Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west and Hungary to the north and Romania to the east, Albania and Greece to the south; the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Vojvodina; the SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy.
Until 1948, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism; the SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation; the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in early 1990s. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence; the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
Two of its republics and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" is now used retrospectively; the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug and slavija. The Slavic word jug means'south', while slavija denotes a'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be'South-Slavia' or'Land of the South Slavs'; the full official name of the federation varied between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades —the official name of the state. After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country.
The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1945, King Peter II was deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced; the state is most referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist"; the names are as follows: Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages Latin: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija Cyrillic: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: Macedonian pronunciation: Slovene language Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most known as Yugoslavia.
The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans; the Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, under his command the movement soon began establishing "liberated territories" which attracted the attention of occupying forces. Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, representing the republican, left-wing, socialist elements of the Yugoslav political
Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance
The Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance is a register of some 8,300 items of cultural property in Switzerland. It was established according to article 5 of the second protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, which provides for the establishment of national registers of cultural property; the register contains both mobile and immobile items of cultural property including old towns, squares, sacral buildings, castles, monuments, archaeological sites and collections. Its entries are classified in two groups: those of national significance and those of regional significance; the selection is based on the significance of the items in the domains of history, art, ethnography, social studies and in other scientific disciplines, as well as on their rarity value. Items of purely local significance are not included; the register is prepared by the Federal Office of Civil Protection in cooperation with the cantonal authorities and formally issued by the Federal Council.
It was first published in 1988 and re-issued in updated form in 1995 and 2009. The 2009 revision covers only A-class objects, with the B-class objects set to be reviewed and updated at a time; until the lists of B-class objects published by the Office include the B-class objects of the 1995 inventory, the proposals for new or changed B-class objects submitted by the cantonal authorities, the former A-class objects not retained as nationally significant in the 2009 review. The Federal Office of Civil Protection has made the 2009 register of A-class objects available on the Internet as a geographic information system and as a set of PDF documents. A printed catalogue was published in 2010. Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites "Revision of the PCP Inventory". KGS Forum. Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2008. Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance: KGS Class A properties + objects KGS Class B properties + objects KGS Geographic Information System−GIS map Inventories in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
Images Media related to Cultural properties of national significance in Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cultural properties of regional significance in Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cultural properties of local significance in Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons
The Paxmal is a peace monument built by Karl Bickel between 1924 and 1949, in Walenstadtberg above Walenstadt, in Switzerland. The left wall is the earthly life: a couple of people in its existence and development and procreation; the right wall is devoted to the spiritual life: the beings who are awakened and which keep growing. Karl Bickel was a Swiss artist. Karl Bickel Museum in Walenstadt
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable. The English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the word agnostic in 1869, said "It means that a man shall not say he knows or believes that which he has no scientific grounds for professing to know or believe." Earlier thinkers, had written works that promoted agnostic points of view, such as Sanjaya Belatthaputta, a 5th-century BCE Indian philosopher who expressed agnosticism about any afterlife. The Nasadiya Sukta in the Rigveda is agnostic about the origin of the universe. According to the philosopher William L. Rowe, "agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God exists or the belief that God does not exist". Agnosticism is the doctrine or tenet of agnostics with regard to the existence of anything beyond and behind material phenomena or to knowledge of a First Cause or God, is not a religion.
Agnosticism is of the essence of whether ancient or modern. It means that a man shall not say he knows or believes that which he has no scientific grounds for professing to know or believe. Agnosticism puts aside not only the greater part of popular theology, but the greater part of anti-theology. On the whole, the "bosh" of heterodoxy is more offensive to me than that of orthodoxy, because heterodoxy professes to be guided by reason and science, orthodoxy does not; that which Agnostics deny and repudiate, as immoral, is the contrary doctrine, that there are propositions which men ought to believe, without logically satisfactory evidence. Agnosticism, in fact, is not a creed, but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle... Positively the principle may be expressed: In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration, and negatively: In matters of the intellect do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.
