1971 Cannes Film Festival
The 24th Cannes Film Festival was held from 12 to 27 May 1971. The Palme d'Or went to The Go-Between by Joseph Losey; the festival opened with Gimme Shelter, a documentary about English rock band The Rolling Stones directed by David Maysles, Albert Maysles and Charlotte Zwerin and closed with Les mariés de l'an II, directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau. The festival paid tribute to Charlie Chaplin and honored him with the title of Commander of the national order of the Legion of Honor; the following people were appointed as the Jury of the 1971 film competition:Feature films Michèle Morgan Jury President Pierre Billard Michael Birkett Anselmo Duarte István Gaál Sergio Leone Aleksandar Petrović Maurice Rheims Erich Segal Short films Véra Volmane President Charles Duvanel Etienne Novella The following feature films competed for the Grand Prix International du Festival: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: The following feature films were screened for the 10th International Critics' Week: The following films were screened for the 1971 Directors' Fortnight: Short films The following films and people received the 1971 Official selection awards: Grand Prix du Festival International du Film: The Go-Between by Joseph Losey Grand Prix Spécial du Jury: Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton Trumbo Taking Off by Miloš Forman Best Actress: Kitty Winn for The Panic in Needle Park Best Actor: Riccardo Cucciolla for Sacco e Vanzetti Jury Prize: Joe Hill by Bo Widerberg Szerelem by Károly Makk Best First Work: Between Miracles by Nino Manfredi 25th Anniversary Prize: Death in Venice by Luchino Visconti Short films Prix spécial du Jury: Star Spangled Banner by Roger Flint Special mention: Stuiter by Jan Oonk Une Statuette by Carlos Vilardebó FIPRESCI FIPRESCI Prize: Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton TrumboCommission Supérieure Technique Technical Grand Prize: The Hellstrom Chronicle by Walon GreenOCIC Award Szerelem by Károly MakkOther awards Special Mention: Lili Darvas and Mari Törőcsik, the lead actresses in Szerelem INA: 25th Cannes Film Festival INA: Michèle Morgan, president of the 1971 jury INA: About the film The Go-Between by Joseph Losey 1971 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 1971 Cannes Film Festival Awards for 1971 at Internet Movie Database
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, inanimate objects, or forces of nature as characters, whereas parables have human characters. A parable is a type of analogy; some scholars of the canonical gospels and the New Testament apply the term "parable" only to the parables of Jesus, though, not a common restriction of the term. Parables such as "The Prodigal Son" are central to Jesus's teaching method in the canonical narratives and the apocrypha; the word parable comes from the Greek παραβολή, meaning "comparison, analogy." It was the name given by Greek rhetoricians to an illustration in the form of a brief fictional narrative. Parables are used to explore ethical concepts in spiritual texts; the Bible contains numerous parables in the Gospels section of the New Testament. These are believed by some scholars to have been inspired by a form of Hebrew comparison.
Examples of Jesus' parables include the Prodigal Son. Mashalim from the Old Testament include the parable of the ewe-lamb and the parable of the woman of Tekoah. Parables appear in Islam. In Sufi tradition, parables are used for imparting values. Recent authors such as Idries Shah and Anthony de Mello have helped popularize these stories beyond Sufi circles. Modern parables exist. A mid-19th-century example, the Parable of the broken window, criticises a part of economic thinking. A parable is a short tale, it sketches a setting, describes an action, shows the results. It may sometimes be distinguished from similar narrative types, such as the allegory and the apologue. A parable involves a character who faces a moral dilemma or one who makes a bad decision and suffers the unintended consequences. Although the meaning of a parable is not explicitly stated, it is not intended to be hidden or secret but to be quite straightforward and obvious; the defining characteristic of the parable is the presence of a subtext suggesting how a person should behave or what he should believe.
Aside from providing guidance and suggestions for proper conduct in one's life, parables use metaphorical language which allows people to more discuss difficult or complex ideas. Parables express an abstract argument by means of using a concrete narrative, understood; the allegory is a more general narrative type. Like the parable, the allegory makes a unambiguous point. An allegory may have multiple noncontradictory interpretations and may have implications that are ambiguous or hard to interpret; as H. W. Fowler put it, the object of both parable and allegory "is to enlighten the hearer by submitting to him a case in which he has no direct concern, upon which therefore a disinterested judgment may be elicited from him..." The parable is more condensed than the allegory: it rests upon a single principle and a single moral, it is intended that the reader or listener shall conclude that the moral applies well to his own concerns. Medieval interpreters of the Bible treated Jesus' parables as allegories, with symbolic correspondences found for every element in his parables.
