The Walker Art Center is a multidisciplinary contemporary art center in the Lowry Hill neighborhood of Minneapolis, United States. The Walker is one of the most-visited modern and contemporary art museums in the United States and, together with the adjacent Minneapolis Sculpture Garden and the Cowles Conservatory, it has an annual attendance of around 700,000 visitors; the museum's permanent collection includes over 13,000 modern and contemporary art pieces including books, drawings, media works, photography and sculpture. The Walker Art Center began 1879 as a personal art gallery in the home of lumber baron Thomas Barlow Walker. Walker formally established his collection as the Walker Art Gallery in 1927. With the support of the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration, the Walker Art Gallery became the Walker Art Center in January 1940; the Walker celebrated its 75th anniversary as a public art center in 2015. The Walker's new building, designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes and opened in May 1971, saw a major expansion in 2005.
Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron's addition included an additional gallery space, a theater, restaurant and special events space. The visual arts program has been a part of the Walker Art Center since its founding; the program includes an ongoing cycle of exhibitions in the galleries as well as a permanent collection of acquired and commissioned works. Since the 1960s, the Visual Arts program has commissioned works from artists to exhibit and held residencies for artists including Robert Irwin, Glenn Ligon, Barry McGee, Catherine Opie, Lorna Simpson, Nari Ward; the Walker's collection represents works of modern and contemporary art focused after 1960. The Walker's holdings include more than 13,000 individual pieces including books, drawings, media works, photography and sculpture. In 2015, the Walker celebrated the 75th anniversary of its founding as a public art center with a yearlong exhibition, Art at the Center: 75 Years of Walker Collections; some collection highlights include: Chuck Close, Big Self-Portrait Franz Marc, Die grossen blauen Pferde This painting has been removed from the exhibit and there are no current plans to display it.
Edward Hopper, Office at Night Yves Klein, Suaire de Mondo Cane Goshka Macuga, Lost Forty Andy Warhol, 16 Jackies Live performance art is a major part of the Walker's programming and it is seen as a leader in exhibiting the medium. In 1940, the Walker began presenting local dance and concerts organized by volunteers. By 1963, this group had become Center Opera, the Walker's performing arts program focused on exhibiting new works emphasizing visual design. In 1970, Center Opera became Minnesota Opera; the same year, Performing Arts was designated as a department of the Walker Art Center. Since the 1960s, Performing Arts at the Walker has commissioned 265 performance works. In addition, the department programs a 25-show season every year that includes performances ranging from performance art, dance, spoken word and music, it is one of the largest performing arts programs of its kind found in a museum in the nation. A number of artists have long histories working with and performing at the Walker, most notably choreographers Bill T. Jones, Meredith Monk, Merce Cunningham, for whom the Walker staged the retrospective Life Performs Art in 1998.
As a longtime associate of the Merce Cunning ham Dance Company, the Walker was able to acquire 150 art objects central to the company's history from the Cunningham Foundation in 2011. The agreement included sculptures, sets and other works by artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns; the Walker Art Center's film and video programs feature both historical works. In the 1940s, the Walker identified moving images as integral to contemporary life. Artists of that time were experimenting with film's formal properties, such as light and sound, while separating film art from conventional narrative cinema. In 1973, the Film/Video Department was formed and the Edmond R. Ruben Film and Video Study Collection was established, along with an endowment to fund the development of the archive. Ruben, a leading figure in film exhibition in the Upper Midwest, his wife Evelyn believed in collecting films as a way of preserving the art form. Today, with more than eight hundred fifty titles, the Ruben Collection brings together classic and contemporary cinema as well as documentaries, avant-garde films, video works by artists.
