Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols.
For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level
Hungerford is a historic market town and civil parish in Berkshire, centred 8 miles west of Newbury,9 miles east of Marlborough,30 miles northeast of Salisbury and 67 miles west of London. Its amenities include shops, cafés, restaurants and sports teams or clubs in the national sports. Hungerford is an abbreviation and vowel shift from a Saxon name meaning Hanging Wood Ford. The town’s symbol is the star and crescent moon. The place does not occur in the Domesday Book of 1086, by 1241, it called itself a borough. In the late 14th century, John of Gaunt was medieval lord of the manor, during the English Civil War, the Earl of Essex and his army spent the night here in June 1644. In October of the year, the Earl of Manchester’s cavalry were quartered in the town. Then, in the November, the King’s forces arrived in Hungerford on their way to Abingdon, during the Glorious Revolution of 1688, William of Orange was offered the Crown of England while staying at the Bear Inn in Hungerford. The Hungerford land south of the Kennet was for the centuries, until an 18th-century widespread growth in cultivation the area, st.
Lawrences parish church stands next to the Kennet and Avon Canal. It was rebuilt in 1814–1816 by John Pinch the elder in Gothic Revival style, in the late 19th century, two policeman were shot by poachers in Eddington. Their memorial crosses still stand where they fell, the Hungerford massacre occurred on 19 August 1987. All of his victims were shot in the town or in nearby Savernake Forest, a report on this incident was commissioned by Home Secretary Douglas Hurd from the Chief Constable of Thames Valley Police, Colin Smith. It is one of three highly costly firearms atrocities in terms of lives since the invention of such rapid fire weapons, the other two being the Dunblane massacre and Cumbria shootings. The massacre led to the Firearms Act 1988, which banned the ownership of semi-automatic centre-fire rifles, the Hungerford Report had demonstrated that Ryans collection of weapons was legally licensed. Hungerford is a parish, covering the town of Hungerford. Parish council responsibilities are undertaken by Hungerford Town Council, which consists of fifteen councillors and committee members.
The mayor is elected from amongst their numbers, the parish forms part of the district administered by the unitary authority of West Berkshire, and local government responsibilities are shared between the town council and unitary authority. Hungerford is part of the Newbury parliamentary constituency and its MP is the Conservative Richard Benyon, son of Sir William Benyon of Englefield House
River Blackwater (River Loddon)
The River Blackwater is a tributary of the River Loddon in England and, indirectly, of the River Thames. It rises at Rowhill Nature Reserve between Aldershot in Hampshire and Farnham in Surrey and runs northwards to join the Loddon near the village of Swallowfield in Berkshire, along part of its length, the river forms the boundary between Hampshire and Surrey, and between Hampshire and Berkshire. It rises in Rowhill Nature Reserve, Aldershot Rowhill, a remnant of the extensive heathland that once surrounded Farnborough. After 20 miles the Blackwater is joined by the River Whitewater near Eversley, the river gives its name to the small town of Blackwater, upon the river near Camberley. The River Blackwater runs down the centre of the Blackwater Valley, the Loddon eventually flows into the River Thames near Reading. Although surrounded by urban development the Valley provides an important green corridor for local residents, the local planning authorities covering the Valley have designated 31 other areas as ‘Wildlife Sites’.
