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Wali is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "master", "authority", "custodian", "protector" and "friend". In the vernacular, it is most used by Muslims to indicate an Islamic saint, otherwise referred to by the more literal "friend of God". In the traditional Islamic understanding of saints, the saint is portrayed as someone "marked by divine favor... holiness", and, "chosen by God and endowed with exceptional gifts, such as the ability to work miracles". The doctrine of saints was articulated by Islamic scholars early on in Muslim history, particular verses of the Quran and certain hadith were interpreted by early Muslim thinkers as "documentary evidence" of the existence of saints. Graves of saints around the Muslim world became centers of pilgrimage — after 1200 CE — for masses of Muslims seeking their barakah. Since the first Muslim hagiographies were written during the period when the Islamic mystical trend of Sufism began its rapid expansion, many of the figures who came to be regarded as the major saints in orthodox Sunni Islam were the early Sufi mystics, like Hasan of Basra, Farqad Sabakhi, Dawud Tai, Rabia of Basra, Maruf Karkhi, Junayd of Baghdad.

From the twelfth to the fourteenth century, "the general veneration of saints, among both people and sovereigns, reached its definitive form with the organization of Sufism... into orders or brotherhoods". In the common expressions of Islamic piety of this period, the saint was understood to be "a contemplative whose state of spiritual perfection... permanent expression in the teaching bequeathed to his disciples". In many prominent Sunni Islamic creeds of the time, such as the famous Creed of Tahawi and the Creed of Nasafi, a belief in the existence and miracles of saints was presented as "a requirement" for being an orthodox Muslim believer. Aside from the Sufis, the preeminent saints in traditional Islamic piety are the Companions of the Prophet, their Successors, the Successors of the Successors. Additionally, the prophets and messengers in Islam are believed to be saints by definition, although they are referred to as such, in order to prevent confusion between them and ordinary saints.

In short, it is believed that "every prophet is a saint, but not every saint is a prophet". In the modern world, the traditional Sunni and Shia idea of saints has been challenged by movements such as the Salafi movement and Islamic Modernism, all three of which have, to a greater or lesser degree, "formed a front against the veneration and theory of saints." As has been noted by scholars, the development of these movements has indirectly led to a trend amongst some mainstream Muslims to resist "acknowledging the existence of Muslim saints altogether or... their presence and veneration as unacceptable deviations". However, despite the presence of these opposing streams of thought, the classical doctrine of saint-veneration continues to thrive in many parts of the Islamic world today, playing a vital role in daily expressions of piety among vast segments of Muslim populations in Muslim countries like Pakistan, Turkey, Iraq, Algeria, Indonesia and Morocco, as well as in countries with substantive Islamic populations like India, China and the Balkans.

Regarding the rendering of the Arabic walī by the English "saint", prominent scholars such as Gibril Haddad have regarded this as an appropriate translation, with Haddad describing the aversion of some Muslims towards the use of "saint" for walī as "a specious objection... for – like'Religion','Believer','prayer', etc. – generic term for holiness and holy persons while there is no confusion, for Muslims, over their specific referents in Islam, namely: the reality of iman with Godwariness and those who possess those qualities." In Persian, which became the second most influential and spoken language in the Islamic world after Arabic, the general title for a saint or a spiritual master became pīr. Although the ramifications of this phrase include the connotations of a general "saint," it is used to signify a spiritual guide of some type. Amongst Indian Muslims, the title pīr baba is used in Hindi to refer to Sufi masters or honored saints. Additionally, saints are sometimes referred to in the Persian or Urdu vernacular with "Hazrat."

In Islamic mysticism, a pīr's role is to instruct his disciples on the mystical path. Hence, the key difference between the use of walī and pīr is that the former does not imply a saint, a spiritual master with disciples, while the latter directly does so through its connotations of "elder". Additionally, other Arabic and Persian words that often have the same connotations as pīr, hence are sometimes translated into English as "saint", include murshid and sarkar. In the Turkish Islamic lands, saints have been referred to by many terms, including the Arabic walī, the Persian s̲h̲āh and pīr, Turkish alternatives like baba in Anatolia, ata in Central Asia, eren or ermis̲h̲ or yati̊r in Anatolia, their tombs, are "denoted by terms of Arabic or Persian origin alluding to the idea of pilgrimage (mazār, ziyāratgāh