Being a scientist, above all else, Huxley presented agnosticism as a form of demarcation. A hypothesis with no supporting, testable evidence is not an objective, scientific claim; as such, there would be no way to test. His agnosticism was not compatible with forming a belief as to the truth, or falsehood, of the claim at hand. Karl Popper would describe himself as an agnostic. According to philosopher William L. Rowe, in this strict sense, agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God exists or the belief that God does not exist. George H. Smith, while admitting that the narrow definition of atheist was the common usage definition of that word, admitting that the broad definition of agnostic was the common usage definition of that word, promoted broadening the definition of atheist and narrowing the definition of agnostic. Smith rejects agnosticism as a third alternative to theism and atheism and promotes terms such as agnostic atheism and agnostic theism.
Agnostic was used by Thomas Henry Huxley in a speech at a meeting of the Metaphysical Society in 1869 to describe his philosophy, which rejects all claims of spiritual or mystical knowledge. Early Christian church leaders used the Greek word gnosis to describe "spiritual knowledge". Agnosticism is not to be confused with religious views opposing the ancient religious movement of Gnosticism in particular. Huxley identified agnosticism not as a creed but rather as a method of skeptical, evidence-based inquiry. In recent years, scientific literature dealing with neuroscience and psychology has used the word to mean "not knowable". In technical and marketing literature, "agnostic" can mean independence from some parameters—for example, "platform agnostic" or "hardware agnostic". Scottish Enlightenment philosopher David Hume contended that meaningful statements about the universe are always qualified by some degree of doubt, he asserted that the fallibility of human beings means that they cannot obtain absolute certainty except in trivial cases where a statement is true by definition.
Strong agnosticism The view that the question of the existence or nonexistence of a deity or deities, the nature of ultimate reality is unknowable by reason of our natural inability to verify any experience with anything but another subjective experience. A strong agnostic would say, "I cannot know whether a deity exists or not, neither can you." Weak agnosticism The view that the existence or nonexistence of any deities is unknown but is not unknowable. A weak agnostic would say, "I don't know whether any deities exist or not, but maybe one day, if there is evidence, we can find something out." Apathetic agnosticism The view that no amount of de
The Sarganserland is a constituency of the canton of St. Gallen, with a population of 36,892; the constituency corresponds to the historical county of Sargans and the Landvogtei Sargans in the Old Swiss Confederacy. Part of the Canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic, the Sarganserland together with Pfäfers was joined to the canton of St. Gallen at its formation in 1803. Geographically, it includes the land between the Rhine at Sargans and upper Lake Walen, including the Seeztal; the territory of Pfäfers lies along the Tamina, in the Rhine basin, was not part of Sargans county but was independently owned by Pfäfers Abbey, had been joined to the canton of Linth in 1798. Sarganserland Wahlkreis has a population of 40,461. Of the foreign population, 373 are from Germany, 854 are from Italy, 3,171 are from ex-Yugoslavia, 220 are from Austria, 350 are from Turkey, 1,090 are from another country. Of the Swiss national languages, 31,401 speak German, 112 people speak French, 651 people speak Italian, 157 people speak Romansh.
The age distribution, as of 2000, in the Sarganserland is. Of the adult population, 4,329 people or 12.2 % of the population are between 29 years old. 5,722 people or 16.2% are between 30 and 39, 5,002 people or 14.2% are between 40 and 49, 4,281 people or 12.1% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 3,011 people or 8.5% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 2,203 people or 6.2% are between 70 and 79, there are 1,122 people or 3.2% who are between 80 and 89, there are 184 people or 0.5% who are between 90 and 99. In 2000 there were 4,066 persons. There were 7,011 persons who were part of a couple without children, 20,538 who were part of a couple with children. There were 1,799 people who lived in single parent home, while there are 273 persons who were adult children living with one or both parents, 177 persons who lived in a household made up of relatives, 187 who lived household made up of unrelated persons, 1,288 who are either institutionalized or live in another type of collective housing.
