A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, inanimate objects, or forces of nature as characters, whereas parables have human characters. A parable is a type of analogy; some scholars of the canonical gospels and the New Testament apply the term "parable" only to the parables of Jesus, though, not a common restriction of the term. Parables such as "The Prodigal Son" are central to Jesus's teaching method in the canonical narratives and the apocrypha; the word parable comes from the Greek παραβολή, meaning "comparison, analogy." It was the name given by Greek rhetoricians to an illustration in the form of a brief fictional narrative. Parables are used to explore ethical concepts in spiritual texts; the Bible contains numerous parables in the Gospels section of the New Testament. These are believed by some scholars to have been inspired by a form of Hebrew comparison.
Examples of Jesus' parables include the Prodigal Son. Mashalim from the Old Testament include the parable of the ewe-lamb and the parable of the woman of Tekoah. Parables appear in Islam. In Sufi tradition, parables are used for imparting values. Recent authors such as Idries Shah and Anthony de Mello have helped popularize these stories beyond Sufi circles. Modern parables exist. A mid-19th-century example, the Parable of the broken window, criticises a part of economic thinking. A parable is a short tale, it sketches a setting, describes an action, shows the results. It may sometimes be distinguished from similar narrative types, such as the allegory and the apologue. A parable involves a character who faces a moral dilemma or one who makes a bad decision and suffers the unintended consequences. Although the meaning of a parable is not explicitly stated, it is not intended to be hidden or secret but to be quite straightforward and obvious; the defining characteristic of the parable is the presence of a subtext suggesting how a person should behave or what he should believe.
Aside from providing guidance and suggestions for proper conduct in one's life, parables use metaphorical language which allows people to more discuss difficult or complex ideas. Parables express an abstract argument by means of using a concrete narrative, understood; the allegory is a more general narrative type. Like the parable, the allegory makes a unambiguous point. An allegory may have multiple noncontradictory interpretations and may have implications that are ambiguous or hard to interpret; as H. W. Fowler put it, the object of both parable and allegory "is to enlighten the hearer by submitting to him a case in which he has no direct concern, upon which therefore a disinterested judgment may be elicited from him..." The parable is more condensed than the allegory: it rests upon a single principle and a single moral, it is intended that the reader or listener shall conclude that the moral applies well to his own concerns. Medieval interpreters of the Bible treated Jesus' parables as allegories, with symbolic correspondences found for every element in his parables.
But modern scholars, beginning with Adolf Jülicher, regard their interpretations as incorrect. Jülicher held that Jesus' parables are intended to make a single important point, most recent scholarship agrees. Gnostics suggested that Jesus kept some of his teachings secret within the circle of his disciples and that he deliberately obscured their meaning by using parables. For example, in Mark 4:11–12: And he said to them, “To you has been given the secret of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables. A parable is like a metaphor in that it uses concrete, perceptible phenomena to illustrate abstract ideas, it may be said that a parable is a metaphor, extended to form a brief, coherent narrative. A parable resembles a simile, i.e. a metaphorical construction in which something is said to be "like" something else. However, unlike the meaning of a simile, a parable's meaning is implicit. Akhfash's goat – a Persian parable The parables of Ignacy Krasicki: Abuzei and Tair The Blind Man and the Lame The Drunkard The Farmer Son and Father The parables of Jesus The Rooster Prince – a Hasidic parable Amplification Exemplification Jewish Encyclopedia: Parable Catholic Encyclopedia: Parable Spiritual Parables Secular Parables
The Man Who Fell to Earth
The Man Who Fell to Earth is a 1976 British science fiction film directed by Nicolas Roeg and written by Paul Mayersberg, based on Walter Tevis's 1963 novel of the same name, about an extraterrestrial who crash lands on Earth seeking a way to ship water to his planet, suffering from a severe drought. The film retains a following for its use of surreal imagery and the performance by David Bowie as the alien Thomas Jerome Newton; the same novel was remade as a less successful 1987 television adaptation. The film was produced by Michael Deeley and Barry Spikings, who reunited two years to work on The Deer Hunter. Despite a mixed critical response upon release, the film is now considered an important work of science fiction cinema and one of the best films of Roeg's career. Thomas Jerome Newton is a humanoid alien who comes to Earth from a distant planet on a mission to take water back to his home planet, experiencing a catastrophic drought. Throughout the film are brief sequences of his wife and children back on his home planet, suffering dying.
