Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Poland national football team
The Poland national football team represents Poland in association football and is controlled by the Polish Football Association, the governing body for football in Poland. At the FIFA World Cup, the current best result for Poland are two bronze medals won in 1974 and 1982, with this era being regarded as the golden era of Polish international association football. At the Euros, Poland's best result is reaching the quarter-finals in 2016, in Poland's third consecutive appearance at the competition. Poland's debut at the Euros was in 2008, they were co-hosts of the 2012 edition, along with Ukraine. Overall, Poland's best result in international football tournaments as a whole was the gold medal won at the 1972 Munich Olympics, along with winning the silver medal on two occasions; the first football federation was established on 25 June 1911 in Lwów as the Polish Football Union. After I World War members of PFU established on 20 December 1919 in Warsaw the Polish Football Federation. Poland would play its first official international match on 18 December 1921 in Budapest, where the side lost to Hungary 1–0.
Their first international win would come on 28 May 1922 where they took on Sweden in Stockholm and beat them 2–1. Poland qualified for their first World Cup in 1937 when they beat Yugoslavia 4–0 and lost 1–0 in the two qualifying matches and ensured their place in the 1938 World Cup in France. During their debut in the World Cup, Poland would play Brazil in a match which would become one of the most memorable matches in World Cup history. Despite Brazil not being regarded as the world's top team in the 1930s, it was still believed to be a hard-to-beat side, having participated in two first World Cups. Under these circumstances, the Polish team – which had never before participated on such a level – was expected to lose the game against the South Americans. Thus, the defeat was not a sensation. However, all fans were surprised at the style with which the Poles played their lone game of the tournament; the white and reds got to the extra time, only losing 5–6. Ernest Wilimowski, who played for Ruch Chorzów at the time, scored four of Poland's five goals, which to date is one of the most impressive individual performances in the history of the World Cup.
Poland played what would be their last international match before the outbreak of World War II against Hungary, the runners-up in the 1938 World Cup. The match stands out as an achievement as Poland defeated the favored Hungarian side 4–2. On 11 June 1946, following the aftermath of World War II, Poland played their first international friendly match, against Norway in Oslo, a 3–1 defeat; the biggest success in the early years after the war was the victory against one of Europe's best at the time, Czechoslovakia. Poland defeated their southern neighbors 3–1. Poland suffered the worst defeat in the team's history on 26 April 1948 with a 0–8 loss to the Danish side. Poland would erase that memory as they posted their second highest victory in Szczecin when they took down Norway 9–0 on 4 September 1963; the game marked the debut for Włodzimierz Lubański. He scored one of the goals in the game. Lubański became the all-time top scorer for Poland while playing from 1963 to 1980 scoring 48 goals in 75 appearances.
This victory was surpassed on 1 April 2009 in Kielce when Poland defeated San Marino 10–0. On 1 December 1970, Polish football history would change forever all due to one man. Kazimierz Górski was named head coach of the national team, his success with the team was evident from the start with a gold medal at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Górski would lead the team to another medal at the 1976 Olympics where they captured silver. However, nothing matched the two bronze medals at the 1982 World Cups. Poland being unknown on the international football scene before 1974 shook up the football world during the World Cup in Germany. However, this was no huge surprise as the core of the team achieved a gold medal place in the Munich Olympics in 1972; the Olympics were not considered a major tournament by most Western nations, but Eastern European countries bypassed the amateur rules by fielding their full national teams, as most players had employment with national industries or within the army. With their lightning speed and incredible team chemistry they were unstoppable.
In qualifying they surprised everyone by eliminating England, quarter-finalists in 1970 and Champions in 1966. In their opening match of Germany'74 Poland met Argentina, a team, appearing in their 6th World Cup. Within eight minutes Poland were up 2–0, Grzegorz Lato opened the scoring in the seventh minute and just a minute Andrzej Szarmach doubled the lead. In the 60th minute, Argentina cut the lead in half. Two minutes however, Lato scored his second, which turned out to be the winning goal as Carlos Babington gave Argentina their second in the 66th; the match finished 3–2 for Poland. Poland thrashed Haiti 7–0 in their second game; the goals included a hat-trick from two from Lato. In their final match of the first stage, Poland met Italy, who finished second at the previous World Cup in 1970. Poland were through to the Second Round but needed at least a draw to win the group. At half-time, Poland was leading 2 -- 0 on goals from Kazimierz Deyna, it was not until the 86th minute. This gave Poland their third consecutive win.
