1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Texas Ranger Division
The Texas Ranger Division called the Texas Rangers, is a U. S statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic and the state of Texas; the Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the border; the unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety.
As of 2015, there are 162 commissioned members of the Ranger force. The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West; the Lone Ranger the best-known example of a Texas Ranger–derived fictional character, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include. During their mixed history, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers in Texas; the rangers were founded in 1823 when Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, employed ten men to act as rangers to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Texas following the Mexican War of Independence.
While there is some discussion as to when Austin employed men as "rangers", Texas Ranger lore dates the year of their organization to this event. The Texas Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November, Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Texas Rangers. Within two years the Rangers comprised more than 300 men. Following the Texas Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Texas, newly elected president Mirabeau B. Lamar, raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche in retaliation for the support they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic. Ten rangers were killed in the Battle of Stone Houses in 1837; the size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston, as President of the Republic, in 1841, The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Native Americans through 1846, when the annexation of Texas to the United States and the Mexican–American War saw several companies of Rangers mustered into federal service.
They played important roles at various battles, acting as guides and participating in Counter-guerrilla warfare, soon establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Americans. At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Texas Rangers such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Texas Ranger, died at Monterrey, General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie" after him. Colonel Hays organized a second regiment of Texas Rangers, including Rip Ford, who fought with General Winfield Scott in his Mexico City Campaign and the Anti-guerrilla campaign along his line of communications to Vera Cruz. John Jackson Tumlinson Sr. the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Texas Ranger historians to be the first Texas Ranger killed in the line of duty.
One of his most urgent issues was protection of settlers from murder by marauders. On his way to San Antonio, in 1823, to discuss the issue with the governor, Tumlinson was killed by Native Americans, his traveling companion, a Mr. Newman, escaped. Tumlinson's body was never found. Following the end of the war in 1848, the Rangers were disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000 was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford, a veteran of the Mexican war; the now 100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little Robe Creek in 1858 and Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year; the success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The U. S. Army could provide only limited and thinly-stretched protection in the enormous territory of Texas.
By contrast, the Rangers' effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a well-funded and organized state Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep fa
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Sam Houston National Forest
The Sam Houston National Forest, one of four National Forests in Texas, is located 50 miles north of Houston. The forest is administered together with the other three United States National Forests and two National Grasslands located in Texas, from common offices in Lufkin, Texas; the units include Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sam Houston National Forests, plus Caddo National Grassland and Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland. There are local ranger district offices located in New Waverly. Summers in the Sam Houston National Forest are hot and humid and winters are short and mild; the average summer temperature is 83 °F, but mid-summer temperatures reach the upper 90s °F. The average winter temperature is 53 °F. Do temperatures drop to less than 10 °F or rise to over 110 °F; the average rainfall is 44 inches. Dryer periods occur during September – October and February – March; the three counties that contain the Sam Houston National Forest, San Jacinto, Walker, have yielded evidence of human occupation dating back 12,000 years.
More the basins of the San Jacinto and Trinity Rivers were home to Atakapan-speaking groups known as the Bidai, Patiri and Akokisa. Hunters and gatherers, some from these groups may have practiced some form of agriculture. Disease and oppression from European settlers led to their eventual extinction in the early 19th century. Evidence of occupations from as early as 7,000 years ago to the 20th century has been documented by a number of archaeological sites within the national forest; the Sam Houston National Forest is managed under the multiple-use concept. Under this concept, the uses of the forest, such as recreation and wildlife, grazing and water, minerals, are planned to maintain a balance among the benefits, yet provide for public needs. Forest Service objectives, by law, must consider all resources of the forest and no single resource can be emphasized to the detriment of others. In 1960, the Multiple Use-Sustained Yield Act put into law what had been practiced on the National Forests in Texas for 30 years.
This act emphasized that resources on public lands would be managed so that they are used in the combination that will best meet the needs of the people, that the benefits obtained will exist indefinitely and that each natural resource would be managed in balance with other resources to meet present and future public needs. Management plans outline direction for a forest under the multiple-use concept; however the most planned system of management cannot foresee environmental or natural factors which can cause drastic changes in a forest. Fire, storms and disease, for example, can alter the way a forest is managed. Hiking is a popular way to enjoy its beauty; the 128-mile Lone Star Hiking Trail, a portion of which has gained National Recreation Trail status, winds through the Sam Houston National Forest. The trail, marked with two-inch by four-inch aluminum markers to guide hikers, has recreation areas available at three different points. Except during deer hunting season when camping is restricted to designated camps, primitive camping is allowed off the trail.
