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Waldron, Arkansas

Waldron is a city in Scott County, United States. Its population was 3,618 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Scott County. Waldron was platted in 1845 by surveyor W. P. Waldron, named for him. A post office called Waldron has been in operation since 1846. Waldron incorporated in 1875. Waldron is located at 34°53′57″N 94°5′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 5.0 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Waldron is located 38 miles south of Fort Smith, near the Poteau River; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,508 people, 1,430 households, 899 families residing in the city. The population density was 704.4 people per square mile. There were 1,563 housing units at an average density of 313.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.42% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.91% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 7.16% from other races, 1.25% from two or more races. 15.31 % of the population were Latino of any race.

There were 1,430 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,921, the median income for a family was $26,829. Males had a median income of $25,256 versus $16,136 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,193. About 22.8% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.1% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over.

Public education for elementary and secondary school students is provided by the Waldron School District, which leads to graduation from Waldron High School. The district and school mascot and athletic emblem is the Bulldog with orange and black serving as the district and school colors. Gary Darnell, college football coach Terry Rice, member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Waldron The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Waldron has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Waldron

Medical imaging in pregnancy

Medical imaging in pregnancy may be indicated because of pregnancy complications, intercurrent diseases or routine prenatal care. Options for medical imaging in pregnancy include the following: Magnetic resonance imaging without MRI contrast agents as well as obstetric ultrasonography are not associated with any risk for the mother or the fetus, are the imaging techniques of choice for pregnant women. Projectional radiography, X-ray computed tomography and nuclear medicine result some degree of ionizing radiation exposure, but have with a few exceptions much lower radiation doses than what are associated with fetal harm, they are indicated when ultrasonography or MRI are not available or not feasible for the diagnostic question at hand. Radiocontrast agents, when orally administered, are harmless. Intravenous administration of iodinated radiocontrast agents can cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation, but animal studies have reported no teratogenic or mutagenic effects from its use.

There have been theoretical concerns about potential harm of free iodide on the fetal thyroid gland, but multiple studies have shown that a single dose of intravenously administered iodinated contrast medium to a pregnant mother has no effect on neonatal thyroid function. It is recommended that radiocontrast only be used if required to obtain additional diagnostic information that will improve the care of the fetus or mother. Magnetic resonance imaging, without MRI contrast agents, is not associated with any risk for the mother or the fetus, together with medical ultrasonography it is the technique of choice for medical imaging in pregnancy. For the first trimester, no known literature has documented specific adverse effects in human embryos or fetuses exposed to non-contrast MRI during the first trimester. During the second and third trimesters, there is some evidence to support the absence of risk, including a retrospective study of 1737 prenatally exposed children, showing no significant difference in hearing, motor skills or functional measures after a mean follow-up time of 2 years.

Gadolinium contrast agents in the first trimester is associated with a increased risk of a childhood diagnosis of several forms of rheumatism, inflammatory disorders, or infiltrative skin conditions, according to a retrospective study including 397 infants prenatally exposed to gadolinium contrast. In the second and third trimester, gadolinium contrast is associated with a increased risk of stillbirth or neonatal death, by the same study. Hence, is recommended that gadolinium contrast in MRI should be limited, should only be used when it improves diagnostic performance and is expected to improve fetal or maternal outcome. MRI is used in pregnant women with acute abdominal pain and/or pelvic pain, or in suspected neurological disorders, placental diseases, infections, and/or cardiovascular diseases. Appropriate use criteria by the American College of Radiology give a rating of ≥7 for non-contrast MRI for the following conditions: Acute non-localized pain in the right upper quadrant or right lower quadrant Acute pelvic pain when a non-gynecological cause is suspected Suspected biliary disease such as jaundice Suspected pancreatic disease New‐onset severe headache Newly diagnosed cancer Health effects of radiation may be grouped in two general categories: stochastic effects, i.e. radiation-induced cancer and heritable effects involving either cancer development in exposed individuals owing to mutation of somatic cells or heritable disease in their offspring owing to mutation of reproductive cells.

The risk for developing radiation-induced cancer at some point in life is greater when exposing a fetus than an adult, both because the cells are more vulnerable when they are growing, because there is much longer lifespan after the dose to develop cancer. Deterministic effects due in large part to the killing/ malfunction of cells following high doses; the determinstistic effects have been studied at for example survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and cases of there radiation therapy has been necessary during pregnancy: The intellectual deficit has been estimated to be about 25 IQ-points per 1,000 mGy at 10 to 17 weeks of gestational age. The risk for the mother of acquiring radiation-induced breast cancer seems to be high for radiation doses during pregnancy; this is an important factor when for example determining whether a ventilation/perfusion scan or a CT pulmonary angiogram is the optimal investigation in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism. A V/Q scan confers a higher radiation dose to the fetus, while a CTPA confers a much higher radiation dose to the mother's breasts.