In the second round, Poland first won 1–0 against a Swedish side, which had not conceded any goals in their first three matches
The 2018–19 Ekstraklasa is the 93rd season of the Polish Football Championship and the 85th season of the Ekstraklasa, the top Polish professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1927. The league is operated by the Ekstraklasa S. A; the season started on 20 July 2018 and will conclude on 19 May 2019. After the 20th matchday the league will go on a winter break between 23 December 2018 and 8 February 2019; the regular season will be played as a round-robin tournament. A total of 16 teams participated, 14 of which competed in the league during the 2017–18 season, while the remaining two were promoted from the I liga after the 2017-18 season; the fixtures were announced on 22 March 2018. Each team will play a total of 30 matches, half away. After the 30th round, the league will split into two groups: championship round and relegation round; each team will play 7 more games. So each team will play a total of 37 matches; the team at the top of the Championship round wins the league title.
The two teams at the bottom of the Relegation round are demoted to I liga for the 2019-20 season. This was the sixth season to take place; the defending champions are Legia Warsaw. Sixteen teams will compete in the league – the top fourteen teams from the previous season, as well as two teams promoted from the I liga. Miedź Legnica were promoted to the Ekstraklasa for the first time. Zagłębie Sosnowiec will make a return to the Ekstraklasa for the first time since 2008. Note: Table lists in alphabetical order.^ Upgrading to 31,871. Official website Ekstraklasa at uefa.com
The Ekstraklasa, named Lotto Ekstraklasa since the 2016–17 season due to its sponsorship by Lotto, is the top Polish professional league for men's association football teams. The winner of the Ekstraklasa claims the Polish national championship. Contested by 16 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation with the I liga, seasons start in July, end in May or June the following year. Teams play. Games are played on Fridays, Saturdays and Mondays; the winner of the Ekstraklasa qualifies for the Polish SuperCup. The Ekstraklasa is now operated by the Ekstraklasa SA; the Ekstraklasa was formed as Liga Polska on 4–5 December 1926 in Warsaw, since 1 March 1927 as Liga Piłki Nożnej, but the Polish Football Association had been in existence since 20 December 1919, a year after the independence of Poland in 1918. The first games of the freshly created league took place on 3 April 1927, while first national non-league football championship took place in 1920. A total of 81 teams have played in the top division of Polish football since the founding of the league, of which 16 clubs have won the title.
The current champions are Legia Warsaw. On 4–5 December 1926 in Warsaw, representatives from several Polish clubs met for the purpose of discussing the creation of a league, it is unknown where the idea of a Polish league originated from, however a national league was thought to be a much more practical solution than hitherto practiced two-stage system of regional matches followed by a national match. To dismay of clubs' officials, the PZPN was not receptive to the idea of a national league and therefore sought to thwart it. However, it turned out that all but one of the Polish clubs supported the idea; the decision to create it was made regardless. In late February 1927, at the PZPN's meeting in Warsaw, its officials opposed the formation of a league, but the clubs egged on by some generals from the Polish Army, proceeded anyway; the creation of the League was announced on 1 March 1927. The only opponent of the league's formation was Cracovia – a influential and strong organization in Polish football of the 1920s.