The entire Swiss population is well educated. Out of the total population in the Sarganserland, as of 2000, the highest education level completed by 8,304 people was Primary, while 12,775 have completed Secondary, 3,059 have attended a Tertiary school, 1,656 are not in school; the remainder did not answer this question. As of October 2009 the average unemployment rate was 3.0%. From the 2000 census, 24,579 or 69.6% are Roman Catholic, while 4,679 or 13.2% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 34 individuals who belong to the Christian Catholic faith, there are 909 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 280 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are 8 individuals who are Jewish, 2,160 who are Islamic. There are 231 individuals who belong to another church, 1,393 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 1,066 individuals did not answer the question
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Canton of St. Gallen
The canton of St. Gallen canton of St Gall, is a canton of Switzerland; the capital is St. Gallen. Located in northeastern Switzerland, the canton has an area of 2,026 km2 and a resident population close to half a million as of 2015, it was formed in 1803 as a conflation of the city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and various former subject territories of the Old Swiss Confederacy; the canton of St. Gallen is an artificial construct of various historical territories, defined by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Act of Mediation in 1803. About half of the canton's area corresponds to the acquisitions of the abbey of St. Gallen over centuries; the city of St. Gallen became independent of the abbey in 1405. At the same time, the abbey lost control of Appenzell. Conversely, the Toggenburg was acquired by the Abbey in 1468. Both the city and the abbey were associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy, but unlike Appenzell never joined as full members; the territories at Lake Zürich and Rheintal remained independent until 1798.
In the Helvetic Republic, the northern parts of the modern canton together with Appenzell became the canton of Säntis, while its southern parts together with Glarus became the canton of Linth. Before the 1798 French invasion, the territory of the modern canton consisted of the free city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gallen, the free city of Rapperswil, Pfäfers Abbey and the independent lordships of Rheintal, Sax-Forstegg, Werdenberg and Uznach. In April 1798, the territories of the canton of St. Gallen were divided between the cantons of Säntis and Linth of the Helvetic Republic (along with Appenzell and parts of Schwyz. However, the two new Cantons had immediate financial problems and were forced to institute a number of unpopular taxes and laws; the Abbey was secularized on 17 September 1798 and the Prince-Abbot Pankraz Vorster fled to Vienna. The unpopular laws and the closing of the Abbey caused unrest throughout the area; when the War of the Second Coalition broke out in 1799, an Austrian army marched into eastern Switzerland and returned the Prince-Abbot to his throne at the Abbey.
However, his victory was short lived. The Austrian and Russian armies were defeated outside Zürich and the French Army returned to St. Gallen driving the Prince-Abbot out. In 1803, as part of the Act of Mediation, the area joined the Swiss Confederation as the Canton of St. Gallen; the cantonal constitution of 1803 was revised in 1814. Because of the confessional heterogeneity of the canton's population, the 1814 constitution did unusually organise matters of religion and education not on a cantonal level but introduced a twofold division, with separate Protestant and a Catholic assemblies subordinate to the legislative cantonal assembly; the constitution was revised again in 1831. The constitution of 1831 divided the canton into 15 districts, reduced to 14 in 1918. Due to continuing confessional squabbles over the organisation of schools, the canton placed education under its authority in 1861; the constitution was yet again revised with a stronger emphasis on direct democracy. The 1890 constitution remained in effect, with numerous changes, until 2001, the date of the latest revision of the cantonal constitution.
In the 2001 constitution, the division into districts was replaced by a division into eight constituencies, effective on 1 January 2003. The canton is located in the north east of Switzerland, it is bounded to the north by Lake Constance. To the east lies the Rhine valley. Over the Rhine are Austria and Liechtenstein. To the south, the canton of St. Gallen is bounded by the cantons of Graubünden and Schwyz. To the west lie the cantons of Zürich and Thurgau; the two half cantons Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden are surrounded by lands of the canton of St. Gallen; the main rivers of the canton are the Rhine, Thur and Seez. The topography changes from the plains, near river Rhine and Lake Constance, towards the mountainous areas of the Alps in the south. About one third of the canton is wooded. 278.6 km2 of the farm land is alpine pastures. Of the rest of the canton, 259.1 km2 is considered unproductive while 176 km2 is filled with housing or roads. The altitude above the sea-level varies from 398 m to 3,251 m.
The canton includes portions of the lake of Constance, of the Walensee, of the lake of Zürich, several small lakes wholly within its limits. The mountains of the canton include part of a thrust fault, declared a geologic UNESCO world heritage site, under the name Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona, in 2008. Since 2003 the canton is subdivided into 8 constituencies replacing the districts. Rheintal with capital Altstätten Rorschach with capital Rorschach Sarganserland with capital Sargans See-Gaster with capital Rapperswil-Jona St. Gallen with capital St. Gallen Toggenburg with capital Lichtensteig Werdenberg with capital Buchs Wil with capital Wil There are 77 municipalities in the canton