It holds works by visual artists that range from Salvador Dalí, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger to extensive contemporary work by William Klein, Derek Jarman, Bruce Conner, Marcel Broodthaers, Matthew Barney, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, experimental artists such as Paul Sharits and Stan Brakhage. The Walker Art Center maintains a professional, in-house design and editorial department to fulfill its various communication needs; the department is responsible for the design and editing of all printed materials, including the creation and planning of publications such as exhibition catalogues, bi-monthly magazines, books, as well as exhibition and event graphics, signage programs, promotional campaigns. Additionally, the department organizes design-related projects and programs, such as lectures and special commissions. Over the course of its 60-plus year history, the department has organized many important exhibitions on architecture and design, has served as a vital forum for contemporary design issues, bringing hundreds of world-renowned architects and critics to the Twin Cities through programs such
Sovetish Heymland was a Yiddish-language literary magazine published by poet and controversial figure Aron Vergelis in Moscow as a bi-monthly from 1961 to 1965 as a monthly until 1991. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the journal no longer received state support. In the early 1960s, Sovetish Heymland had a circulation of 25,000, the highest circulation for a Yiddish-language periodical; the circulation fell to 16,000 in 1966. Although the journal's circulation had fallen donations solicited from the United States and Argentina in the early 1990s enabled Vergelis to continue publishing the journal under the name Di Yidishe Gas from 1993 until his death in July 1999. Sovetish Heymland was developed in the period after the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953 as a forum for those Yiddish writers who had survived the repressions of Soviet Yiddish which had occurred in the late 1940s and early 1950s; the title referred back to the Moscow-based Yiddish literary periodicals Sovetish and Heymland, indicating a continuity of Yiddish literary output.
In addition to being the official Yiddish periodical of the Union of Soviet Writers, one of the main aims of the journal was to disseminate Soviet propaganda among Yiddish-speaking Jewish Communists in the United States and elsewhere. In addition, the publication of a literary Yiddish-language journal was meant to show that Yiddish and Yiddish cultural institutions were not disappearing, but that there was in fact a Yiddish revival occurring in the Soviet Union, that Sovetish Heymland in particular was taking the lead in maintaining Yiddish culture; as part of this propaganda, Vergelis published numerous anti-Israel articles. Vergelis' controversial reputation as a tool of Leonid Brezhnev and the Communist government is based on these articles, as well as several articles attacking his critics from outside the Soviet Union. In addition, the fact that Sovetish Heymland was authorized by the government indicated to some that Vergelis was a mouthpiece for Soviet propaganda. In addition to literary articles, the journal published materials on Jewish folklore, history and literature in Yiddish, the magazine collected biographical and bibliographical material about Jewish writers.
In the 25th anniversary issue of Sovetish Heymland in August 1986, Vergelis announced that the journal had published 76 novels, 109 novellas, 1,478 short stories, 6,680 poems, 1,628 articles dealing with literary criticism and the arts. It was one of the few periodicals to encourage the younger generation of Soviet Yiddish writers; as the only Yiddish-language journal, allowed by the Soviet authorities from the 1960s through the 1980s, Sovetish Heymland, under the editorship of Vergelis, was connected with all of the period's cultural output. Vergelis became an "unofficial censor of all Yiddish-language literature and the chief Central Committee consultant on matters relating to Soviet Jews." Brumberg and Brumberg, Abraham. Sovyetish Heymland.: An Analysis. New York: Anti-defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1966. Estraikh, Gennady. Yiddish in the Cold War. Oxford: Legenda, 2008. Estraikh, Gennady. "Sovetish Heymland." YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Mogilner, Boris. Af Der Khṿalye Fun Glasnosṭ.
Mosḳṿe: Farlag "Soṿeṭsḳi Pisaṭel", 1988. Print. ביבליאטעק פון ״סאוועטיש היימלאנד״. Singerman, Robert. Jewish Serials of the World: A Supplement to the Research Bibliography of Secondary Sources, Volume 2. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on natural and social sciences, the practice of natural resource management; the conservation ethic is based on the findings of conservation biology. The term conservation biology and its conception as a new field originated with the convening of "The First International Conference on Research in Conservation Biology" held at the University of California, San Diego in La Jolla, California in 1978 led by American biologists Bruce A. Wilcox and Michael E. Soulé with a group of leading university and zoo researchers and conservationists including Kurt Benirschke, Sir Otto Frankel, Thomas Lovejoy, Jared Diamond; the meeting was prompted by the concern over tropical deforestation, disappearing species, eroding genetic diversity within species.
