The Wakhan Corridor is a narrow strip of territory in Afghanistan, extending to China and separating Tajikistan from Pakistan and Kashmir. The corridor, wedged between the Pamir Mountains to the north and the Karakoram range to the south, is about 350 km long and 13–65 kilometres wide. From this high mountain valley the Panj and Pamir Rivers form the Amu Darya. A trade route through the valley has been used by travellers going to and from East and Central Asia since antiquity; the corridor was formed by an 1893 agreement between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan, creating the Durand Line. This narrow strip of Afghanistan acted as a buffer between the Russian Empire and the British Empire, its eastern end bordered China's Xinjiang region, ruled by the Qing dynasty. Politically, the corridor is part of Afghanistan's Badakhshan Province; as of 2010, the Wakhan Corridor had 12,000 inhabitants. The northern part of the Wakhan, populated by the Wakhi and Pamiri peoples, is referred to as the Pamir; the Wakhan Corridor forms the panhandle of Afghanistan's Badakhshan Province.
At its western entrance near the Afghan town of Ishkashim, the corridor is 18 km wide. The western third of the corridor varies from 13–30 km in width and widens to 65 km in the central Wakhan. At its eastern end, the corridor forks into two prongs that wrap around a salient of Chinese territory, forming the 92 km boundary between the two countries; the Wakhjir Pass, the easternmost point on the southeastern prong, is about 300 km from Ishkashim. The easternmost point of the northeastern prong is a nameless wilderness about 350 km from Ishkashim. On the Chinese side of the border is the Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; the northern border of the corridor is formed by the Pamir River and Lake Zorkul in the west and the high peaks of the Pamir Mountains in the east. To the north is Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous region. To the south, the corridor is bounded by the high mountains of Karakoram. Along the southern flank of the corridor, there are two mountain passes which connect the corridor to its neighbours.
The Broghol pass offers access to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan, while the Irshad Pass connects the corridor to Gilgit Baltistan in Azad Kashmir. The Dilisang Pass, which connects to Gilgit-Baltistan, is disused; the easternmost pass, as indicated above, is the Wakhjir Pass, which connects to China and is the only border connection between that country and Afghanistan. The corridor is higher in the east than in the west; the Wakhjir River emerges from an ice cave on the Afghan side of the Wakhjir Pass and flows west, joining the Bozai Darya near the village of Bozai Gumbaz to form the Wakhan River. The Wakhan River joins the Pamir River near Kala-i-Panj to form the Panj River, which flows out of the Wakhan Corridor at Ishkashim; the Chinese consider Chalachigu Valley, the valley east of Wakhjir Pass on the Chinese side connecting Taghdumbash Pamir, to be part of the Wakhan Corridor. The high mountain valley is about 100 km long; this valley, through which the Tashkurgan River flows, is about 3–5 km wide and less than 1 km at its narrowest point.
This entire valley on the Chinese side is closed to visitors. Although the terrain is rugged, the Corridor was used as a trading route between Badakhshan and Yarkand, it appears. The Portuguese Jesuit priest Bento de Goes crossed from the Wakhan to China between 1602 and 1606. In May 1906, Sir Aurel Stein explored the Wakhan and reported that at that time, 100 pony loads of goods crossed annually to China. There were further crossings in 1874 by Captain T. E. Gordon of the British Army, in 1891 by Francis Younghusband, in 1894 by Lord Curzon. Early travellers used one of three routes: A northern route led up the valley of the Pamir River to Zorkul Lake east through the mountains to the valley of the Bartang River across the Sarikol Range to China. A southern route led up the valley of the Wakhan River to the Wakhjir Pass to China; this pass is only open irregularly for the remainder. A central route branched off the southern route through the Little Pamir to the Murghab River valley; the corridor is in part a political creation from The Great Game between the United Kingdom and Russian Empire.