Frank Cyril Tiarks

Frank Cyril Tiarks OBE was an English banker. He was a son of Henry Frederick Tiarks, a banker, wife Agnes Morris, paternal grandson of Johann Gerhard Tiarks, Chaplain of the Duchess of Kent, wife Emily Phipps, daughter of Josiah Phipps, great-grandson of Johann Gerhard Tiarks and wife Christine Dorothea Ehrentraut. Educated on HMS Britannia 1887-89, served as midshipman in the Royal Navy 1889-94. Resigned his commission following the death of his elder brother, to join his father in business. Among his appointments were a directorship of the Bank of England. See for genealogy information. Served in World War I, 1914-18 under Sir William Reginald Hall, Director of Naval Intelligence, in Room 40 Admiralty, as Lieut.-Cmdr. Of German descent himself, like his wife, he was listed as a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship, of the British Union of Fascists and in Hitler's'Black Book'. Tiarks married in Hamburg on 18 November 1899 Emmie Marie Franziska Brödermann of Hamburg, daughter of Eduard Matthias Brödermann and wife Ramona Luisa Clara Ignacia Störzel.

His granddaughter, Henrietta Tiarks, The Dowager Duchess of Bedford, is the widow of the fourteenth Duke of Bedford. He is first cousin third removed of Mark Phillips. "The Forgotten Banker", ISBN 9781912236008 Nicholas Mander, "Queen of Seven Swords", Owlpen Press, 2013, ISBN 9780954605650 gives a biography with references

North Warwick Historic and Archeological District

North Warwick Historic and Archeological District is a national historic district located in Warwick Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. It is adjacent to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site; the district includes 55 contributing buildings, 39 contributing archaeological sites, 13 contributing structures, 1 contributing object in a mineral rich, well forested area. Archaeological remains document prehistoric habitation dating back to 3000 BC; the contributing buildings include log and fieldstone buildings, many of which date to the 18th and 19th centuries. They include two well designed Georgian style dwellings dated to 1817 and 1822. Located in the district are the Bethesda Church, or Lloyd's Meeting House, Pine Swamp Evangelical Church, Monocacy Schoolhouse, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995


Gardman was one of the eight cantons of the ancient province of Utik in the Kingdom of Armenia and together with the canton of Tuchkatak, an Armenian principality. In the Early Middle Ages a feudal state of Gardman emerged on the area of Caucasian Albania, it corresponded within the modern Qazakh, Agstafa, Goygol, Gadabay rayons of Azerbaijan and Tavush Region of Armenia. In prehistoric times Gardman was homeland of the proto-Armenian tribe Gardman, with a doubtful Georgian connection. Contemporary Armenian authors referred to the historical area of Gardman as Northern Artsakh. During the reign of the Arshakuni kings of Armenia, Gardman was the seat of the nakharars of Utik'. After the collapse of the Armenian royal dynasty Gardman was acquired by Caucasian Albania in 387. In the seventh century the local house of Gardman was replaced by the Mihranid family, which became the ruling dynasty in the region of Arran; the region was conquered by the Arabs in 855. Contemporary Armenian historians noted the presence of two well known venues in Gardman: a fortress called Getabakk' and a copper mine.

In 982, Gardman and Parisos, the northern district of Artsakh, became a small Armenian kingdom of Parisos, which lasted until 1017 and thereafter it became part of the Kingdom of Lori. In 1601, the princely family of Melik-Shahnazaryan established the melikdom of Gardman; the ruling family belonged to a branch of the House of Khachen, their residence was in the village of Voskanapat. The territorial rights of the meliks were confirmed after the Russian Empire took control of the region in the early nineteenth century

Brooke Hospital for Animals

Brooke is a United Kingdom-based international equine charity, which focuses on the welfare and care of donkeys and mules. With more than 900 people working helping to deliver services, Brooke is the largest equine charity in the world. Known as Brooke Hospital for Animals, the charity rebranded in May 2016 to Brooke – Action for working horses and donkeys; the Duchess of Cornwall became the charity's President in 2006. Other supporters include dressage champion Charlotte Dujardin OBE who became Global Ambassador in 2015, deceased horse racing commentator Sir Peter O'Sullevan, Patron at the time of his death, present Patrons Alastair Stewart and Princess Alia of Jordan. In 1930, while on a trip to Cairo, Mrs Dorothy Brooke encountered thousands of ex-cavalry horses being used as beasts of burden, she was shocked to see that these horses which had served the British army so faithfully during World War I were now living a life of gruelling hardship on the streets of Cairo. On her return to England she wrote a letter to The Morning Post newspaper, exposing their plight and appealing for funds to help her save them.