Newton uses the advanced technology of his home planet to patent many inventions on Earth, acquires tremendous wealth as the head of a technology-based conglomerate, World Enterprises Corporation, aided by leading patent attorney Oliver Farnsworth. His wealth is needed to construct a space vehicle with the intention of shipping water back to his home planet. While revisiting New Mexico, he meets Mary-Lou, a lonely and simple girl who works as a maid, bell-hop, elevator operator in a small hotel. Mary-Lou introduces Newton to many customs of Earth, including church-going and sex, she and Newton live together in a house Newton has built close to where he first landed in New Mexico. Meanwhile, Dr. Nathan Bryce, a former womaniser and college professor, has landed a job as a fuel technician with World Enterprises and becomes Newton's confidant. Bryce senses Newton's alienness and arranges a meeting with Newton at his home where he has hidden a special X-ray camera; when he steals a picture of Newton with the camera, it reveals Newton's alien physiology.
Newton's appetite for alcohol and television becomes he and Mary-Lou fight. Realizing that Bryce has learnt his secret, Newton reveals his alien form to Mary-Lou, her resulting reaction is one of pure shock and horror, he leaves her. Newton completes the spaceship and attempts to take it on its maiden voyage amid intense press exposure. However, just before his scheduled take-off, he is seized and detained by the government and a rival company; the government, told by Bryce that Newton is an alien, holds him captive in a locked luxury apartment, constructed deep within a hotel. During his stay, they keep him sedated with alcohol and continuously subject him to rigorous medical tests – notably one involving X-rays which causes the contact lenses he wears as part of his human disguise to permanently affix themselves to his eyes. Toward the end of his years of captivity, he is visited again by Mary-Lou, now much older and whose looks have been ravaged by alcohol and time, they have mock-violent, playful sex that involves firing a gun with blanks, afterwards occupy their time drinking and playing table tennis.
Mary-Lou declares. She leaves him. Newton discovers that his "prison," now derelict, is unlocked, he leaves. Unable to return home, a broken and alcoholic Newton creates a recording with alien messages, which he hopes will be broadcast via radio to his home planet. Bryce, who has since married Mary-Lou, buys a copy of the album and meets Newton at an outside restaurant in town. Newton is still young looking despite the passage of many years. However, Newton has fallen into depression and alcoholism and the film ends with an inebriated Newton passing out in his cafe chair. David Bowie as Thomas Jerome Newton Rip Torn as Dr. Nathan Bryce Candy Clark as Mary-Lou Buck Henry as Oliver V. Farnsworth Bernie Casey as Mr. Peters Tony Mascia as Arthur Rick Riccardo as Trevor Adrienne La Russa as Helen Claudia Jennings as Peters' Wife Albert Nelson Paramount Pictures had distributed Roeg's previous film, Don't Look Now and agreed to pay $1.5 million for the US rights. Michael Deeley used this guarantee to raise finance to make the film.
Filming began on 6 July 1975. The film was shot in New Mexico, with filming locations in Albuquerque, White Sands and Fenton Lake; the film's production had been scheduled to last eleven weeks, throughout that time, the film crew ran into a variety of obstacles: Bowie was sidelined for a few days after drinking bad milk. Bowie, using cocaine during the movie's production, was in a fragile state of mind when filming was underway, going so far as to state in 1983 that "I'm so pleased I made that, but I didn't know what was being made at all", he said of his performance: I just threw my real self into that movie as I was at that time. It was the first thing I'd done. I was ignorant of the established procedure, so I was going a lot on instinct, my instinct was pretty dissipated. I just did them the way I was feeling, it wasn't that far off. I was feeling as alienated as that character was, it was a p
A plantation is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, tea, sugar cane, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, fruits. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located. A plantation house is the main house of a plantation a substantial farmhouse, which serves as a symbol for the plantation as a whole. Plantation houses in the Southern United States and in other areas are known as quite grand and expensive architectural works today, though most were more utilitarian, working farmhouses. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time.
Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners. Christmas trees are grown on plantations as well. In southern and southeastern Asia, teak plantations have replaced the natural forest. Industrial plantations are managed for the commercial production of forest products. Industrial plantations are large-scale. Individual blocks are even-aged and consist of just one or two species; these species can be indigenous. The plants used for the plantation are genetically altered for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pests and diseases in general and specific traits, for example in the case of timber species, volumic wood production and stem straightness. Forest genetic resources are the basis for genetic alteration. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. Wood production on a tree plantation is higher than that of natural forests.
