click links in text for more info


Wake-on-LAN is an Ethernet or token ring computer networking standard that allows a computer to be turned on or awakened by a network message. The message is sent to the target computer by a program executed on a device connected to the same local area network, such as a smartphone, it is possible to initiate the message from another network by using subnet directed broadcasts or a WOL gateway service. Equivalent terms include wake on WAN, remote wake-up, power on by LAN, power up by LAN, resume by LAN, resume on LAN and wake up on LAN. If the computer being awakened is communicating via Wi-Fi, a supplementary standard called Wake on Wireless LAN must be employed; the WOL and WoWLAN standards are supplemented by vendors to provide protocol-transparent on-demand services, for example in the Apple Bonjour wake-on-demand feature. In October 1996, Intel and IBM formed the Advanced Manageability Alliance. In April 1997, this alliance introduced the Wake-on-LAN technology. Ethernet connections, including home and work networks, wireless data networks and the Internet itself, are based on frames sent between computers.

Wake-on-LAN is implemented using a specially designed frame called a magic packet, sent to all computers in a network, among them the computer to be awakened. The magic packet contains the MAC address of the destination computer, an identifying number built into each network interface card or other ethernet device in a computer, that enables it to be uniquely recognized and addressed on a network. Powered-down or turned off computers capable of Wake-on-LAN will contain network devices able to "listen" to incoming packets in low-power mode while the system is powered down. If a magic packet is received, directed to the device's MAC address, the NIC signals the computer's power supply or motherboard to initiate system wake-up, in the same way that pressing the power button would do; the magic packet is sent on the data link layer and when sent, is broadcast to all attached devices on a given network, using the network broadcast address. Because Wake-on-LAN is built upon broadcast technology, it can only be used within the current network subnet.

There are some exceptions and Wake-on-LAN can operate across any network in practice, given appropriate configuration and hardware, including remote wake-up across the Internet. In order for Wake-on-LAN to work, parts of the network interface need to stay on; this consumes a small amount of standby power, much less than normal operating power. The link speed is reduced to the lowest possible speed to not waste power. Disabling wake-on-LAN when not needed, can slightly reduce power consumption on computers that are switched off but still plugged into a power socket; the magic packet is a broadcast frame containing anywhere within its payload 6 bytes of all 255, followed by sixteen repetitions of the target computer's 48-bit MAC address, for a total of 102 bytes. Since the magic packet is only scanned for the string above, not parsed by a full protocol stack, it could be sent as any network- and transport-layer protocol, although it is sent as a UDP datagram to port 0, 7 or 9, or directly over Ethernet as EtherType 0x0842.

A connection-oriented transport-layer protocol like TCP is less suited for this task as it requires establishing an active connection before sending user data. A standard magic packet has the following basic limitations: Requires destination computer MAC address Does not provide a delivery confirmation May not work outside of the local network Requires hardware support of Wake-on-LAN on destination computer Most 802.11 wireless interfaces do not maintain a link in low power states and cannot receive a magic packetThe Wake-on-LAN implementation is designed to be simple and to be processed by the circuitry present on the network interface card with minimal power requirement. Because Wake-on-LAN operates below the IP protocol layer, IP addresses and DNS names are meaningless and so the MAC address is required. A principal limitation of standard broadcast wake-on-LAN is that broadcast packets are not routed; this prevents the technique being used over the Internet. Subnet directed. SDB may require changes to intermediate router configuration.

Subnet directed broadcasts are treated like unicast network packets until processed by the final router. This router broadcasts the packet using layer 2 broadcast; this technique allows a broadcast to be initiated on a remote network but requires all intervening routers to forward the SDB. When preparing a network to forward SDB packets, care must be taken to filter packets so that only desired SDB packets are permitted — otherwise the network may become a participant in DDoS attacks such as the Smurf Attack. Wake-on-LAN can be a difficult technology to implement, because it requires appropriate BIOS, network card and, operating system and router support to function reliably. In some cases, hardware may wake from one low power state but not from others; this means that due to hardware issues the computer may be waking up from the "fully off state" but doesn't wake from sleep or hibernation or vice versa. It is not always clear what kind of magic packet a NIC expects to see. In that case, software tools like a packet analyzer can help with Wake-on-LAN troubleshooting as they allow confirming that the magic packet is indeed visible to a particular computer's NIC.


USS Passaic (1862)

The first Passaic was a single turreted, coastal monitor purchased by the United States Navy for service during the American Civil War. Passaic was built by Continental Iron Works, New York, under subcontract from John Ericsson; the engine was built by Delemater Iron Works and it had a propeller of cast iron, 12 ft in diameter. It was launched 30 August 1862. Two days the new monitor departed New York and joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Hampton Roads on 29 November but was sent to the Washington Navy Yard for repairs. There President Abraham Lincoln visited the ship with members of his cabinet 6 December. After returning to Hampton Roads on 26 December, towed by USS State of Georgia, got underway three days with USS Monitor, towed by USS Rhode Island, heading for Beaufort, North Carolina. Encountering bad weather off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, she leaked badly and was forced to work her pumps and throw all shot overboard to remain afloat, but she reached Beaufort on New Year's Day 1863.