The conference and proceedings that resulted sought to initiate the bridging of a gap between theory in ecology and evolutionary genetics on the one hand and conservation policy and practice on the other. Conservation biology and the concept of biological diversity emerged together, helping crystallize the modern era of conservation science and policy; the inherent multidisciplinary basis for conservation biology has led to new subdisciplines including conservation social science, conservation behavior and conservation physiology. It stimulated further development of conservation genetics which Otto Frankel had originated first but is now considered a subdiscipline as well; the rapid decline of established biological systems around the world means that conservation biology is referred to as a "Discipline with a deadline". Conservation biology is tied to ecology in researching the population ecology of rare or endangered species. Conservation biology is concerned with phenomena that affect the maintenance and restoration of biodiversity and the science of sustaining evolutionary processes that engender genetic, population and ecosystem diversity.
The concern stems from estimates suggesting that up to 50% of all species on the planet will disappear within the next 50 years, which has contributed to poverty and will reset the course of evolution on this planet. Conservation biologists research and educate on the trends and process of biodiversity loss, species extinctions, the negative effect these are having on our capabilities to sustain the well-being of human society. Conservation biologists work in the field and office, in government, non-profit organizations and industry; the topics of their research are diverse, because this is an interdisciplinary network with professional alliances in the biological as well as social sciences. Those dedicated to the cause and profession advocate for a global response to the current biodiversity crisis based on morals and scientific reason. Organizations and citizens are responding to the biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that direct research and education programs that engage concerns at local through global scales.
Conscious efforts to conserve and protect global biodiversity are a recent phenomenon. Natural resource conservation, has a history that extends prior to the age of conservation. Resource ethics grew out of necessity through direct relations with nature. Regulation or communal restraint became necessary to prevent selfish motives from taking more than could be locally sustained, therefore compromising the long-term supply for the rest of the community; this social dilemma with respect to natural resource management is called the "Tragedy of the Commons". From this principle, conservation biologists can trace communal resource based ethics throughout cultures as a solution to communal resource conflict. For example, the Alaskan Tlingit peoples and the Haida of the Pacific Northwest had resource boundaries and restrictions among clans with respect to the fishing of sockeye salmon; these rules were guided by clan elders who knew lifelong details of each river and stream they managed. There are numerous examples in history where cultures have followed rules and organized practice with respect to communal natural resource management.
The Mauryan emperor Ashoka around 250 B. C. issued edicts restricting the slaughter of animals and certain kinds of birds, as well as opened veterinary clinics. Conservation ethics are found in early religious and philosophical writings. There are examples in the Tao, Hindu and Buddhist traditions. In Greek philosophy, Plato lamented about pasture land degradation: "What is left now is, so to say, the skeleton of a body wasted by disease. In the bible, through Moses, God commanded to let the land rest from cultivation every seventh year. Before the 18th century, much of European culture considered it a pagan view to admire nature. Wilderness was denigrated. However, as early as AD 680 a wildlife sanctuary was founded on the Farne Islands by St Cuthbert in response to his religious beliefs. Natural history was a major preoccupation in the 18th century, with grand expeditions and the opening of popular public displays in Europe and North America. By 1900 there were 150 natural history museums in Germany, 250 in Great Britain, 250 in the United States, 300 in France.
Store Vildmose is bogland located in northern Jutland, about 20 km north-west of Aalborg. It is the remnant of an extensive raised peat bog, in large part drained by constructed canals in the early 20th century; some areas are still untouched and give an impression of the original nature of this bog. The area has both national and international importance, as it presents one of the largest contiguous areas of raised bog in Denmark, home to many rare animals and plants. Store Vildmose covers an area of about 6,000 hectares today, of which 1,895 hectares are protected areas. Most of the protections are designated for EU habitat, but the boglands are to be protected as a scientific and archaeological important conservation zone. Store Vildmose is part of the Natura 2000 network. In the Stone Age, the area was a big lake, which dried up and was cultivated by Iron Age farmers. In the middle ages, climate change had increased precipitation, stimulating the spread of peat moss and turning the area into one of the largest bogs in Europe.