While forests managed for wood production yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of fast-growing species yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually. In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the world's roundwood. In the first year, the ground is prepared by the combination of burning, herbicide spraying, and/or cultivation and saplings are planted by human crew or by machine; the saplings are obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries, which may specialize in selective breeding in order to produce fast growing disease- and pest-resistant strains. In the first few years until the canopy closes, the saplings are looked after, may be dusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides until established. After the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, tree growth is slowing due to competition; this stage is termed'pole stage'.
When competition becomes too intense, it is time to thin out the section. There are several methods for thinning, but where topography permits, the most popular is'row-thinning', where every third or fourth or fifth row of trees is removed with a harvester. Many trees are removed, leaving regular clear lanes through the section so that the remaining trees have room to expand again; the removed trees are delimbed, forwarded to the forest road, loaded onto trucks, sent to a mill. A typical pole stage plantation tree is 7–30 cm in diameter at breast height; such trees are sometimes not suitable for timber, but are used as pulp for paper and particleboard, as chips for oriented strand board. As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the thinning process is repeated. Depending on growth rate and species, trees at this age may be large enough for timber milling. Around year 10-60 the plantation is falling off the back side of its growth curve; that is to say, it is passing the point of maximum wood growth per hectare per year, so is ready for the final harvest.
All remaining trees are felled and taken to be processed. The ground is cleared, the cycle can be restarted; some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage because their leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not harm the mature trees. Many forestry experts claim that the establishment of plantations will reduce or eliminate the need to exploit natural forest for wood production. In principle this is true. Many point to the example of New Zealand, where 19% of the forest area provides 99% of the supply of industrial round wood, it has been estimated that the world's demand for fiber could be met by just 5% of the world fores
Remembrance Day is a memorial day observed in Commonwealth member states since the end of the First World War to remember the members of their armed forces who have died in the line of duty. Following a tradition inaugurated by King George V in 1919, the day is marked by war remembrances in many non-Commonwealth countries. Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November in most countries to recall the end of hostilities of First World War on that date in 1918. Hostilities formally ended "at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month", in accordance with the armistice signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente between 5:12 and 5:20 that morning; the First World War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919. The tradition of Remembrance Day evolved out of Armistice Day; the initial Armistice Day was observed at Buckingham Palace, commencing with King George V hosting a "Banquet in Honour of the President of the French Republic" during the evening hours of 10 November 1919.
The first official Armistice Day was subsequently held on the grounds of Buckingham Palace the following morning. During the Second World War, many countries changed the name of the holiday. Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted Remembrance Day, while the US chose Veterans Day; the common British, South African, ANZAC tradition includes a one- or two-minute silence at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as that marks the time when the armistice became effective. The Service of Remembrance in many Commonwealth countries includes the sounding of the "Last Post", followed by the period of silence, followed by the sounding of "Reveille" or sometimes just "The Rouse", finished by a recitation of the "Ode of Remembrance"; the "Flowers of the Forest", "O Valiant Hearts", "I Vow to Thee, My Country" and "Jerusalem" are played during the service. Services include wreaths laid to honour the fallen, a blessing, national anthems; the central ritual at cenotaphs throughout the Commonwealth is a stylised night vigil.
The Last Post was the common bugle call at the close of the military day, The Rouse was the first call of the morning. For military purposes, the traditional night vigil over the slain was not just to ensure they were indeed dead and not unconscious or in a coma, but to guard them from being mutilated or despoiled by the enemy, or dragged off by scavengers; this makes the ritual more than just an act of remembrance but a pledge to guard the honour of war dead. The act is enhanced by the use of dedicated cenotaphs and the laying of wreaths—the traditional means of signalling high honours in ancient Greece and Rome. In Australia, Remembrance Day is always observed on 11 November, regardless of the day of the week, is not a public holiday; some institutions observe two-minutes' silence at 11 am through a programme named Read 2 Remember, children read the Pledge of Remembrance by Rupert McCall and teachers deliver specially developed resources to help children understand the significance of the day and the resilience of those who have fought for their country and call on children to be resilient when facing difficult times.