Monitor foundered during the storm. Anchoring off Port Royal, South Carolina, on 21 January, she proceeded to Wassaw Sound. On 23 February with USS Marblehead, Passaic captured schooner Glide laden with cotton. With her sister monitors, Passaic attacked Fort McAllister to test her fighting capabilities in action. On 7 April, she took part in Rear Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont's attack on South Carolina. Battered during the engagement, she returned to New York and decommissioned for repairs 12 May. Recommissioned 19 July, Passaic arrived off Morris Island in Charleston Harbor on 25 July, took part in all operations against that place. Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren used her as his flagship during the attack on Fort Moultrie, she assisted in rescuing Lehigh when that monitor ran aground under the fire of Fort Moultrie. On 16 June 1865, Passaic decommissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard and was laid up there from 1866 to 1874. Repaired during the following year, she recommissioned in Hampton Roads, 24 November 1876.

From 1878 to 1882 she served as receiving ship at Washington, D. C. From 1883 to 1892 she was stationed at the Naval Academy, Annapolis and from 1893 to 1894 at the Navy Yard, Massachusetts. During 1895 and 1896 she was loaned to the Massachusetts Naval Militia and during the next two years to the Georgia Naval Militia at Brunswick, Georgia. On 16 May 1898 Passaic was again recommissioned, assigned to the Naval Auxiliary Force and sent to Key West and Pensacola, Florida, she was decommissioned at the Pensacola Navy Yard in Pensacola on 11 September 1898, sold to Frank Samuels on 10 October 1899. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Additional technical data from Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Conway Maritime Press. P. 120. ISBN 0-85177-133-5. USS Passaic USS Passaic

Sony RX

The Sony RX is a range of high-end cameras created by Sony starting in 2012. All units are equipped with Carl Zeiss lenses; the DSC-RX100 was designated one of 25 best inventions of 2012 by Time. The DSC-RX1 was released in late 2012, it is an expert compact with a sensor full size 24 megapixel, the sensitivity ranges from 100 to 25600 ISO; the target has a zoom 35 mm and aperture f / 2. The device has a resolution of 1229000 point. Released in the summer of 2013, it is a derivative of DSC-RX1 without a low pass filter, as a full hybrid brand format, the Sony α7R; the DSC-RX10 was released in late 2013, it is a bridge expert equipped with a 1" sensor 20 megapixels, the sensitivity extends from 125 to 12800. The target has an equivalent focal range 24–200 mm and an aperture constant f/2.8. The device has a screen of a resolution of 1228800 point; the DSC-RX10 II is marketed in July 2015, it boasts a new faster sensor generation and the video 4K. The autofocus progresses with 0.9 seconds on a moving object.

The maximum shutter speed is 1/32000 seconds, the burst passes 16 i/s. March 2016 Sony introduced the third version of its DSC-RX10 camera, the III, it features a much longer maximum focal length lens, improved image stabilization and new buttons and controls. It loses, the built-in ND filter of the RX10 II; the RX10 IV was announced in September 2017. It is similar to the RX III but features a new sensor with on-sensor phase detect and the ability to shoot 24 frames per second, it loses, the PlayMemories App features of the RX10 III. The DSC-RX100 is released during summer 2012, he is an expert compact with a sensor 1 " 20 megapixels, the sensitivity ranges from 80 to 6400 ISO; the target has an equivalent focal range 28–100 mm and an aperture of f/1.8–4.9. The device has a screen of 7.5 cm diagonal of 1230000. His target price at launch is €650. In 2013, Hasselblad launched Stellar, based on the RX100, it used specific materials such as leather or wood, it is a device for professionals working in the middle of luxury and fashion and the celebrity s.

New version released in the summer of 2013. From an ergonomic point of view, this new model brings an ISO accessory shoe and a tilting screen; the technical developments concerning the sensor becomes backlit. The quality of low light images is thus improved as well as the reactivity; the sensitivity range now extends from 100 to 12800 ISO. The Wi-Fi and NFC are integrated to control the camera with a smartphone through a dedicated application; the dimensions remain the same compared to the RX100, except in thickness where the Mark II takes about three millimeters. Its target price at launch was €750. and RX100 remains in the catalog. On 26 November 2014, Hasselblad announced the Stellar II, based on the RX100 II, it is launched at 1,650 €, it replaces the first Stellar and offers several materials for grip: olive, drowning and carbon fiber. Announced on 15 May 2014 and marketed in the month of July following, this new version offers a wider aperture telephoto, it increases from f/4.9 to f/2.8. The focal range is modified to receive more wide angle, it is equivalent to 24–70.