The public response was overwhelming, they donated the equivalent today of £20,000 to help. In 1933, Mrs. Brooke set up a committee to help fund the purchase of 5,000 animals, most of which due to their health were humanely destroyed. In 1934, she established the Old War Horse Memorial Hospital to provide a free veterinary clinic for all the working horses and donkeys of Cairo; the original hospital which Mrs. Brooke established in Bayram ElTonsi Street, now known locally as "The Street of the English Lady," is still open and operating. Brooke works across Africa, the Middle East and Central America: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Nicaragua and Senegal, they have fundraising offices in the United States and the Netherlands alongside the charity headquarters in the United Kingdom. In 2016/2017, the charity reached over 2 million horses and mules. For 600 million people in some of the poorest places in the world, 100 million of these animals are the backbone of communities and their best means of making a living.

Without healthy working horses and mules, families wouldn't be able to put food on their tables, send their children to school or build better futures for themselves. Brooke's work focuses on developing the skills and compassion of the people who use horses and mules in their daily lives. Brooke works with owners and local governments to bring about lasting improvements to the lives of these animals, they train and support local vets, harness makers and animal traders to improve standards of care. Brooke's policy research allows them to make substantiated claims about the essential role of working equines in sustaining the livelihoods of their owners and the importance of their welfare for the benefit of people. Brooke's previous research reports include'Invisible Workers', looking at the economic contribution of working donkeys and mules to livelihood, and'Voices From Women', examining women's views on the contributions of working equines to their lives. Animal welfare in the United Kingdom Animal welfare in Egypt Official website


Freespire is a community-driven Linux distribution owned by PC/Open Systems LLC. It is derived from Linspire and is composed of free, open source software, while providing users the choice of including proprietary software including multimedia codecs, device drivers and application software. Freespire 1.0 was based on Debian. Linspire was bought by Xandros, who planned to switch back to Debian for future Freespire releases. On January 1, 2018, PC/Open Systems announced it had purchased Linspire from Xandros and released Freespire 3.0. While Linspire 7 is available for $79.99, Freespire 3.0 is free. In August 2005, a distribution Live CD based on Linspire's source pools named Freespire hit the web by accident; this distribution was not produced or released by Linspire Inc.. Freespire was confused by some users to be an actual product from Linspire, at the request of Linspire the distribution adopted a development codename Squiggle and began looking for a new name. Linspire on the back of the generated publicity, offered users a "free Linspire" by using the coupon code "Freespire" until September 9, 2005.

Squiggle OS is no longer in active development. On April 24, 2006, Linspire announced its own project named "Freespire"; the new Freespire distribution was announced by Linspire President and former CEO Kevin Carmony. This follows to the model of Fedora being supported by Red Hat and the community since 2003. Novell had started a similar community project by the name of openSUSE for its SUSE Linux product line in the second half of 2005. Xandros acquired Linspire/Freespire in the Summer of 2008. Xandros had plans to keep Freespire as a community developed distribution similar to that of openSUSE and Fedora for their respective commercial distributions. Freespire 2.0.8, released on 30 November 2007, based on Ubuntu 7.04, was the final release until the distribution was revived with 3.0 in January 2018. The distribution is a Debian-based, community-driven and -supported project tied to the commercial Linspire distribution. Freespire includes proprietary elements from Linspire, such as the Click N' Run client, while other elements, which Linspire itself licenses but does not own, like the Windows Media Audio compatibility libraries, remain proprietary, closed source.

There are two versions of Freespire, one with the proprietary, closed source libraries, one, called Freespire OSS Edition, that includes open-source components. Freespire has a number of in-house programs written in Haskell and OCaml, such as its ISO image builder, its hardware detection and autoconfiguration, its package autobuilder and "Debian library", the programs managing the CGI. Linspire KDE Commercial use of copyleft works Microsoft Windows Official website Freespire at DistroWatch