A cycle route runs alongside the River Blackwater for most of its length, there is a running club named Blackwater Valley Runners who run there regularly. The Basingstoke Canal runs east west from the Greywell Tunnel at Greywell to the River Wey and it crosses the Blackwater Valley on an embankment. The River Blackwater used to flow under the embankment in a culvert, following the construction of the relief road, the Basingstoke Canal now crosses the River Blackwater via the spectacular Ash Aqueduct. Bats that used to roost in the culvert now live in a bat house on a nearby island. The new aqueduct affords views of the surrounding countryside, in the distance to the south is the Hogs Back. This is where the North Downs narrows and it runs between Farnham and Guildford. List of rivers in England Blackwater Valley runners - Running club that runs the BlackWater Valley path
Berkshire is a county in south east England, west of London. It was recognised as the Royal County of Berkshire because of the presence of Windsor Castle by the Queen in 1957, Berkshire is a county of historic origin and is a home county, a ceremonial county and a non-metropolitan county without a county council. Berkshire County Council was the main county governance from 1889 to 1998 except for the separately administered County Borough of Reading, in 1974, significant alterations were made to the countys administrative boundaries although the traditional boundaries of Berkshire were not changed. The towns of Abingdon and Wantage were transferred to Oxfordshire, Slough was gained from Buckinghamshire, since 1998, Berkshire has been governed by the six unitary authorities of Bracknell Forest, Slough, West Berkshire and Maidenhead and Wokingham. It borders the counties of Oxfordshire, Greater London, according to Asser, it takes its name from a large forest of box trees that was called Bearroc.
Berkshire has been the scene of notable battles through its history. Alfred the Greats campaign against the Danes included the Battles of Englefield, Newbury was the site of two English Civil War battles, the First Battle of Newbury in 1643 and the Second Battle of Newbury in 1644. The nearby Donnington Castle was reduced to a ruin in the aftermath of the second battle, another Battle of Reading took place on 9 December 1688. It was the only military action in England during the Glorious Revolution. Reading became the new county town in 1867, taking over from Abingdon, boundary alterations in the early part of the 20th century were minor, with Caversham from Oxfordshire becoming part of the Reading county borough, and cessions in the Oxford area. On 1 April 1974 Berkshires boundaries changed under the Local Government Act 1972, Berkshire took over administration of Slough and Eton and part of the former Eton Rural District from Buckinghamshire. 94 Signal Squadron still keep the Uffington White Horse in their insignia, the original Local Government White Paper would have transferred Henley-on-Thames from Oxfordshire to Berkshire, this proposal did not make it into the Bill as introduced.
On 1 April 1998 Berkshire County Council was abolished under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, unlike similar reforms elsewhere at the same time, the non-metropolitan county was not abolished. Berkshire divides into two distinct sections with the boundary lying roughly on a north-south line through the centre of Reading. The eastern section of Berkshire lies largely to the south of the River Thames, in two places the county now includes land to the north of the river. Tributaries of the Thames, including the Loddon and Blackwater, increase the amount of low lying land in the area. Beyond the flood plains, the land rises gently to the county boundaries with Surrey, much of this area is still well wooded, especially around Bracknell and Windsor Great Park. In the west of the county and heading upstream, the Thames veers away to the north of the county boundary, leaving the county behind at the Goring Gap
Ordnance Survey is a non-ministerial government department which acts as the national mapping agency for Great Britain and is one of the worlds largest producers of maps. Since 1 April 2015 it has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, the Ordnance Survey Board remain accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group, the agencys name indicates its original military purpose, mapping Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rebellion in 1745. There was a general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is usually classified as either large-scale or small-scale, the Surveys large-scale mapping comprises maps at six inches to the mile or more and was available as sheets until the 1980s, when it was digitised. Small-scale mapping comprises maps at less than six inches to the mile, such as the one inch to the mile leisure maps. These are still available in sheet form.
Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication, some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the last Jacobite rising which was defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. In 1747, Lieutenant-colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to facilitate the subjugation of clans, in response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watsons assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson, the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included the Duke of Cumberlands Map now held in the British Library. This work was the point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain. Roys technical skills and leadership set the standard for which Ordnance Survey became known. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roys supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a military survey starting with the south coast of England.
