Walker County Courthouse (Georgia)
The Walker County Courthouse in LaFayette, Georgia was built in 1917 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was designed with Beaux-Arts architecture by architect Charles E. Bearden, it is a rectangular courthouse built of cream brick. It has multiple pairs of "colossal" Tuscan order columns running up the second and third stories, alternating with triple windows, its entablature has metopes. It is described in its National Register nomination as having a Beaux Arts/Renaissance Revival design: "It is not a pure design but is adapted and is Renaissance Revival more in massing and long horizontal lines rather than specific details."Its interior features oak millwork, noteworthy. Its courtroom is "unusually spacious. Bearden, an architect based in Chattanooga, Tennessee designed the NRHP-listed Richard Hardy Memorial School in South Pittsburg, Tennessee
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
LaFayette is a city in, the county seat of, Walker County, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 6,702, which rose to 7,121 in 2010, it was founded as Chattooga. LaFayette is part of TN-GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. LaFayette was founded in 1835, as the seat of newly formed Walker County; the county was named after the former United States senator Freeman Walker. Chattooga was renamed LaFayette in 1836 after Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, the French aristocrat who fought in the American Revolutionary War. LaFayette is located at 34°42′35″N 85°17′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.1 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,121 people, 2,712 households, 1,749 families residing in the city; the population density was 871.6 people per square mile. There were 2,926 housing units at an average density of 361.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.6% White, 7.5% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.76% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 2,712 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,093, the median income for a family was $29,387. Males had a median income of $27,528 versus $20,906 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,318. About 16.0% of families and 27.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.4% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or over.
Andy Bean, repeat winner on both the PGA Tour and Champions Tour Ronald H. Griffith, United States Army General, former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army City of LaFayette catwalkchatt.com The website for the Walker County Messenger, the county newspaper since 1877. WQCH Radio
Pigeon Mountain (Georgia)
Pigeon Mountain is a summit in Walker County, Georgia. At its highest point, the mountain has an elevation of around 2,330 feet. Ellison's Cave and Petty John's Cave are located on the mountain. Most of the mountain is located inside the Crockford-Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area. Pigeon Mountain may have been named because the peak's outline resembles a pigeon, or because settlers saw a large flock of pigeons there. Pigeon Mountain is located to the west of LaFayette in the Cumberland Plateau. At its highest point, the mountain has an elevation of around 2,330 feet; the mountain runs in a northwest-southwest direction for about 10 miles, joining with Lookout Mountain on the southwestern end to form a V-shape. Between Pigeon and Lookout Mountains is a valley called the McLemore Cove; the Tennessee Valley Divide crosses the western side of the mountain. Most of Pigeon Mountain is located inside the Crockford-Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area, maintained by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.
Several caves are located on Pigeon Mountain, including Petty John's Cave. At the top of the mountain is Rocktown, a free face rock climbing area. Other features on Pigeon Mountain include Rape Gap and The Pocket. Part of the Battle of Davis's Cross Roads took place at Pigeon Mountain, fought on September 10 and 11 in 1863. During the battle, Union forces under James S. Negley intended to cross Pigeon Mountain to capture LaFayette. However, upon learning about how Confederate soldiers were concentrating at Dug Gap, Negley decided to withdraw his troops back to Davis’ Cross Roads. During the 1920s and 1930s, Pigeon Mountain was home to about 30 families; those families abandoned the mountain in the 1930s. In 1969, the mountain was leased by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources; the area became the Crockford–Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area. The WMA was named after Jack Crockford, the director of the Georgia Game and Fish Division in the 1970s who helped implement Georgia's white-tailed deer restoration program.
List of mountains in Georgia Crockford-Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area map
Catoosa County, Georgia
Catoosa County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,942; the county seat is Ringgold. The county was created on December 5, 1853; the meaning of the Cherokee language name "Catoosa" is obscure. Catoosa County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. On April 27, 2011, a devastating tornado touched down in the town of Ringgold, located in Catoosa County, leaving a path of severe destruction. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 162 square miles, of which 162 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The entire county is located in the Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. Hamilton County, Tennessee Whitfield County Walker County Chattahoochee National Forest Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park As of the census of 2000, there were 53,282 people, 20,425 households, 15,400 families residing in the county; the population density was 328 people per square mile.