Cracovia's boycott was because its chairman, Dr. Edward Cetnarowski, at the same time held the post of the director of the PZPN. Cetnarowski was a personality known not only in Poland, but in other countries, it was due to his efforts that in September 1923, Cracovia toured Spain, drawing 1–1 with Barcelona and losing 0–1 to Real Madrid. In October thanks to Cetnarowski, Sevilla travelled to Kraków, losing 2–3 to Cracovia. Games of the first championships started on 3 April 1927. All major teams took part in it; this is the list of the teams: In this first season of the league, fight for championship was decided between two powerful teams – Wisła Kraków and 1. FC Katowice; this rivalry was treated seriously, not only by the two sides involved, but by the whole nation. 1. FC was regarded as the team supported by German minority, while Wisła, at the end of this historic season, represented ambitions of all Poles; some time in the fall of 1927 in Katowice, an ill-fated game between 1. FC and Wisła took place.
Stakes were high – the winner would become the champion. Kraków's side became the champion. 1. FC finished second, third was Warta Poznań. In 1928 Cracovia decided to enter the league, gladly accepted by all fans of football. However, championships were once again won by Wisła, with such excellent players as Henryk Reyman, Mieczyslaw Balcer and Jan Kotlarczyk. Warta Poznań was second and Legia Warsaw third; this was the last year of 1. FC's glory; the team finished fifth. In 1929 yet another team was added to the list of champions of Poland; this time it was Warta Poznań. However, after the last game, on 1 December 1929, it was Garbarnia Kraków, celebrating the championship. Two weeks in mid-December, PZPN's officials changed the result of the Warta – Klub Turystow Łódź game. Warta lost 1–2, but due to walk-over, this was changed to 3–0 in favor of Poznań's side; as a result of the decision, Warta became the champion, Garbarnia finished second with 32 points and Klub Turystow was relegated. In 1930, Cracovia regained the championship, a year another Kraków's side, won the league.
It is clear. During this time, only once the championship was won by a side from a different city; the 1931 champion, was unique as this was the first time that the league had been won by a side whose all players had been bought from other teams. As has been said, the early 1930s marked a decline of the dominance of Kraków and Lwów as centers of Polish football; the point of gravity moved towards west – to Polish part of Upper Silesia, which had belonged to Poland since 1921. In 1932 the champion was Cracovia, but starting in 1933, Ruch Chorzów dominated the league, being
Kharkiv known as Kharkov, is the second-largest city in Ukraine. In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raion, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 1,439,036 The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major centre of Ukrainian industry and culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev. Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, educational and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries, its industry specializes in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory.
Some sources offer that the city was named after Kharko. Among other names there are Charkow, Zakharpolis. Cultural artifacts date back to the Bronze Age, as well as those of Scythian and Sarmatian settlers. There is evidence that the Chernyakhov culture flourished in the area from the second to the sixth centuries; the city was founded by re-settlers who were running away from the war that engulfed Right-bank Ukraine in 1654. The years before the region was a sparsely populated part of the Cossack Hetmanate; the group of people came onto the banks of Lopan and Kharkiv rivers where an abandoned settlement stood. According to archive documents, the leader of the re-settlers was otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk. At first the settlement was self-governed under the jurisdiction of a voivode from Chuhuiv, 40 kilometres to the east; the first appointed voivode from Moscow was Voyin Selifontov in 1656 who started to build a local ostrog. At that time the population of Kharkiv was just over 1000, half of whom were local cossacks, while Selifontov brought along a Moscow garrison of another 70 servicemen.
The first Kharkiv voivode was replaced in two years after complaining that locals refused to cooperate in building the fort. Kharkiv became the centre of the local Sloboda cossack regiment as the area surrounding the Belgorod fortress was being militarized. With the resettlement of the area by Ukrainians it came to be known as Sloboda Ukraine, most of, included under the jurisdiction of the Razryad Prikaz headed by a district official from Belgorod. By 1657 the Kharkiv settlement had a fortress with underground passageways. In 1658 Ivan Ofrosimov was appointed as the new voivode, who worked on forcing locals to kiss the cross to show loyalty to the Moscow tsar; the locals led by their otaman. However, with the election of the new otaman Tymish Lavrynov the community sent a request to the tsar to establish a local Assumption market, signed by deans of Kharkiv churches. Relationships with the neighboring Chuhuiv sometimes were non-friendly and their arguments were pacified by force. With the appointment of the third voivode Vasiliy Sukhotin was finished the construction of the city fort.