In the north, an agreement between the empires in 1873 split the historic region of Wakhan by making the Panj and Pamir Rivers the border between Afghanistan and the Russian Empire. In the south, the Durand Line agreement of 1893 marked the boundary between British India and Afghanistan; this left a narrow strip of land ruled by Afghanistan as a buffer between the two empires, which became known as the Wakhan Corridor in the 20th century. The corridor has been closed to regular traffic for over a century and there is no modern road. There is a rough road from Ishkashim to Sarhad-e Broghil built in the 1960s, but only rough paths beyond; these paths run some 100 km from the road end to the Chinese border at Wakhjir Pass, further to the far end of the Little Pamir. Jacob Townsend has speculated on the possibility of drug smuggling from Afghanistan to China via the Wakhan Corridor and Wakhjir Pass, but concluded that due to the difficulties of travel and border crossings, it would be minor compared to that conducted via Tajikistan's
Janaisa Morandin is a mixed martial artist from Brazil, competes in Invicta Fighting Championships in Strawweight division. Morandins started her professional MMA career in 2013 and fought in Brazil, she amassed a record of 9-0 prior to being signed by Invicta. Morandin made her Invicta debut on August 31, 2017 at Invicta FC 25: Kunitskaya vs. Pa'aluhi against Lívia Renata Souza, she lost the fight via unanimous decision. Morandin was scheduled to face Mizuki Inoue on December 8, 2017 at Invicta FC 26: Maia vs. Niedwiedz for the Invicta strawweight championship, she won the fight via unanimous decision. However, Inoue was forced to pull out and she was replaced by Kinberly Tanaka Novaes. On September 1, 2018, Morandin faced Virna Jandiroba at Invicta FC 31: Jandiroba vs. Morandin for the Invicta FC Strawweight Championship, she lost the fight via a submission in round two. Morandin is scheduled to faced Emily Ducote on August 9, 2019 at Invicta FC 36: Sorenson vs. Young. Aspera Fighting Championship Aspera Fighting Championship Strawweight Champion List of current Invicta FC fighters List of female mixed martial artists Professional MMA record for Janaisa Morandin from Sherdog Janaisa Morandin Profile @ Invicta
The Raza Unida Party Partido Nacional de La Raza Unida is a Chicano organization. It became prominent throughout Texas and Southern California, it was started to combat growing inequality and dissatisfaction with the Democratic Party, supported by Mexican-American voters. After its establishment in Texas, the party launched electoral campaigns in Colorado, New Mexico, California, though it only secured official party status for statewide races in Texas, it did poorly in the 1978 Texas elections and leaders and members dropped away. La Raza, as it was known, experienced most of its success at the local level in Southwest Texas, most notably when the party swept city council, school board, mayoralty elections in Crystal City and Carrizo Springs. Much of the success was attributed to the aggressive grassroots organizing, concentrated in cities that had the lowest income and education levels; the Mexican American Youth Organization was begun by five young men studying at St. Mary's University in 1967: Jose Angel Gutierrez, Mario Compean, William Velasquez, Ignacio Perez, Juan Patlan.
Jose Angel explained "All of us were the products of the traditional Mexican American organizations … All of us were frustrated at the lack of political efficacy, at the lack of any broad based movement, at the lack of expertise". Inspired by the Civil Rights Movement and by leaders like Martin Luther King Jr and black nationalists like Malcolm X, they reached the conclusion that the actions being taken by the leaders of the Chicano Movement were not doing enough to get results, they decided that they would halt the current approach being utilized by groups like LULAC and the American G. I. Forum, "which by the 1960s relied on litigation and support from sympathetic Anglos to achieve their goals"; the five men decided that their new tactics would be much more confrontational, utilizing civil disobedience tactics used in the Civil Rights Movement. They decided to incorporate Saul Alinsky's model of confrontation politics: "And we said, going to be the strategy use confrontational politics based on information well researched, but foregoing the use of nice language".
MAYO became dedicated to creating meaningful social change by relying on abrasing, confrontational measures. They protested and spread their message through newspapers like El Deguello, El Azteca,and La Revolucion, their tactics earned them criticisms both white and Mexican American political figures who felt that they were being too abrasive in their tactics. Jose Angel became targeted after comments he made where he called to "eliminate the gringo". While he elaborated to say that by gringo he meant "a person or institution that has a certain policy or program, or attitudes that reflect bigotry, discord and violence", the damage was done. Despite attacks on all sides, MAYO continued to organize protests and boycotts, what led them to Crystal City. Bry is that the La Raza Unida Party was established on January 17, 1970 at a meeting of some three hundred Mexican-Americans in Crystal City, Texas by José Ángel Gutiérrez and Mario Compean, who had helped in the foundation of the Mexican American Youth Organization in 1967.
In Lubbock, the youth organization was headed by the journalist Bidal Aguero, who worked in the Raza Unida Party. The party originated from a group called Workmen of the World, its original thirteen members included Alfredo Zamora, Jr. the first Chicano mayor of Cotulla, who unseated a member of the Cotulla family. A second Hispanic mayor followed, Arcenio A. Garcia, twenty-four at the time of his election, the youngest mayor in Texas. Zamora left LaSalle County within two years and the next election in 1972 was won by Garcia under the Raza Unida party. In December 1969, at the only national MAYO meeting, Chicano activists decided on the formation of that third party Raza Unida; this new party would focus on improving the economic and political aspects of the Chicano community throughout Texas. This party resulted in the election of the first 2 Mexican American Mayors in LaSalle County. Following the victory of the RUP in municipal elections in Crystal City and Cotulla, the party grew and expanded to other states California and Colorado.