But modern scholars, beginning with Adolf Jülicher, regard their interpretations as incorrect. Jülicher held that Jesus' parables are intended to make a single important point, most recent scholarship agrees. Gnostics suggested that Jesus kept some of his teachings secret within the circle of his disciples and that he deliberately obscured their meaning by using parables. For example, in Mark 4:11–12: And he said to them, “To you has been given the secret of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables. A parable is like a metaphor in that it uses concrete, perceptible phenomena to illustrate abstract ideas, it may be said that a parable is a metaphor, extended to form a brief, coherent narrative. A parable resembles a simile, i.e. a metaphorical construction in which something is said to be "like" something else. However, unlike the meaning of a simile, a parable's meaning is implicit. Akhfash's goat – a Persian parable The parables of Ignacy Krasicki: Abuzei and Tair The Blind Man and the Lame The Drunkard The Farmer Son and Father The parables of Jesus The Rooster Prince – a Hasidic parable Amplification Exemplification Jewish Encyclopedia: Parable Catholic Encyclopedia: Parable Spiritual Parables Secular Parables
A Shropshire Lad
A Shropshire Lad is a collection of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman, published in 1896. After a slow beginning, it grew in popularity among young readers. Composers began setting the poems to music less than ten years after their first appearance. Many parodies have been written that satirise Housman's themes and stylistic characteristics. Housman is said to have titled his book The Poems of Terence Hearsay, referring to a character there, but changed the title to A Shropshire Lad at the suggestion of a colleague in the British Museum. A friend of his remembered otherwise and claimed that Housman's choice of title was always the latter, he had more than a year to think about it, since most of the poems he chose to include in his collection were written in 1895, while he was living at Byron Cottage in Highgate. The book was published the following year at the author's expense, after it had been rejected by one publisher. At first the book sold slowly. Sales revived during the Second Boer War, due in part to the high-profile given military themes and that of dying young.
Its popularity increased thereafter during World War I, when the book accompanied many young men into the trenches. But it benefited from the accessibility that Housman encouraged himself, he declined royalty payments, so as to keep the price down, encouraged small, cheap pocket editions. By 1911 sales were at an annual average of 13,500 copies, by its fiftieth anniversary there had been approaching a hundred UK and US editions. Housman repeated the claim made in the final poem of the sequence to have had a young male readership in mind. For W. H. Auden and his generation "no other poet seemed so to express the sensibility of a male adolescent", they responded to Housman's lament for the transience of love and youth in what was in essence a half-imaginary pastoral countryside in a county only visited by him after he had begun writing the poems. "I was born in Worcestershire, not Shropshire, where I have never spent much time," he admitted in a letter to Maurice Pollet dated 5 February 1933. "I had a sentimental feeling for Shropshire because its hills were on our Western horizon."
Thus the "blue remembered hills" of his "land of lost content" in Poem XL are a literary construct. Though the names there can be found on the map, their topographical details are admittedly not factual. Indeed, Housman confessed in his letter to Pollett that "I know Ludlow and Wenlock, but my topographical details – Hughley, Abdon under Clee – are sometimes quite wrong", he did, have one source to guide him, echoes from which are to be found in the poems. This was Murray's Handbook for Shropshire and Lancashire, in, to be found the jingle with which poem L opens and Clunbury, Clungunford and Clun Are the quietest places under the sun. Shrewsbury is described in the book as "encircled by the Severn on all sides but the North, locally termed'the Island'", which Housman condenses to "Islanded in Severn stream" in his poem XXVIII. Murray mentions that the last fair of the year at Church Stretton is called'Dead Man's Fair', the event with which "In midnights of November" begins. Written about the same time as the others, this poem was held over until it was incorporated in Last Poems.
In the letter to Pollet mentioned, Housman pointed out that there was a discontinuity between the Classical scholar who wrote the poems and the "imaginary" Shropshire Lad they portrayed. "No doubt I have been unconsciously influenced by the Greeks and Latins, but chief sources of which I am conscious are Shakespeare's songs, the Scottish Border ballads, Heine." Yet while it is true that "very little in the book is biographical", he could not escape his literary formation, as he had speculated in a letter written three decades previously. "I suppose my classical training has been of some use to me in furnishing good models, making me fastidious, telling me what to leave out." Some have found a sign in the oversimplification that results, not of Terence's but of Housman's own emotional immaturity. A Shropshire Lad contains several repeated themes, it is not a connected narrative. Not all the poems are in the same voice and there are various kinds of dialogue between the speaker and others, including conversations beyond the grave.