Store Vildmose reached its maximum area in the 1800s, before drainage and peat cutting on a larger scale was initiated. As the peat has been dug up through the ages, various relics and artifacts from the Iron Age have been unearthed. Between 1920 and 1945, most of the area became farmland, where so-called'vildmose potatoes' are grown, considered a culinary speciality of Northern Jutland; some of the benefits of potatoes from Store Vildmose are that the peels are thin and smooth, that they do not soften with cooking and their taste. Several species are grown and sold under the name'vildmose potatoes'; the potato-growers guild in Store Vildmose consists of six cooperating growers and they are working towards creating a regional- and event-center in one of the old stable farms in the area, through the fund of Vildmoseporten. There is a regional museum in the town of Brønderslev by the name of'Vildmosemuseet', concentrating on the cultural history of the bog area. Store Vildmose is home to many rare and uncommon species, since the habitats it presents are threatened naturetypes.
In the boglands, one can find cloudberry, the carnivorous great sundew and a breeding population of corn crake, that have otherwise seen a steep decline in western Europe. The marsh fritillary have not been observed for the last 20 years. Otter used to roam here and might be establishing again in the near future, along with sea lamprey. Both species are to be protected in Denmark. Store Vildmose A map of Store Vildmose with proposed hiking trails and points of interest. Vildmosemuseet The museums homepage
Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS was an English physical chemist, noted for his contributions to thermodynamics. Guggenheim was born in Manchester 11 August 1901, the son of Armand Guggenheim and Marguerite Bertha Simon, his father was a naturalised British citizen. Guggenheim married Simone Ganzin, in 1934 and Ruth Helen Aitkin, born Clarke, widow, in 1955, they had no children. He died in Reading, Berkshire 9 August 1970. Guggenheim was educated at Terra Nova School, Charterhouse School and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge where he obtained firsts in both the mathematics part 1 and chemistry part 2 triposes. Unable to gain a fellowship at the college, he went to Denmark where he studied under J. N. Brønsted at the University of Copenhagen. Returning to England, he found a place at University College, London where he wrote his first book, Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of Willard Gibbs, which "established his reputation and revolutionized the teaching of the subject", he was a visiting professor of chemistry at Stanford University, became a reader in the chemical engineering department at Imperial College London.
During World War II he worked on defence matters for the navy. In 1946 he was appointed professor of chemistry and head of department at Reading University, where he stayed until his retirement in 1966. Guggenheim produced more than 100 papers, his first book,Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of Willard Gibbs, was a 206-page, detailed study, with text, figures and preface by F. G. Donnan, showing how the analytical thermodynamic methods developed by Willard Gibbs leads in a straightforward manner to relations such as phases, solution and laws, that are unambiguous and exact; this book, together with Gilbert N. Lewis and Merle Randall's 1923 textbook Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances, are said to be responsible for the inception of the modern science of chemical thermodynamics. Other books included Statistical Thermodynamics with Ralph Fowler, Thermodynamics – an Advanced Treatment for Chemists and Physicists. In the preface to this book, he states that no thermodynamics book written before 1929 attempts an account of any of the following matters: The modern definition of heat given by Max Born in 1921.
The quantal theory of the entropy of gases and its experimental verification. Peter Debye's formulae for the activity coefficients of electrolytes; the use of electrochemical potentials of ions The application of thermodynamics to dielectrics and to paramagnetic substances. Guggenheim was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1946, his nomination reads In 1972, the E. A. Guggenheim Memorial Fund was established by friends and colleagues; the income from the fund is used to award an annual prize and to provide a biennial or triennial memorial lecture on some topic of chemistry or physics appropriate to the interests of Guggenheim. The Guggenheim Medal was introduced in 2014 by the Institution of Chemical Engineers for significant contributions to research in thermodynamics and / or complex fluids; the first recipient was Professor George Jackson of Imperial College London
John Ottis Adams was an American impressionist painter and art educator, best known as a member of the Hoosier Group of Indiana landscape painters, along with William Forsyth, Richard B. Gruelle, Otto Stark, T. C. Steele. In addition, Adams was among a group that formed the Society of Western Artists in 1896, served as the organization's president in 1908 and 1909. Adams grew up in central Indiana, but received his formal art training at the South Kensington School of Art in London and spent seven years in Germany, where he attended the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. Adams formed the Muncie Art School with Forsyth. Adams assisted in planning and taught art classes at the John Herron Art Institute, which became the Indianapolis Museum of Art and the John Herron School of Art in Indianapolis, gave informal art lessons at the Hermitage, his studio-home near Brookville, Indiana. Several major exhibitions have included Adams's work: Five Hoosier Painters in Chicago, Illinois, in 1894. In 1910 Adams exhibited internationally at the Buenos Aires Exposition in Buenos Aires and Santiago, where one of his paintings, A Frosty Morning, received an honorable mention.