There were 21,794 housing units at an average density of 134 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.39% White, 1.26% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,425 households of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.60% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,998, the median income for a family was $45,710. Males had a median income of $31,746 versus $23,790 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,009. About 6.40% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,942 people, 24,475 households, 17,785 families residing in the county; the population density was 394.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,606 housing units at an average density of 164.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.6% white, 2.2% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. Of the 24,475 households, 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families, 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 38.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,544 and the median income for a family was $54,796. Males had a median income of $39,962 versus $31,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,563. About 8.5% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Catoosa County, Georgia are: Catoosa County Public Schools Catoosa County elementary schools: Battlefield Elementary, Battlefield Primary, Boynton Elementary, Cloud Springs Elementary, Graysville Elementary, Ringgold Elementary, Ringgold Primary, Tiger Creek Elementary, West Side Elementary, Woodstation Elementary. Catoosa County middle schools: Heritage Middle School, Lakeview Middle School, Ringgold Middle School. Catoosa County high schools: Heritage High School, Lakeview-Fort Oglethorpe High School, Performance Learning Center, Ringgold High School.
Fort Oglethorpe Ringgold Tunnel Hill Indian Springs Lakeview Graysville Shawn Mullins' 2010 album Light You Up included a song titled "Catoosa County", a semi-fictional account of the Civil War conflicts that took place in the county. 2011 Super Outbreak National Register of Historic Places listings in Catoosa County, Georgia Northwest Georgia Joint Development Authority Official website Catoosa county, GA, genealogy Catoosa County historical marker Old Stone Presbyterian Church historical marker
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Ellison's Cave is a pit cave located in Walker County, on Pigeon Mountain in the Appalachian Plateaus of Northwest Georgia. It is the 12th deepest cave in the United States and features the deepest, unobstructed pit in the continental US named Fantastic Pit; the cave extends 1063 feet vertically. Ellison's features a number of underground vertical pitches including the two deepest pits in the continental United States: Fantastic and Incredible; these two pits lie on opposite sides of the cave. Nearby and parallel to Fantastic are Smokey I, Smokey II, other deep pitches. There are over 7 routes to reach the bottom level of the cave from the Fantastic side. Fantastic and Smokey I both extend to a passage at the bottom of the cave. To reach Fantastic, or the large pits on the Fantastic side, cavers must descend the Warm Up pit. Ellison's is a solution cave in the Ridge and Valley geologic region of northwest Georgia and lies within a bedrock fault in Pigeon Mountain. During the Ordovician Period, tectonic subduction responsible for forming the Appalachians left a number of seismically active fault lines stretching from northern Alabama to eastern Tennessee.
Continued orogeny created a large fault zone in the bedrock throughout the southern Appalachians and northern Georgia. This fracturing along with the proliferation of gypsum and limestone contributes to the exceptional depth of Ellison's. March 10, 1999 - A caver climbing the Incredible pit became tangled in multiple ropes and was stranded 140 feet off the cave floor underneath water falling into the pit; the incident resulted in fatality due to hypothermia. February 12, 2011 - Two University of Florida students died of hypothermia after becoming stuck on rope near a waterfall close to the bottom of 125 ft Warm-up pit, it was reported that the students were underprepared for the cave. May 26, 2013 - A caver was rescued and hospitalized after falling 40 feet in the cave, it took 21 hours to evacuate the caver, including hauling up Fantastic Pit. March 26, 2016 - A 22-year-old man suffering from exhaustion and cold was rescued from the bottom of Fantastic Pit after emerging from the lower part of the cave.
After being hauled up both Fantastic and the Warm Up Pit, he was able to walk down the mountain on his own. The cave and surrounding area are managed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and are open year-round. Due to the technical and dangerous nature of Ellison's Cave, it is explored by only the most experienced and capable cavers. Beginning cavers and spelunkers are discouraged from entering and negotiating the cave; the vertical sections of the cave require extensive knowledge and practice of single rope technique climbing, including practice on heavy ropes and in wet environments. The horizontal portions of the cave feature technical and somewhat dangerous free climbing and bouldering environments. Careful preparation, including bringing the proper gear and clothing, is essential