A review from the United Kingdom in 2005 considered CTPA to be preferable in suspected pulmonary embolism in pregnancy because of higher sensitivity and specificity as well as a modest cost. Radiobiology


Appletiser is a sparkling fruit juice created by blending fruit juice with carbonated water. It was created in 1966 in Elgin Valley, Western Cape, South Africa, by French-Italian immigrant Edmond Lombardi. For export and out of season, the juice is concentrated by extracting the aroma and the water from it; the concentrate can be stored in cold rooms. In South Africa, the juice is filtered and immediately bottled, with no water being added; the concentrate can be converted to juice by adding the water and the concentrated aroma in the original ratios. Red and White Grapetiser and Appletiser Colours are fruit variants. Whilst Appletiser is sold in its home market of South Africa, the brand is exported to more than 20 other countries, including the Southern African Development Community, as well as the UK, Spain, Hong Kong and New Zealand. In 1966, Edmond Lombardi began creating his sparkling fruit juice, Appletiser, by blending fruit juice with carbonated water; the business was based in Elgin valley of South Africa.

Exports began in 1969 to two archipelagos: Japan. In 1979, The Coca-Cola Company purchased a 50% stake in Appletiser. Red and White Grapetiser were launched in 1981. In 1982, Appletiser was launched in the United Kingdom as "Appletise" due to complaints from the owners of the Tizer brand of soft drink. In 2001, after lengthy negotiations with AG Barr, makers of Tizer, the'r' was added to the UK branding to allow the Appletiser brand name and positioning to be standardised internationally. In 2016, the Appletiser brand was sold to The Coca-Cola Company by SABMiller, the Tiser brands are now manufactured under licence by Appletiser South Africa, part of the bottling operations of Coca-Cola Beverages South Africa. Appletiser and Grapetiser contain no added sugar or colourants and are available in 750ml, 250ml can, 150ml can, 275ml, 330ml, 350ml and 1.25l pack sizes. Appletiser Colours range and Amber, contain 80% fruit juice and 20% water and are available in 350ml and 1.25l pack sizes. Appletiser

Jamila bint Thabit

Jamila bint Thabit named Asiya, was a wife of Umar and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Thabit ibn Abi al-Aflah and Al-Shamus bint Abi Amir, who were both from the'Amr ibn Awf clan of the Aws tribe in Medina, her brother Asim was among those. Jamila was one of Medina's first converts to Islam, she her mother were among the first ten women to pledge allegiance to Muhammad in 622. On hearing that her name was Asiya, Muhammad renamed her: "No, you are Jamila", she married Umar about five years between May 627 and May 628. They had Asim. On one occasion, Jamila asked Umar for money, and, as he afterwards reported to Muhammad: "I slapped her with a blow that floored her, because she asked me for what I did not have." The marriage ended in divorce. Jamila and Asim returned to her family in the suburb of Quba. One day Umar saw Asim playing in the mosque courtyard, he placed him on his mount. Jamila's mother Al-Shamus came up to protest, they could not agree who should have custody of Asim and so they brought their dispute before Abu Bakr.

When Abu Bakr ruled, "Do not interfere between a child and its mother," Umar dropped his case and allowed Jamila to keep her son. Jamila was married to Yazid ibn Jariya, they had one son, Abdulrahman

Charaka Samhita

The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda. Along with the Suśruta-saṃhitā, it is one of the two foundational Hindu texts of this field that have survived from ancient India; the pre-2nd century CE text consists of one hundred twenty chapters. It describes ancient theories on human body, etiology and therapeutics for a wide range of diseases; the Charaka Samhita includes sections on the importance of diet, prevention, medical education, the teamwork of a physician and patient necessary for recovery to health. The Charaka Samhita states that the content of the book was first taught by Atreya, subsequently codified by Agniveśa, revised by Charaka, the manuscripts that survive into the modern era are based on one edited by Dridhabala. Dridhabala stated in the Charaka Samhita that he had to write one third of the book all by himself because this portion of the book had been lost, that he re-wrote the last part of the book. Based on textual analysis, the literal meaning of the Sanskrit word charak, Chattopadhyay speculated that charak does not refer to one person but multiple people.