Meanwhile, Kharkiv had become the centre of Sloboda Ukraine. The Kharkiv Fortress was erected around the Assumption Cathedral and its castle was at University Hill, it was between today's streets: vulytsia Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Constitution Square, Rose Luxemburg Square, Proletarian Square, Cathedral Descent. The fortress had 10 towers: Chuhuivska Tower, Moskovska Tower, Vestovska Tower, Tainytska Tower, Lopanska Corner Tower, Kharkivska Corner Tower and others; the tallest was Vestovska, some 16 metres tall, while the shortest one was Tainytska which had a secret well 35 metres deep. The fortress had the Lopanski Gates. In 1689 the fortress was expanded and included the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral and Monastery, baptized and became the center of local eparchy. Coincidentally in the same year in the vicinity of Kharkiv in Kolomak, Ivan Mazepa was announced the Hetman of Ukraine. Next to the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral was located the Kharkiv Collegiate, transferred from Belgorod to Kharkiv in 1726. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Kiev Governorate.
Kharkiv is mentioned as one of the towns making a part of the governorate. In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was split off, Kharkiv moved to Belgorod Governorate, it was the center of Kharkiv Sloboda Cossack regiment. The regiment at some point was detached from Belgorod Governorate attached to it again, until in 1765, Sloboda Ukraine Governorate was established with the seat in Kharkiv. Kharkiv University was established in 1805 in the Palace of Governorate-General. Alexander Mikolajewicz Mickiewicz, brother of Adam Mickiewicz was a professor of law in the university, another celebrity Goethe searched for instructors for the school. In 1906 Ivan Franko received a doctorate in Russian linguistics here; the streets were first cobbled in the city centre in 1830. In 1844 the 90 m
Polonia Warsaw, founded in 1911, is the oldest existing Warsaw sports club, with football, basketball and field and swimming teams. Polonia Warsaw was formed in the autumn of 1911 as a union of two school teams; the founder of the club was captain Wacław Denhoff-Czarnocki, who came up with the name of the club. Polonia is Latin for "Poland" and is used by Polish ex-patriates in reference to their communities in other countries; the choice of such a name was a brave decision at the time, since Poland was not an independent country, Warsaw was a part of Russian partition. The players played in black-and-white striped shirts, but in the spring of 1912, they switched to their now traditional design of all black shirts; the legendary patriotic explanation for this color scheme was that it was a sign of mourning for the occupied and divided motherland of Poland. This lasting devotion to tradition resulted in the club's popular name: The Black Shirts; the uniform's white shorts and red socks come from the colors of the Polish flag.
The club's first match on 19 November 1911 was against a strong local rival and ended 3–4 in favor of Korona. Two years in February 1913, The Black Shirts defeated Korona 4–0. During the first world war, German occupants were more liberal in their ways than the previous Russian counterparts, allowed the official registration of sports clubs on Polish territory, on 15 October 1915 Polonia official became a football club, despite existing for four years; the first match between Polonia and Legia Warsaw was played on 29 April 1917. It was the first historic "Great Derby of Warsaw" – the clash of these two rival teams. A month there was a second match between the teams, ending with the same score. Hatred divided their supporters early in the clubs' history and continues to this day, driving strong emotions during the matches and sometimes greater emotions between matches. In 1921, the Black Shirts came second in the first season of the Polish football championship. In 1926, they finished the season as joint-champions.