The collection begins with an imperial theme by paying tribute to the Shropshire lads who have died as soldiers in the service of The Queen Empress, as her golden jubilee is celebrated with a beacon bonfire on Clee Hill. There is little time for a lad to enjoy the spring. Death awaits the soldier. Maids are not always kind and the farmer comes to the grave; some lads are hanged. The spring's promise of love and renewal may be false; the ghost of a lad dead of grief begs the consolation of a last embrace. Unattainable love leaves the lad helpless and lost; the playing of a game of cricket or football consoles a broken heart. But on this dubious sentiment Edith Sitwell commented acidly, "If he means to say that cric
Motion Picture Association of America
The Motion Picture Association of America is an American trade association representing the five major film studios of Hollywood, streaming service giant, Netflix. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, its original goal was to ensure the viability of the American film industry. In addition, the MPAA established guidelines for film content which resulted in the creation of the Production Code in 1930; this code known as the Hays Code, was replaced by a voluntary film rating system in 1968, managed by the Classification and Rating Administration. More the MPAA has advocated for the motion picture and television industry, with the goals of promoting effective copyright protection, reducing piracy, expanding market access, it has long worked to curb copyright infringement, including recent attempts to limit the sharing of copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks and by streaming from pirate sites. Former United States Ambassador to France Charles Rivkin is the current chairman and CEO of the MPAA.
The MPAA was founded as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in 1922 as a trade association of member motion picture companies. At its founding, MPPDA member companies produced 70 to 80 percent of the films made in the United States. Former Postmaster General Will H. Hays was named the association's first president; the main focus of the MPPDA in its early years was on producing a strong public relations campaign to ensure that Hollywood remained financially stable and able to attract investment from Wall Street, while ensuring that American films had a "clean moral tone". The MPPDA instituted a code of conduct for Hollywood's actors in an attempt to govern their behavior offscreen; the code sought to protect American film interests abroad by encouraging film studios to avoid racist portrayals of foreigners. From the early days of the association, Hays spoke out against public censorship, the MPPDA worked to raise support from the general public for the film industry's efforts against such censorship.
Large portions of the public opposed censorship, but decried the lack of morals in movies. At the time of the MPPDA's founding, there was no national censorship, but some state and municipal laws required movies to be censored, a process oveseen by a local censorship board. Thus, in certain locations in the U. S. films were edited to comply with local laws regarding the onscreen portrayal of violence and sexuality, among other topics. This resulted in negative publicity for the studios and decreasing numbers of theater goers, who were uninterested in films that were sometimes so edited that they were incoherent. In 1929, more than 50 percent of American moviegoers lived in a location overseen by such a board. In 1924, Hays instituted "The Formula", a loose set of guidelines for filmmakers, in an effort to get the movie industry to self-regulate the issues that the censorship boards had been created to address. "The Formula" requested that studios send synopses of films being considered to the MPPDA for review.
This effort failed, however, as studios were under no obligation to send their scripts to Hays's office, nor to follow his recommendations. In 1927, Hays oversaw the creation of a code of "Be Carefuls" for the industry; this list outlined the issues. Hays created a Studio Relations Department with staff available to the studios for script reviews and advice regarding potential problems. Again, despite Hays' efforts, studios ignored the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls," and by the end of 1929, the MPPDA received only about 20 percent of Hollywood scripts prior to production, the number of regional and local censorship boards continued to increase. In 1930, the MPPDA introduced the Production Code, sometimes called the "Hays Code"; the Code consisted of moral guidelines regarding. Unlike the "Dont's and Be Carefuls", which the studios had ignored, the Production Code was endorsed by studio executives; the Code incorporated many of the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls" as specific examples of what could not be portrayed.
Among other rules, the code prohibited inclusion of "scenes of passion" unless they were essential to a film's plot. Because studio executives had been involved in the decision to adopt the code, MPPDA-member studios were more willing to submit scripts for consideration. However, the growing economic impacts of the Great Depression of the early 1930s increased pressure on studios to make films that would draw the largest possible audiences if it meant taking their chances with local censorship boards by disobeying the Code. In 1933 and 1934 the Catholic Legion of Decency, along with a number of Protestant and women's groups, launched plans to boycott films that they deemed immoral. In order to avert boycotts which might further harm the profitability of the film industry, the MPPDA created a new department, the Production Code Administration, with Joseph Breen as its head. Unlike previous attempts at self-censorship, PCA decisions were binding—no film could be exhibited in an American theater without a stamp of approval from the PCA, any producer attempting to do so faced a fine of $25,000.
