged; the Kansai region lays claim to the earliest beginnings of Japanese civilization. It was Nara, the most eastern point on the Silk Road, that became the site of Japan's first permanent capital; this period saw the spread of Buddhism to Japan and the construction of Tōdai-ji in 745. The Kansai region boasts the Shinto religion's holiest shrine at Ise Shrine in Mie prefecture; the Heian period saw the capital moved to Heian-kyō, where it would remain for over a thousand years until the Meiji Restoration. During this golden age, the Kansai region would give birth to traditional Japanese culture.
In 788, S
The Kii Peninsula is the largest peninsula on the island of Honshū in Japan. It is named after the ancient Kii Province; the area south of the “Central Tectonic Line” is called Nanki, includes the most poleward living coral reefs in the world due to the presence of the warm Kuroshio Current, though these are threatened by global warming and human interference. Because of the Kuroshio’s strong influence, the climate of Nankii is the wettest in the Earth’s subtropics with rainfall in the southern mountains believed to reach 5 metres per year and averaging 3.85 metres in the southeastern town of Owase, comparable to Ketchikan, Alaska or Tortel in southern Chile. When typhoons hit Japan, the Kii Peninsula is the worst affected area and daily rainfalls as high as 940 millimetres are not unknown. Most of the Kii Peninsula is dense temperate rainforest since the climate in the limited lowlands is too wet for agriculture, much of the coast consists of networks of small rias into which flow steep and rapid streams characterised by a large number of high waterfalls.
Forestry and fishing were the traditional economic mainstays of the region and remain important today despite a declining population and labour force. Wakayama Prefecture occupies much including the entire southern part. To the northwest of Wakayama Prefecture is Osaka Prefecture, whose southern part is on the peninsula. East of Osaka Prefecture is landlocked Nara Prefecture; the Seto Inland Sea lies to the west of the Kii Peninsula. To the south and east is the Pacific Ocean and to the north is the valley of the Kiso Three Rivers and Ise Bay. Notable places in the Kii Peninsula include: Nara, former capital of Japan. Mount Kōya, the headquarters of the Shingon sect of Buddhism. Wakayama, former home of the Kii Tokugawa clan, it is the location of the Hinokuma Shrine, affiliated to the Grand Shrine of Ise. Matsuzaka, now the center of a major beef-producing area the center of Ise merchants. Ise, the location of the Grand Shrine of Ise and center of pearl production. Yoshino District, a wild area of forested deep mountains, home of the Southern Imperial Court during the Nanboku-chō period of Japanese history.
Kumano Region, home of the Kumano Shrines and the Nachi Waterfall. Another name is Muro District. Kushimoto, the southernmost point in Honshū. Taiji, the birthplace of the Japanese traditional whaling; the Kii Peninsula is the location of a UNESCO World Heritage Site: Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range. In 2004, UNESCO designated three other locations on the Kii Peninsula as World Heritage Sites, they are: mountainous areas in the north of the peninsula. Kumano Shrines, three shrines at the southern tip of the peninsula. Mount Kōya, the mountain at the west of the peninsula Nanki-Shirahama Airport in Shirahama serves the southern part of the Kii Peninsula. Kisei Main Line runs along the peninsula's coastline. Visit Wakayama Tanabe City Kumano Tourism Bureau
Inami is a town located in Hidaka District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. As of 2016, the town had an estimated population of 7,949 and a density of 70 people per km²; the total area is 113.63 km². Media related to Inami, Wakayama at Wikimedia Commons Wakayama official town website
Kozagawa is a town located in Higashimuro District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the town has an estimated population of 2,749, a density of 9.3 persons per km². The total area is 294.52 km². This town is located in a mountainous region of southern part of Kii Peninsula. In this town, the forestry is prosperous; the total area of Kozagawa is the second largest in Wakayama Prefecture. However, the population of Kozagawa Town is the second smallest in the prefecture; because of warm and wet climate, from ancient times, good-quality woods, called "Kozagawa-Zai", have been produced. In 1889, the municipality organization system was enforced: Takaike Village -. Myojin Village -. Mitogawa Village -. Kogawa Village -. Shichigawa Village -. In 1900, Takaike Village became Takaike Town. On March 31, 1956, Takaike Town, Myojin Village, Mitogawa Village, Kogawa Village, Shichigawa Village merged and became Kozagawa Town; the present town mayor is Takeo Takeda. Kozagawa Town, Kushimoto Town, Susami Town comes under Kushimoto police station.
In Kozagawa Town, there are three Kōbans: Takaike and Sada. According to the census of 2005, 162 people engage in primary industry, 196 people engage in secondary industry, 927 people engage in third industry; the local speciality of this town is Yuzu. Kozagawa-no-Ichimaiiwa Rock Takinohai Falls Maboroshi-no-taki Falls Shichikawa Dam Kozagawa Gorge Hotsprings Tsukinose Hotspring Yunohana Hotspring There are no stations in Kozagawa; the nearest station is Koza Station of JR Kisei Main Line, located in Kushimoto. National routes National Route 371 Main prefectural roads Prefectural Road 38 Prefectural Road 39 Prefectural Road 43 Prefectural Road 229 Kozagawa Town Bus Shingo Tatsumi, professional baseball player Yukihisa Shimada and professor of Yokohama City University Media related to Kozagawa, Wakayama at Wikimedia Commons Kozagawa official website