Services are held at 11 am at war memorials and schools in suburbs and cities across the country, at which the "Last Post" is sounded by a bugler and a one-minute silence is observed. In recent decades, Remembrance Day has been eclipsed as the national day of war commemoration by ANZAC Day, a public holiday in all states; when Remembrance Day falls on a normal working day in Melbourne and other major cities, buglers from the Australian Defence Force play the "Last Post" at major street corners in the CBD. While this occurs, the majority of passers-by stop and observe a moment of silence while waiting for the bugler to finish the recital. In Barbados, Remembrance Day is not a public holiday, it is recognised as 11 November, but the parade and ceremonial events are carried out on Remembrance Sunday. The day is celebrated to recognise the Barbadian soldiers who died fighting in the First and Second World Wars; the parade is held at National Heroes' Square. The Governor-General and Barbadian Prime Minister are among those who attend, along with other government dignitaries and the heads of the police and military forces.
During the main ceremony a gun salute and prayers are performed at the war memorial Cenotaph at the heart of Heroes' Square in Bridgetown. In Belize, Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November, it is not a public holiday. In Bermuda, which sent the first colonial volunteer unit to the Western Front in 1915, which had more people per capita in uniform during the Second World War than any other part of the Empire, Remembrance Day is still an important holiday; the parade in Hamilton had been a large and colourful one, as contingents from the Royal Navy, British Regular Army and Territorial Army units of the Bermuda Garrison, the Canadian Forces, the US Army, Air Force, Navy, various cadet corps and other services all at one time or another marched with the veterans. Since the closing of British and American bases in 1995, the parade has grown smaller. In addition to the ceremony held in the City of Hamilton on Remembrance Day itself, marching to the Cenotaph, where wreaths are laid and ora
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein a couple get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement. A courtship may be an informal and private matter between two people or may be a public affair, or a formal arrangement with family approval. Traditionally, in the case of a formal engagement, it has been perceived that it is the role of a male to "court" or "woo" a female, thus encouraging her to understand him and her receptiveness to a proposal of marriage; the average duration of courtship varies throughout the world. Furthermore, there is vast individual variation between couples. Courtship may be omitted, as in cases of some arranged marriages where the couple do not meet before the wedding. In the United Kingdom, a poll of 3,000 engaged or married couples resulted in an average duration between first meeting and accepted proposal of marriage of 2 years and 11 months, with the women feeling ready to accept at an average of 2 years and 7 months.
Regarding duration between proposal and wedding, the UK poll above gave an average of 2 years and 3 months. The date is casual in most European-influenced cultures, but in some traditional societies, courtship is a structured activity, with specific formal rules. In some societies, the parents or community propose potential partners and allow limited dating to determine whether the parties are suited. In Japan, there is a such type of courtship called Omiai, with similar practices called "Xiangqin" in the Greater China Area. Parents will hire a matchmaker to provide pictures and résumés of potential mates, if the couple agrees, there will be a formal meeting with the matchmaker and parents in attendance; the matchmaker and parents will exert pressure on the couple to decide whether they want to marry or not after a few dates. Courtship in the Philippines is one known complex form of courtship. Unlike what is seen in other societies, it takes a far more subdued and indirect approach, it is complex in that it involves stages, it is considered normal for courtship to last a year or longer.
It is common to see the male showing off by sending love letters and love poems, singing romantic songs, buying gifts for the female. The parents are seen as part of the courtship practice, as their approval is needed before courtship may begin or before the female gives the male an answer to his advances. In more closed societies, courtship is eliminated altogether by the practice of arranged marriages in which partners are chosen for young people by their parents. Forbidding experimental and serial courtship and sanctioning only arranged matches is a means of guarding the chastity of young people and a matter of furthering family interests, which, in such cultures, may be considered more important than individual romantic preferences. Throughout history, courtship has included traditions such as exchanging valentines, written correspondence, similar communication-based courting. Over recent decades, the concept of arranged marriage has changed or been mixed with other forms of dating, including Eastern and Indian ones.
In the earlier 1800s, young adults were expected to court with the intention of finding a marriage partner, rather than for social reasons. In more traditional forms of Christianity, this concept of courtship has been retained, with John Piper defining courtship and distinguishing this concept from dating, stating that: Courtship ordinarily begins when a single man approaches a single woman by going through the woman's father, conducts his relationship with the woman under the authority of her father, family, or church, whichever is most appropriate. Courtship always has marriage as its direct goal... Dating, a more modern approach, begins when either the man or the woman initiates a more-than-friends relationship with the other, they conduct that relationship outside of any oversight or authority. Dating may not have marriage as its goal. Christian minister Patricia Bootsma delineates this distinction, writing that in contrast to the modern conception of dating, in "courtship, time together in groups with family or friends is encouraged, there is oversight by and accountability to parents or mentors".