After ten years of unsuccessful voluntary codes and expanding local censorship boards, the studio approved and agreed to enforce the codes, the nationwide "Production Code" was enforced starting on July 1, 1934. In the years that followed the
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness. In English, the phrase first appeared in the 17th century in John Dryden's heroic play The Conquest of Granada, wherein it was used in reference to newly created man. "Savage" at that time could mean "wild beast" as well as "wild man". The phrase became identified with the idealized picture of "nature's gentleman", an aspect of 18th-century sentimentalism; the noble savage achieved prominence as an oxymoronic rhetorical device after 1851, when used sarcastically as the title for a satirical essay by English novelist Charles Dickens, who some believe may have wished to disassociate himself from what he viewed as the "feminine" sentimentality of 18th and early 19th-century romantic primitivism. The idea that humans are good is attributed to the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, a Whig supporter of constitutional monarchy.
In his Inquiry Concerning Virtue, Shaftesbury had postulated that the moral sense in humans is natural and innate and based on feelings, rather than resulting from the indoctrination of a particular religion. Shaftesbury was reacting to Thomas Hobbes's justification of an absolutist central state in his Leviathan, "Chapter XIII", in which Hobbes famously holds that the state of nature is a "war of all against all" in which men's lives are "solitary, nasty and short". Hobbes further calls the American Indians an example of a contemporary people living in such a state. Although writers since antiquity had described people living in pre-civilized conditions, Hobbes is credited with inventing the term "State of Nature". Ross Harrison writes that "Hobbes seems to have invented this useful term."Contrary to what is sometimes believed, Jean-Jacques Rousseau never used the phrase noble savage. However, the character of the noble savage appeared in French literature at least as early as Jacques Cartier and Michel de Montaigne in the 16th century.
Tacitus' De origine et situ Germanorum, written c. 98 AD, has been described as a predecessor of the modern noble savage concept, which started in the 17th and 18th centuries in western European travel literature. During the late 16th and 17th centuries, the figure of the indigene or "savage"—and increasingly, the "good savage"—was held up as a reproach to European civilization in the throes of the French Wars of Religion and Thirty Years' War. During the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, some ten to twenty thousand men and children were massacred by Catholic mobs, chiefly in Paris, but throughout France; this horrifying breakdown of civil control was disturbing to thoughtful people on both sides of the religious divide. Foremost among the atrocities connected with the religious conflict was the St. Batholomew's massacre... The Parisian populace inflamed by anti-Protestant preaching, a general massacre ensued, devastating the Huguenot community of Paris. Bodies were stripped naked and thrown into the Seine.
The massacres spread throughout France into the fall of 1572, spreading as far as Bordeaux.... Estimates of the total number of deaths vary widely. Huguenots were not innocent of massacres themselves In his famous essay "Of Cannibals", Michel de Montaigne—himself a Catholic—reported that the Tupinambá people of Brazil ceremoniously eat the bodies of their dead enemies as a matter of honour. However, he reminded his readers that Europeans behave more barbarously when they burn each other alive for disagreeing about religion: "One calls'barbarism' whatever he is not accustomed to." The cannibal practices are admitted but presented as part of a complex and balanced set of customs and beliefs which "make sense" in their own right. They are attached to a powerfully positive morality of valor and pride, one that would have been to appeal to early modern codes of honor, they are contrasted with modes of behavior in the France of the wars of religion which appear as distinctly less attractive, such as torture and barbarous methods of execution In "Of Cannibals", Montaigne uses cultural relativism for the purpose of satire.
His cannibals are neither noble nor good, but not worse than 16th-century Europeans. In this classical humanist view, customs differ but people everywhere are prone to cruelty, a quality that Montaigne detested. In his Essais... Montaigne discussed the first three wars of religion quite specifically; the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre led him to retire to his lands in the Périgord region, remain silent on all public affairs until the 1580s. Thus, it seems. To him, cruelty was a criterion that differentiated the Wars of Religion from previous conflicts, which he idealized. Montaigne considered that three factors accounted for the shift from regular war to the carnage of civil war: popular intervention, religious demagogy and the never-ending aspect of the conflict..... He chose to depict cruelty through the image of hunting, which fitted with the tradition of condemning hunting for its association with blood and death, but it was still quite surprising, to the extent that this practice was part of the aristocratic way of life.
Montaigne reviled hunting by describing it as an urban massacre scene. In additio
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the