A set of stamps, featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet, was issued in 1991 to mark the bicentenary. In 1801, the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, during the next twenty years, roughly a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence. It took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787, by 1810, one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. It was gruelling work, major Thomas Colby, the longest serving director general of Ordnance Survey, in 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey
The Test Way is a 49 miles long-distance footpath in England from Walbury Hill in West Berkshire to Eling in Hampshire. The northern end of the starts in the car park on Walbury Hill. The southern end of the footpath is at Eling Quay, the trail passes alongside Horsebridge railway station. Much of the route between Kimbridge and Chilbolton follows the route of the former Andover and Redbridge Railway, the entire route is waymarked by metal and plastic disks found attached to wooden and metal posts and street furniture. There are several wooden finger signs along the route that countdown the number of miles along the footpath in both directions, maps are not on the same scale. Long-distance footpaths in the UK North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Test Way Tales Hampshire County Council Walking on the Web Ramblers Association
Black Down, Somerset
Black Down is the highest hill in the Mendip Hills, Somerset, in south-western England. Black Down lies just a few miles eastward of the Bristol Channel at Weston-super-Mare, the summit is marked with an Ordnance Survey trig point, the base of which has been rebuilt by the Mendip Hills AONB authority. The shortest route of ascent goes from the Burrington Combe car park and is approximately 1 km long, Black Down is an open-access area mostly consisting of moors, with dense cover of associated vegetation such as heather and bracken. According to a local newsletter, the name Black Down comes from the Saxon word Blac or Bloec meaning bleak. Black Down is an area, with its steeper slopes covered in bracken and its flatter summit in heather. The summit area of Black Down is known as Beacon Batch and it is the site of bronze age round barrows, one of which anchors the concrete trig point. All of the barrows show signs of being opened in the past, the main group of barrows consists of nine bowl barrows, one bell barrow and one disc barrow.
There is a group of three bowl barrows to the west, and a group of two bowl barrows about 600 metres to the southeast of the main group. During World War II a bombing decoy town was constructed on Black Down, the decoy, known under the code name Starfish from the original code SF used fires of creosote and water to simulate incendiary bombs exploding. It was laid out by Shepperton Film Studios, based on photographs of the citys railway marshalling yards. The decoys were fitted with dim red lights, simulating activities like the stoking of steam locomotives. Drums of oil were ignited to simulate the effect of a city or town. The site was home to a Z battery of anti aircraft rockets, the success of this endeavour is questionable, with no ground indications that the hills were used as targets. Piles of stones were created to prevent enemy aircraft from using the hilltop as a landing site. Both the World War II bombing decoy complex and round barrow cemetery are included on the Heritage at Risk register maintained by English Heritage due to erosion from the visitors to the site, media related to Black Down, Somerset at Wikimedia Commons
Crokers Hole is a 4.4 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest near Upper Lambourn in Berkshire. The local planning authorities are Newbury District Council and Berkshire County Council, the site is a narrow grassland valley, which is one of the most florally diverse chalk downlands in Berkshire. The dominant plants are upright brome and tor-grass, and it is the site in the county which has the nationally rare bastard-toadflax. There is access from a footpath from Seven Barrows to Hangmans Stone, list of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Berkshire
It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet.
Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff.
John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak
Surrey is a county in the south east of England. It shares borders with Kent to the east, East Sussex to the south-east, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west and south-west, Surrey County Council sits extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames, administered as part of Greater London since 1965. With a resident population of 1.1 million, Surrey is the most densely populated and third most populated county in the South East region, after Kent, the London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. The boroughs of Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton and Richmond upon Thames south of the River Thames were part of Surrey until 1965, when they too were absorbed into Greater London. In the same year, the county was extended north of the Thames by the addition of Spelthorne, due to this expansion, modern Surrey borders on the London boroughs of Hounslow and Hillingdon. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs, running east-west.
To the north of the Downs the land is mostly flat, the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt and it contains a good deal of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22. 4% coverage compared to an average of 11. 8%. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of woodland in the UK. Surrey contains Englands principal concentration of lowland heath, on soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with a network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way. Accordingly, Surrey provides much in the way of leisure activities. The highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking and it is either 293,294 or 295 metres above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill 297 metres in West Berkshire.
Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people and its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 66,773, Woking comes a close second with 62,796. They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155, towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791