Vishwakarma and Goswami state that the text exists in many versions and entire chapters are missing in some versions. Dates of composition of the Charaka Samhita are uncertain. Meulenbeld’s History of Indian Medical Literature dates it to be between fourth century BCE to the second century CE, with Charaka's compilation between 100 BCE and 200 CE; the Dṛḍhbala revision and completion, the source of current texts, is dated to the 6th century CE. In Sanskrit, charak is a term for a wanderer and sometimes used in the context of the ancient tradition of wandering physicians who brought their medical expertise and magico-religious rites from village to village. Surendranath Dasgupta states that the medical tradition of wandering physicians are traceable to the Atharvaveda the Caranavaidya shakha – one of the nine known shakha of Atharvaveda-based Vedic schools; the name of this school means "wandering physicians". Their texts have not survived into the modern era, but manuscripts from two competing schools – Paippalada and Saunakiya, have.

The Atharvaveda contains chapters relating to medicine and magico-religious rites. This Atharvaveda layer of text was compiled contemporaneously with Samaveda and Yajurveda, or about 1200 BCE - 1000 BCE. Dasgupta and other scholars state that the Atreya-Caraka school and its texts may have emerged from this older tradition, he cites a series of Atharvaveda hymns to show that all organs and nomenclature found in Caraka Samhita is found in the Vedic hymns; the extant text has eight sthāna, totalling 120 chapters. The text includes a table of contents embedded in its verses, stating the names and describing the nature of the eight books, followed by a listing of the 120 chapters; these eight books are Sutra Sthana - 30 chapters deal with general principles, definitions, prevention through healthy living, the goals of the text. Nidana Sthana - 8 chapters on causes of diseases. Vimana Sthana 8 chapters contain training of a physician, ethics of medical practice, pathology and nourishment, taste of medicines.

Śarira Sthana - 8 chapters describe embryology & anatomy of a human body. Indriya Sthana - 12 chapters elaborate on diagnosis & prognosis based on sensory response of the patient. Cikitsa Sthana - 30 chapters deal with medicines and treatment of diseases. Kalpa Sthana - 12 chapters describe pharmacy, the preparation and dosage of medicine, signs of their abuse, dealing with poisons. Siddhi Sthana - 12 chapters describe signs of cure and healthier living. Seventeen chapters of Cikitsā sthāna and complete Kalpa sthāna and Siddhi sthāna were added by Dridhabala; the text starts with Sūtra sthāna which deals with fundamentals and basic principles of Ayurveda practice. Unique scientific contributions credited to the Charaka Saṃhitā include: a rational approach to the causation and cure of disease introduction of objective methods of clinical examination The text asserts that there are four important parts to medical practice – the patient, the physician, the nurse and the medicines. All four are essential to recovery and return to health, states the text.

The physician provides knowledge and coordinates the treatment, he is who can "explore the dark interior of the body with the lamp of knowledge", according to the text and Valiathan's translation. The physician must express joy and cheer towards those who can respond to treatment, masterfully avoid and save time in cases where the patient suffers from incurable disease, while compassionate towards all; the nurse must be knowledgeable, skilled at preparing formulations and dosage, sympathetic towards everyone and clean. The patient is responsible for being positive, have the ability to describe how he or she feels and respectfully follow the physician instructions; the Charaka Samhita, states Curtin, was among the earliest texts that set a code of ethics on physicians and nurses, attributing "moral as well as scientific authority to the healer". The text, in chapters 8 and 9 of the Vimana Sthana dedicates numerous verses to discussing the code, it mandates that the physician must seek consent before entering a patient's quarters, must be accompanied by a male member of the family if he is attending a woman or minor, must inform and gain consent from patient or the guardians if the patient is a minor, must nev


The Rhytismataceae are a family of fungi in the Rhytismatales order. It contains 55 728 species. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the following genera are in the Rhytismataceae; the placement of the genus Nymanomyces is uncertain. Bifusella — Bifusepta — Bivallium — Canavirgella — Ceratophacidium — Cerion — Coccomyces — Colpoma — Criella — Davisomycella — Discocainia — Duplicaria — Duplicariella — Elytroderma — Hypoderma — Hypodermella — Hypohelion — Isthmiella — Lirula — Lophodermella — Lophodermium — Lophomerum — Marthamyces — Meloderma — Moutoniella — Myriophacidium — Nematococcomyces — Neococcomyces — Nothorhytisma — Nymanomyces — Parvacoccum — Ploioderma — Propolis — Pureke — Rhytisma — Soleella — Sporomega — Terriera — Therrya — Triblidiopsis — Virgella — Vladracula — Xyloschizon — Zeus