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Walker Art Gallery

The Walker Art Gallery is an art gallery in Liverpool, which houses one of the largest art collections in England, outside London. It is part of the National Museums Liverpool group, is promoted as "the National Gallery of the North" because it is not a local or regional gallery but is part of the national museums and galleries administered directly from central government funds; the Walker Art Gallery's collection dates from 1819 when the Liverpool Royal Institution acquired 37 paintings from the collection of William Roscoe, who had to sell his collection following the failure of his banking business, though it was saved from being broken up by his friends and associates. In 1843, the Royal Institution’s collection was displayed in a purpose-built gallery next to the Institution’s main premises. In 1850 negotiations by an association of citizens to take over the Institution’s collection, for display in a proposed art gallery and museum, came to nothing; the collection grew over the following decades: in 1851 Liverpool Town Council bought Liverpool Academy’s diploma collection and further works were acquired from the Liverpool Society for the Fine Arts, founded in 1858.

The competition between the Academy and Society led to both collapsing. William Brown Library and Museum opened in 1860, named after a Liverpool merchant whose generosity enabled the Town Council to act upon an 1852 Act of Parliament which allowed the establishment of a public library and art gallery, in 1871 the council organised the first Liverpool Autumn Exhibition, held at the new library and museum; the success of the exhibition enabled the Library and Arts Committee to purchase works for the council’s permanent collection, buying around 150 works between 1871 and 1910. Works acquired included WF Yeames’ And when did you last see your father? and Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s Dante’s Dream. Designed by local architects Cornelius Sherlock and H. H. Vale, the Walker Art Gallery was opened on 6 September 1877 by Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, it is named after its founding benefactor, Sir Andrew Barclay Walker, a former mayor of Liverpool and wealthy brewer born in Ayrshire who expanded the family business to England and moved to live in Gateacre.

In 1893, the Liverpool Royal Institution placed its collection on long-term loan to the gallery and in 1948 presented William Roscoe's collection and other works. This occurred during post-war reconstruction when the gallery was closed, re-opening in 1951. During the Second World War the gallery was taken over by the Ministry of Food and the collection was dispersed for safety. Extensions to the gallery were opened in 1884 and 1933 when the gallery re-opened with an exhibition including Picasso and Gauguin. In 2002 the gallery re-opened following a major refurbishment. In 1986, the gallery achieved national status, as part of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside. Old Masters The Walker's collection includes Italian and Netherlandish paintings from 1300–1550, European art from 1550–1900, including works by Giambattista Pittoni, Rembrandt and Degas, 18th and 19th-century British art, including a major collection of Victorian painting and many Pre-Raphaelite works, a wide collection of prints and watercolours, 20th-century works by artists such as Lucian Freud, David Hockney and Gilbert and George and a major sculpture collection.

The select collection of minor or decorative arts covers a wide range, from Gothic ivories to British ceramics up to the present day. The first John Moores Contemporary Painting Prize exhibition was held in 1957. Sponsored by Sir John Moores, founder of Littlewoods, the competition has been held every two years since and is the biggest painting prize in the UK. There is a regular programme of temporary exhibitions which in 2009-10 has included Aubrey Williams, Bridget Riley and Freud. In 2004, the gallery staged The Stuckists Punk Victorian, the first national museum exhibition of the Stuckist art movement; the Gallery takes part in the Liverpool Biennial. The gallery is located on William Brown Street in a neo-Classical building; the neighbouring area includes the William Brown Library, World Museum Liverpool, St. George's Hall, Wellington's Column, Lime Street Station and the entrance to the Queensway Tunnel; the other major art gallery in Liverpool is Tate Liverpool, at the Albert Dock, which houses modern art.

On 17 December 2011, the Walker Art Gallery got a new addition to its collection - a statue of a priest vandalised by Banksy. The renowned graffiti artist has sawn off the face of an 18th-century replica stone bust and glued on a selection of bathroom tiles; the resulting'pixellated' portrait is entitled Cardinal Sin and is believed to be a comment on the abuse scandal in the Church and its subsequent cover-up. This piece of art is displayed in Room three, one of the 17th-century Old Master galleries; as of 2 July 2013, the La Masseuse sculpture by Edgar Degas owned by Lucian Freud, found a permanent home at the Walker Art Gallery, thanks to the donation-in-payment system put in place by the Arts Council England. Architecture of Liverpool Liverpool Biennial The Stuckists Punk Victorian Collection Website for The Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool

JL Audio

JL Audio is an American manufacturer of consumer audio products. They produce marine and mobile audio products, but are best known for their subwoofers. JL Audio is known as one of the pioneers of the car audio industry. JL Audio was founded in 1975 by Lucio Proni, they used the first letter of each of their names, to form a company name, hence "JL." Their first products were home speaker systems as well as home speaker "kits." In 1977, when business did not turn out as well as expected, Stephen Seidl and Proni invested in a retail store in Hollywood, called Speaker Warehouse which focused on speaker repair and the sale of speakers, individually or as whole speaker sets. The original company, JL Audio, was still in operation during this time; as the businesses grew, Speaker Warehouse became a dealer of JL Audio products under the direction of Stephen Seidl. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, as the car audio revolution was starting to take place, Speaker Warehouse was a big seller of the early pioneering car audio products.

Stephen Seidl and Proni used their knowledge of speakers and audio to experiment with these systems with component systems with subwoofers. By the early 1980s, Speaker Warehouse had become known as a place to go for high-end audio in South Florida. In 1975, JL Audio is formed. In 1979, Speaker Warehouse is purchased by JL Audio. From 1987-1988, Speaker Warehouse began to design competition cars with their audio systems. In 1988, Speaker Warehouse/JL Audio dominates the car audio scene in South Florida. In 1989, seven Speaker Warehouse vehicles qualified for the first annual IASCA Finals in Tempe, Arizona. In the early 1990s, JL Audio becomes known across the United States and Canada after winning several awards in car audio competitions. In 1991, JL Audio exhibits at the Consumer Electronics Show for the first time. Iso-Plate mounting baffles, designed to facilitate isobaric mounting, were introduced. Additionally, the W2 and W5 subwoofer driver lines were introduced to an international audience for the first time.