Polonia was Warsaw's favorite club – the great majority of the city's inhabitants were devoted Black Shirt supporters. In the late 1930s, Polonia became one of powerhouses of Polish football, with players, such as Jerzy Bulanow, Wladyslaw Szczepaniak, Erwin Nyc and Henryk Jaznicki capping for the national team; the friendship between Polonia and KS Cracovia – the prewar Polish football legend and the first champions of Poland – dates back to those days. In 1946, Polonia won the Polish Championship title, it was burned capital. The final match was played on "Wojska Polskiego" Stadium on Lazienkowska Street, because Polonia's stadium on 6 Konwiktorska Street had been ruined during the war; the Black Shirts defeated AKS Chorzów in the final. In 1952, Polonia Warsaw won their first Polish Cup. In the final, Polonia managed to outscore local rivals Legia Warsaw 1-0, much to the delight of Warsaw's fans, who supported the Black Shirts. During the Stalinist period, Polonia's name and colors were changed – Warsaw's oldest club was renamed Kolejarz, as the team was now tied to the Polish National Railroad company.
The Black Shirts were banned, as the Stalinist regime was trying to erase everything, associated with Warsaw from before the war. Every Polish football club got a ` sponsor', such as militia or mining industry. At the time, the railroad was one of the poorest sponsors choosing another club, as the main club they were investing in. Polonia's management struggled to face the problems that the club came across, which contributed to its eventual relegation to the Polish second division. Fifteen years there were still thousands of fans on Konwiktorska Street. Nobody thought it would take 40 years for Polonia to come back to top-flight football. One of the reasons behind this, was that all the young men, promising footballers to be – from all over Poland, the Warsaw youth academies, were called up for compulsory army training, which under the communist rule lasted about 5 years, or sometimes longer. Many of the players received an offer to play for the army sponsored Legia Warsaw, which led to some of Polonia's bitter rivals biggest successes, in the 1960s.
Till the modern day Polonia's fans attribute Legia's current popularity in Warsaw to the communist regime, the'stealing' of talented players. Polonia's ultras fans put up a flag with an anti-communist symbol, in the center of'Kammienna' sector every game. In the 1992–93 season, after 40 years playing in the lower leagues, Polonia Warsaw was promoted to the first division; the organization of the club was insufficient to compete with the strongest clubs in Polish football - the biggest problems being lack of money and a sound training base. After one season, the team was relegated yet again, but only for a year as in the 1995–96 season Polonia Warszawa won promotion again. In 1996, Janusz Romanowski took over as chairman of Polonia, having just backed out from sponsoring local rivals Legia Warszawa. In 1998'The Black Shirts' finished runner-up in the top flight and in 1999 reached the semi-finals of the Intertoto Cup. In the 1999/2000 season, Polonia were not considered challengers for the title.
At the end of the autumn round, the Black Shirts were for the first time in club's history leading the league. That team had two managers – Jerzy Engel (who became the coach of the Polish national team, which qualified for the World C
Myślenice is a town in southern Poland, situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship in Kraków Voivodeship. Population: 20,261; the town is divided into six districts. One of them, Zarabie, is a popular tourist destination, it is located behind the Raba river, it has Chełm mountain, with a view tower, a landscape park and ski lifts. Myślenice is located on the so-called Zakopianka Road, a popular name of the European route E77 road, connecting Kraków with Zakopane. Myślenice does not have a train station. First mentions of Myślenice come from 1253 - 1258. At that time, it was a defensive settlement, with a castle and fortifications, designed to protect Kraków from the south. In 1342, Myślenice received its Magdeburg rights town charter, it started to develop into a local commercial center. Among visitors who came here, were Mikolaj Rej, who wrote part of his Life of an Honest Man during his stay there. In 1557, Myślenice came under the jurisdiction of Kraków castellans, who were much more concerned with their city.
The town began to decline, it was destroyed in the deluge. In 1772, Myślenice was annexed by Austria, until 1918, it belonged to the province of Galicia. After World War I, the town became part of the Second Polish Republic. On 22 January 1945, Myślenice was liberated by the troops of 38th Army of the 4th Ukrainian Front. Between 1975-1998 the city was part of the Kraków Voivodeship. Myślenice is twinned with: Dalin Myślenice - women's volleyball team that has won Polish Seria B Women's Volleyball League in 2003/2004 season and was promoted to play in Polish Seria A Women's Volleyball League in 2004/2005 season. CFL slotback Dave Stala was born here. Jewish Community in Myślenice on Virtual Shtetl