In Colorado the RUP worked with Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales and the Crusade For Justice based out of Denver. In California, the RUP spread throughout the state and held strong ground in the County of Los Angeles at one point with as many as 20 different chapters; the novice city council was not effective in implementing its goals and damaged the party's reputation in the short-term. The RUP, ran candidates for governor of Texas, Ramsey Muniz in 1972 and 1974 and Mario Compean of San Antonio in 1978, they petitioned the conservative Dr. Hector P. Garcia to run on the RUP ticket. In 1972, they ran Secundion Salazar, in a competitive U. S. Senate race in Colorado. Salazar received 1.4 percent of the vote. During the late 1970s the La Raza Unida Party decided to change tactics from a "get out the vote" organization to a more community based, revolutionary nationalist format seeking the unity of all Chicanos, other Latinos, Native Americans in the American Southwest called Aztlán. Xenaro Ayala was voted in as the national party chairman in 1978.
The party held a second national convention in which Juan Jose Pena was elected chairman in 1980. Howeve
Romain de Tirtoff was a Russian-born French artist and designer known by the pseudonym Erté, from the French pronunciation of his initials. He was a 20th-century artist and designer in an array of fields, including fashion, graphic arts and set design for film and opera, interior decor. Tirtoff was born Roman Petrovich Tyrtov in Saint Petersburg, to a distinguished family with roots tracing back to 1548, to a Tatar khan named Tyrtov, his father, Pyotr Ivanovich Tyrtov, served as an admiral in the Russian Fleet. In 1907, he lived one year in Paris, he said about this time "I did not discover Beardsley until when I had been in Paris for a year". Demoiselle à la balancelle is one of Erté's first sculptures, if not the first. Made in 1907, at the age of 15 years, during a stay in Paris; this work is less precise than his other sculptures, but still Art Nouveau. Erté considered this so minor and uninteresting that it does not appear in his official biography, but the cartouche on the back indicates'ERTE PARIS 1907', in a triangle.
In 1910–12, Romain moved to Paris to pursue a career as a designer. In Paris he lived with Prince Nicolas Ouroussoff up until the prince's death in 1933; the decision to move to Paris was made despite strong objections from his father, who wanted Romain to continue the family tradition and become a naval officer. Romain assumed his pseudonym to avoid disgracing the family, he worked for Paul Poiret from 1913 to 1914. In 1915, he secured his first substantial contract with Harper's Bazaar magazine, thus launched an illustrious career that included designing costumes and stage sets. During this time, Erte designed costumes for the Mata Hari. Between 1915 and 1937, Erté designed over 200 covers for Harper's Bazaar, his illustrations would appear in such publications as Illustrated London News, Ladies' Home Journal, Vogue. Erté is most famous for his elegant fashion designs which capture the art deco period in which he worked. One of his earliest successes was designing apparel for the French dancer Gaby Deslys who died in 1920.
His delicate figures and sophisticated, glamorous designs are recognisable, his ideas and art still influence fashion into the 21st century. His costumes, programme designs, sets were featured in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1923, many productions of the Folies Bergère, Bal Tabarin, Théâtre Fémina, Le Lido and George White's Scandals. On Broadway, the celebrated French chanteuse Irène Bordoni wore Erté's designs. In 1925, Louis B. Mayer brought him to Hollywood to design sets and costumes for the silent film Paris. There were many script problems, so Erté was given other assignments to keep him busy. Hence, he designed for such films as Ben-Hur, The Mystic, The Comedian, Dance Madness. In 1920 he designed the set and costumes for the film The Restless Sex starring Marion Davies and financed by William Randolph Hearst. By far, his best-known image is Symphony in Black, depicting a somewhat stylized, slender woman draped in black holding a thin black dog on a leash; the influential image has copied countless times.
Erté continued working throughout his life, designing revues and operas. He had a major rejuvenation and much lauded interest in his career during the 1960s with the Art Deco revival, he branched out into the realm of limited edition prints and wearable art. Two years before his death, Erté created seven limited edition bottle designs for Courvoisier to show the different stages of the cognac-making process, from distillation to maturation. In 2008, the eighth and final of the remaining Erte-designed Courvoisier bottles, containing Grande Champagne cognac dating back to 1892, was released and sold for $10,000 apiece, his work may be found in the collections of several well-known museums, including the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Erté by Erté. Parma: F. M. Ricci, 1970. Erté Fashions. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1972. Things I Remember: An Autobiography, Quadrangle / The New York Times Book Co. 1975, ISBN 0-8129-0575-X. Designs by Erté: fashion drawings and illustrations from "Harper's bazar" by Erté.