In 1992, W1 series subwoofer drivers were introduced. These speakers introduced the concept of a small box / long excursion woofer designs for car audio; the CS-1 series was introduced, JL Audio's first component speaker introduction. In 1993, the W6-series subwoofer drivers are introduced in 10, 12 and 15-inch sizes; this product was considered unique for its dual 6-ohm voice coil system design. These subwoofers were in production for 10 years. In 1994, JL Audio introduces the IB4 series subwoofers and infinite baffle woofers. Introduced were the CS-3 component systems. JL Audio introduced a 1961 Austin Mini demo vehicle, featuring three 10W6 subwoofer drivers, named "Best Sounding Demo Vehicle" by Autosound and Security Magazine In 1995, JL Audio introduces the first group of Stealthbox® vehicle-specific subwoofers. Three brand new enclosed systems were introduced this year: PowerWedge™, ProWedge™, MicroSub™. In 1996, Andy Oxenhorn, former President of MB Quart USA, becomes President of JL Audio.

Under his leadership, the company experiences a great deal of growth in the forthcoming years. JL Audio's Stealthbox®, PowerWedge™, MicroSub™ lines are expanded; the WØ subwoofer line is introduced for consumers seeking a moderately priced subwoofer alternative. The WØ subwoofer line utilizes JL Audio's first patented technology, the VRC. In 1997, JL Audio begins work on a new line of component coaxials. Several new Stealthbox® and PowerWedge™ models and the 8.3 MicroSub™ are introduced. The 18W6 is added to the W6 product line. Chrome versions of the W6 subwoofers are launched. In 1998, JL Audio coaxials; the WØ line is expanded to include 15-inch drivers. JL Audio moves its headquarters to a 92,000 square-foot facility in Miramar, FL. In 1999, W3 subwoofers are introduced; the Stealthbox®, PowerWedge™ and Evolution® lineups are further expanded with new models and replacements for old models. In this same year, Jeff Scoon, Bruce Macmillan and David Krich establish a new engineering department for JL Audio electronics in Phoenix, AZ In 2000, JL Audio launches its first electronics products: the Slash series amplifiers.

These amplifiers went on to become the best-selling mobile audio amplifiers of all time. The Slash series amplifiers introduced JL Audio's R. I. P. S. Technology and Advanced Rollback Protection Features, Controls & Connections. Slash series amps remain in production today. Additionally, the 6WØ, 15W3 an d18W3 are added to JL Audio's subwoofer lineup; the 3-way XR Component System and a more economical line of vehicle-specific enclosures called "Vantage™" are introduced. In 2001, after over 6 years of engineering, W7 subwoofers are unveiled, featuring several patented technologies These subwoofers paved the way for JL Audio's entrance into the realm of home audio. New Evolution®, Stealthbox®, enclosed subwoofer systems, amplifier models are introduced, as well has the High Output H. O. Wedge enclosed subwoofer systems and the 500/5 Slash amplifier. In 2002, W6v2 subwoofers are added to the line; these subs include most of the technology introduced by the W7 drivers but are lighter weight and more economical.

The W6v2 remain in production today. W3v2 subwoofers are launched, featuring patented Elevated Frame Cooling to the W3 platform; the 1000/1 Slash amplifier is introduced, along with more Stealthbox® models. In 2003, e-series amplifiers are introduced. JL Audio begins production of connection products, with the introduction of the ECS line; the 8W7 is added to the W7 line and the 13W6v

RAF Sullom Voe

Royal Air Force Station Sullom Voe or more RAF Sullom Voe is a former Royal Air Force station near the village of Brae, in the Shetland Isles of Scotland. It was a Flying boat base and was associated with the adjacent airfield of RAF Scatsta The building of this flying boat station started well before the Second World War during 1938 and it became home to various Coastal Command squadrons that patrolled the North Sea, Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic for enemy ships and U-Boats. In the early days accommodation was provided by the Clyde-built SS Manella, a ship built in 1921, requisitioned by the Royal Navy in 1939, renamed HMS Manella and sent to Sullom Voe as a supply ship to provide temporary accommodation prior to suitable accommodation being built on-shore at nearby Graven. 201 Squadron was posted there just 25 days before the declaration of war on 3 September 1939. 240 Squadron was posted there a month on 4 November 1939 Sullom Voe became the first location in the British Isles to be bombed on Monday 13 November 1939 when four bombs landed in a field.

No damage was formally reported apart from the death of a rabbit! The complex was added to when a nearby airfield was named RAF Scatsta. During the latter period one of 210 Sqn's pilots, Flying Officer John Cruickshank, carried out a successful attack on a German U-boat, which by this time possessed heavy anti-aircraft guns. Despite severe injuries, he managed to fly his aircraft home and circled until daybreak before he was able to land it safely saving his crew, an achievement for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. After the Second World War: See Sullom Voe, Sullom Voe Terminal and Scatsta Airport. Jefford, C G. R. A. F Squadrons, A comprehensive record of the movement and equipment of all RAF squadrons and their antecedents since 1912. UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84037-141-2. Falconer, Jonathan.. RAF Airfields of World War 2. UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85780-349-5. Seymour and Bill Balderson. To The Ends Of The Earth: 210 Squadron's Catalina Years, 1941–1945. Pembroke Dock, Pembrokeshire, UK: Paterchurch Publications, 1999.

ISBN 1-870745-08-6