Adams won several other prizes for his art. Iridescence of a Shallow Stream won a bronze medal at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and A Winter Morning won the $500 Fine Arts Building Prize at the Society of Western Artists exhibition in Chicago in 1907. Adams's work is represented in the collections of several Indiana civic and cultural institutions. Today his paintings are held in a number of private collections and museums, including the Haan Mansion Museum of Indiana Art. John Ottis Adams was born on July 1851, in Amity, Johnson County, Indiana, his parents were Alban Housley Adams. Because Adams's parents relocated he spent his youth in Franklin and Martinsville, Indiana; the family moved to Franklin shortly after his birth, to Shelbyville, where Alban worked as a local merchant and part-time farmer. Adams attended elementary school at Franklin and Shelbyville, after the family's move to Martinsville, he graduated from Martinsville High School. One of Adams's teachers at Martinsville recognized his artistic ability and encouraged him to continue to study art.
In 1869, when Adams was eighteen years old, he visited the Indiana State Fair, where he saw Still Life with Watermelon, an early work by William Merritt Chase. The painting inspired Adams to become an artist. Although Adams had limited finances, he enrolled at Wabash College in Crawfordsville, but attended classes for only two years. In 1872 Adams left Indiana to study at the South Kensington School of Art in London. A standard part of his training, a typical exercise for most art students in London, was to paint reproductions of the masters at the National Gallery; the experience exposed Adams to the work of landscape painters J. M. W. Turner. Adams worked at a London photography studio to help fund his art training. At the completion of his studies in 1873, Adams was awarded a certificate from the school and remained in London to study with John Parker, a landscape and genre painter who worked in watercolor. Adams returned to the United States in late 1874 to begin his career as a art educator.
On October 1, 1898, Adams married Winifred Brady, a still-life painter and one of his former art students in Muncie, Indiana. Brady, twenty years younger than Adams, attended Drexel Institute in Philadelphia and the Art Students League of New York; the couple had three sons: John Alban, Edward Wolfe, Robert Brady. In 1874, after completing his art studies in London, Adams returned to the United States with the intention of earning a living as a portrait painter, he moved into his parents' home in Seymour and opened a portrait studio. In the spring of 1875 Adams relocated to Martinsville, in 1876 he settled in Muncie, where he opened a studio and spent four years painting portraits. Muncie's most prominent families were among his clientele. Adams worked for a local photography studio, most tinting photographs to add color to the images, to supplement his income. In 1880 Adams decided to pursue further art studies in Germany. To fund his additional training, Adams painted reproductions of paintings by the Old Masters that hung in Munich's Alte Pinakothek galleries and sold them on a subscription basis to clients in the United States.
Adams sailed from New York City with several other American artists, including fellow Hoosier artists T. C. Steele and Samuel Richards, spent seven years in Munich. Other American artists in Munich as the same time included William Forsyth, J. Frank Currier, Benjamin Rutherford Fitz, among others. Adams and Forsyth would become known as members of the Hoosier Group of artists, along with Otto Stark, Richard B. Gruelle. Adams studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, from 1880 to 1885. Gyula Benczúr was his drawing instructor. Adams left the academy in 1885 to set up a studio in Munich, he served for two years as president of the American Artists Club of Munich. Adams returned to Muncie in 1887, rented a downtown studio, taught art classes and painted, he commuted from Muncie to teach several night classes at Fort Wayne, Indiana. After Forsyth's return from G