A new version of the microprocessor BIONZ more powerful and faster born. The housing incorporates an electronic viewfinder pop-up, like a flash; the sensitivity is further enhanced with a range of from 125 to 25600. The screen offers an expanded orientation with an angle of 180° up and 45° down, in particular to promote selfies; the dimensions remain the same compared to the RX100 II, except thick where the Mark III takes about three millimeters. The RX100 III, sold at 850 €, does not replace the previous RX100 remaining for sale at a reduced price allowing Sony to offer a range of compact cameras experts; the RX100 IV is marketed in July 2015, it boasts 4K video. The autofocus progresses with 0.9 seconds on a moving object. The maximum shutter speed is 1/32000 s, the burst passes 14 i/s. On October 6, 2016, Sony announced the RX100 V. On June 5, 2018, Sony announced the RX100 VI. Sony α Sony Mavica Cyber-shot Official website

Hampton Wick railway station

Hampton Wick railway station is in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, in south-west London, is in Travelcard Zone 6. The suburb of Hampton Wick is on the opposite bank of the River Thames from Kingston upon Thames and lies at the eastern end of Hampton Court Park, it is 12 miles 44 chains down the line from London Waterloo. The station and all trains serving; the original station was opened by the London and South Western Railway on 1 July 1863: it was reconstructed in 1969. Platforms are above the street level ticket office; the ticket office is only open at peak times but tickets can be bought at other times from a ticket machine. The station is unstaffed; the journey time to London Waterloo is 30 minutes or longer via Richmond. On 6 August 1888, a light engine and a passenger train were in a head-on collision due to a signalman's error. Four people were killed and fifteen were injured. On 18 June 1930 a baby boy was found in the First Class carriage of a train travelling from Waterloo by Mr Paul Broome, the railway guard.

The baby was found with a note. The baby was taken to Kingston Hospital. CID investigated the issue but; the typical off-peak service from the station in train per hours is: 6 to London Waterloo, of which: 4 run via Wimbledon 2 run via Richmond 2 to SheppertonThe station features in the music video for Jamie T's single "Sticks'N' Stones". London Buses routes London Buses route 285 and 641 serve the station. Train times and station information for Hampton Wick railway station from National Rail

Phyllis Guthardt

Dame Phyllis Myra Guthardt DBE served for four years as the chancellor of the University of Canterbury until her tenure ended on 31 December 2002. When Phyllis Guthardt was ordained as a Methodist minister in 1959, she became the first woman of any denomination to be ordained in New Zealand, she was to be the first woman elected to the presidency of New Zealand's Methodist Church in 1985. "In the early 1950s the Methodist Church decided it had nothing in principle against the ordination of women. In 1954 I moved from Christchurch, where I was working as a young teacher and studying part time at Canterbury University, to Auckland so I could enter Trinity College... I completed my bachelor's degree at Auckland University and went on to study part-time and earn my MA in English while I was a probationer minister in Christchurch." After 3½ years of parish ministry, Phyllis received a scholarship to attend Cambridge University. In addition to the scholarship Methodist women around New Zealand raised £1000 to support her studies.

At Cambridge she was a student at Newnham College. D in Biblical Studies; when she returned to New Zealand three and a half years it was to Hamilton. She served as presbyter as a hospital chaplain, it was in Hamilton, New Zealand that she began her long affiliation with New Zealand's tertiary education system. She was the first ecumenical chaplain at the University of Waikato and lectured in English and Religious Studies; when she moved to Christchurch she became involved with the University Council. She served on the council for 21 years. Rev. Phyllis Guthardt served with the World Council of Churches, the Christian Conference of Asia, the World Methodist Conference. For her services to education and the Methodist Church she was named as a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1993; the Universities of Waikato and Canterbury awarded Rev. Guthardt honorary doctorate degrees. Http://

Bing, Bing, Bing!

Bing, Bing! is a 1995 album by jazz guitarist Charlie Hunter. This features his eight-string guitar; the cover is an homage to Horace Parlan's 1960 album, Speakin' My Piece. The neon sign, 500 Club, a bar in San Francisco's Mission District, a few blocks from the Elbo Room nightclub where the trio made a name for themselves. "Greasy Granny" – 4:34 "Wornell's Yorkies" – 3:58 "Fistful of Haggis" – 6:44 "Come as You Are" – 6:08 "Scrabbling for Purchase" – 4:49 "Bullethead" – 5:34 "Bing, Bing, Bing!" – 7:56 "Squiddlesticks" – 4:03 "Lazy Susan" – 6:15 "Elbo Room" – 5:58 Charlie Hunter – eight-string guitar Dave Ellistenor saxophone Jay Lanedrums Jeff Cressman – trombone on tracks 5 and 9 Ben Goldbergclarinet on tracks 5 and 9 Dave Phillipspedal steel guitar on tracks 3 and 7 Scott Robertspercussion on tracks 2 and 3Production Lee Townsend – producer Judy Clapp – mixing engineer Oliver DiCicco – engineer Christian Jones – engineer Greg Calbimastering