She further states that with courtship, "commitment happens before intimacy". In America, in the 1820s, the phrase "date" was most associated with prostitution. However, by the Jazz Age of the 1920s, dating for fun was becoming a cultural expectation, by the 1930s, it was assumed that any popular young person would have lots of dates; this form of dating, was more chaste than is seen today, since premarital sex was not considered the norm. Courtship is used by a number of theorists to explain sexual identity. Scientific research into courtship began in the 1980s after which time academic researchers started to generate theories about modern dating practices and norms. Researchers have found that, contrary to popular beliefs, courtship is triggered and controlled by women, driven by non-verbal behaviours to which men respond; this is supported by other theorists who specialise in the study of body language. There are some feminist scholars, who regard courtship as a constructed process organised to subjugate women.
Farrell reports, for example, that magazines about marriage and romantic fiction continue to attract a 98% female readership. Systematic research into court
John Meillon, was an Australian character actor, known for many straight as well as comedy roles, he became most known internationally however as Walter Reilly in the films Crocodile Dundee and Crocodile Dundee II. He voiced Victoria Bitter beer adverts. Meillon was born in New South Wales, his younger brother was director Bob Meillon. He began his acting career at the age of eleven in the ABC's radio serial "Stumpy", made his first stage appearance the following year, he joined the Shakespeare Touring Company. Like many actors of his generation from 1959 to 1965 he worked in England, but while working in Britain he consciously steered away from Australian roles. Meillon claimed that he learnt discipline while working in theatre and that television was not a good a medium for training, he had a recurring role in the TV series My Name's McGooley, What's Yours?. He featured in two episodes of Skippy in 1968 and 1969 appearing as "Nimble Norris". In 1976, he won the AACTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his role of'Casey' in the film The Fourth Wish.
With his rich baritone, Meillon was used extensively in voice-over work—most famously in his work as the "you can get it any old how" Victoria Bitter narrator. He married Australian actress June Salter in 1958 and they had one son, John Meillon, Jr. Meillon and Salter were divorced in 1971. Meillon married actress Bunny Gibson on 5 April 1972. Meillon was appointed an OBE for service to theatre. In June 1980, his favourite pub, The Oaks at Neutral Bay, opened The John Meillon OBE Bar in his honour. Meillon continued to frequent the bar over the following decade, including visiting in the week before his death from cirrhosis, his body was found in his home at Neutral Bay on 11 August 1989. He was awarded the Raymond Longford lifetime achievement award posthumously. John Meillon on IMDb. John Meillon profile, AusStage.edu.au. John Meillon profile, National Film and Sound Archive.
The Palme d'Or is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. From 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film. In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975; the Palme d'Or is considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry. In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist; the festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes. The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.
In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. As of 2018, Jane Campion is the only female director to have won the Palme d'Or, for her work on The Piano. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux; this marks the first time. The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately. Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us". Kechiche auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, expressed mixed feelings about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter.
Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, a new design, created by Caroline Scheufele from Chopard, was created; the winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event. In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary; the diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council. * Director's nationality given at time of film's release.
§ Denotes unanimous win ‡ The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II; the organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Goodbye Mr. Chips, La Piste du Nord, Lenin in 1918, The Four Feathers, The Wizard of Oz, Union Pacific, Boefje. Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice: 1946 & 1951 Alf Sjöberg 1974 & 1979 Francis Ford Coppola 1988 & 1992 Bille August 1985 & 1995 Emir Kusturica 1983 & 1997 Shohei Imamura 1999 & 2005 Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne 2009 & 2012 Michael Haneke 2006 & 2016 Ken Loach In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or. In 2011 the festival announced that the award would be given out annually, however plans for this fell through and it was not awarded again until four years in 2015.
American director Woody Allen was the inaugural recipient while pioneering French filmmaker Agnès Varda was the first woman to receive the award in 2015. In 2016, Jean-Pierre Léaud became the first person to be awarded for acting. In 2018, the Cannes jury awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time. Golden Bear, the highest prize awarded at the Berlin Film Festival Golden Lion, the highest prize awarded at the Venice Film Festival Palme d'Or Winners, 1976 to present, by gross box-office Festival-cannes.com Cannes Film Festival IMDB