New York: Dover Publications, 1976. Erté at ninety: the complete graphics by Erté. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1982, ISBN 9780297781707. Erté: sculpture by Erté. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986. Erté: My Life / My Art: An Autobiography. New York: E P Dutton, 1989. Dudnikov v. Chalk & Vermilion Fine Arts, Inc.: A U. S. court case over copyrights of Erté's works "Erte, a Master of Fashion and Art Deco Design, Is Dead at 97", The New York Times, 22 April 1990 Erté on IMDb Erté site Erte.com Erté fashion drawings Erté Page at the Wayback Machine Ten Dreams Galleries
Zvezda Moscow is a Russian ice Hockey team based in Moscow, Russia. Founded in 2015, they are members of the Western Conference in the Supreme Hockey League; the team is a farm club of the KHL team CSKA Moscow. Their home arena is the CSKA Ice Palace in Moscow; until the end of the 2017 -- 18 season, the team was based in the city of Moscow Region. Zvezda's inaugural season in the VHL was not successful, as they finished 21st out of 26 teams; the teams sophomore season would be more successful however, as they finished 14th, qualifying for the playoffs before losing to Saryarka Karaganda in the first round. Former Chicago Blackhawk and Olympic Silver Medalist Boris Mironov was announced as Zvezda's new Head Coach, having held the same position of the CSKA Moscow MHL affiliate Krasnaya Armiya. In 2017–18 season the team finished at the 11th place of the regular season, in 1/8 Finals lost 0:4 to Zauralie Kurgan; the next season the team reached the Quarterfinals for the first time in history, losing to Rubin Tyumen.
2016–17 — Lost in 1/8 Finals, 1–4 2017–18 — Lost in 1/8 Finals, 0–4 2018–19 — Lost in Quarterfinals, 2–4 Sergey Gersonsky Dmitri Yerofeyev Boris Mironov Vladimir Chebaturkin HC CSKA Moscow Krasnaya Armiya VHL Zvezda Moscow Website
Bárbara Virgínia, born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha, was a Portuguese actress, radio personality and film director. She changed her name in her teenage years. Bárbara studied dance, singing and theater at the National Conservatory in Lisbon between 1940 and 1943. Theater was studied under Alves da Cunha, piwas taught ano by Pedro de Freitas Branco, she in 1946 became the first female Portuguese movie director, with the film Três Dias Sem Deus. Bárbara Virgínia was the first woman in Portugal to direct a feature film, her debut film was Três Dias sem Deus which she both acted in. She was, at the time; the film premiered in Lisbon on August 1946 at the Teatro Ginásio. The same year it was presented at the first Cannes Film Festival. Today only 22 minutes remains of the original 102 minutes long film, these 22 minutes are fragmented and without sound, she directed the documentary Aldeia dos rapazes: Orfanto St. Isabel de Albarraque, she directed these two pieces within a male dominant sector and during the dictatorship of Salazar’s New State where women were expected to stay within reproductive work and not perform productive work.
And it would take until after the regime fell before another woman, Margarida Cordeiro, would direct another featured film in Portugal. Still today the representation of female directors is low in Portugal, around 14 %. In 1952 she moved to Brazil, since she’s been rejected financial support for other film projects and a more oppressive control over the cinematic productions in Portugal. Bárbara has stated that she has always been independent and, the reason for the censorship to dismiss her. In Brazil she continued working within the culture sector as an actress in television, writing books and perform poetry recitations in the radio, but she never again directed or starred in another film, her name and accomplishment was for long lost in the Portuguese film history. But in the 2010’s her contributions to the Portuguese cinematic heritage has been, redeemed. Today there is a reward in her name In 2015 a reward was established in Portugal in her name, Prémio Bárbara Virgínia, to recognise female artists who stands out within arts.
In 2017 Luisa Sequeira’s documentary, Quem é Bárbara Virgínia? had premier, which paints a portrait of Bárbara Virgínia and her cinematic history. When Bárbara decided to move to São Paulo, Brazil in 1952, her mother accompanied her, she started a family -- with husband and a daughter. She opened a restaurant – Aqui, Portugal – where a vibrant social and artistic network used to hang around; some of her famous guests were Tony de Matos and Amália Rodrigues. The last interview with Bárbara was in 2012 by Ana Catarina Pereira and William Pianco