Potable water is available at Double Stubblefield recreation areas. Lone Star Hiking Trail consists of three major sections; the 40-mile Lake Conroe section, lying west of Lake Conroe, begins near the intersection of FS 219 and FM 149 and has four connecting loops. The Central Area of the trail runs eastward from Stubblefield Recreation Area, through the Four Notch area to Evergreen and south down FM 945 to the trailhead parking lot; the Four Notch Loop, a 9.2-mile section, is in the middle of this 60-mile area of trail. The Winters Bayou/Tarkington Creek Area of the trail runs from FM 945 east to Double Lake Recreation Area south through Big Creek Scenic Area and southwest through Winters Bayou; this 27-mile section of the trail has National Recreation status. The Lone Star Hiking Trail may be hiked year round, but winter and spring are the most popular seasons due to the mild southeast Texas climate. During deer hunting season in November and December, hikers should wear visible clothing; the trail is not crowded, hikers may observe a multiple-use managed forest with many ages and kinds of trees and wildlife.
Trail visitors may view rivers, creeks and streams that meander through and around the Sam Houston National Forest. Off-road vehicles are prohibited. Little Lake Creek Wilderness - The 3,855 acres Little Lake Creek Wilderness is on the western edge of the pineywoods of East Texas about five miles north of the City of Montgomery, it was designated wilderness in 1984 under the Texas Wilderness Act. The area derives its name from the perennial creek of the same name that flows south through the center; the wilderness area is bisected by three major creek drainages: Little Lake Creek, Pole Creek, Sand Branch. Those drainages create a rich ecological mosaic. Loblolly and shortleaf pines dominate ridgetops that are separated by a wide variety of hardwoods along the creek channels; the area is bounded by private land to the south, FM 149 to the east, FS 211 and an abandoned pipeline right-of-way to the west, FS 231 to the north. Big Creek Scenic Area - The 1,420 acres Big Creek Scenic Area was established in 1962 as a special interest area.
Noted for its vegetative diversity and scenic qualities, the area was set aside for recreational enjoyment. No camping is allowed in Big Creek Scenic Area; the Lone Star Hiking Trail goes through the scenic area offering four trail loops of various lengths for hikers to enjoy. Big Creek Scenic Are
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Huntsville is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Texas. The population was 38,548 as of the 2010 census, it is the center of the Huntsville micropolitan area. Huntsville is 70 miles north of Houston in the East Texas Piney Woods on Interstate 45, which runs between Houston and Dallas, it is home to Sam Houston State University, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Huntsville State Park, HEARTS Veterans Museum of Texas. The city served as the residence of Sam Houston, recognized in Huntsville by the Sam Houston Memorial Museum and a statue on Interstate 45; the city had its beginning about 1836, when Pleasant and Ephraim Gray opened a trading post on the site. Ephraim Gray became first postmaster in 1837, naming it after his hometown, Alabama. Huntsville became the home of Sam Houston, who served as President of the Republic of Texas, Governor of the State of Texas, Governor of Tennessee, U. S. Senator, Tennessee congressman. Houston led the Texas Army in the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive victory of the Texas Revolution.
He has been noted for his life among the Cherokees of Tennessee, – near the end of his life – for his opposition to the American Civil War, a unpopular position in his day. Huntsville has two of Houston's homes, his grave, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum. Houston's life in Huntsville is commemorated by his namesake Sam Houston State University, by a 70 ft statue. Huntsville was the home of Samuel Walker Houston, a prominent African-American pioneer in the field of education, he was born into slavery on February 12, 1864 to a slave owned by Sam Houston. Samuel W. Houston founded the Galilee Community School in 1907, which became known as the Houstonian Normal and Industrial Institute, in Walker County, Texas. In 1995, on the grounds of the old Samuel W. Houston Elementary School, the Huntsville Independent School District, along with the Huntsville Arts Commission and the high school's Ex-Students Association, commissioned the creation of The Dreamers, a monument to underscore the black community's contributions to the growth and development of Huntsville and Walker County.
As of the census of 2010, there were 35,078 people, 10,266 households, 7,471 families residing in the city. The population density was 1438.3/km sq. There were 11,508 housing units at an average density of 1143.8/km sq. The racial makeup of the city was 65.78% White, 26.14% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.91% from Race other races, 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.22% of the population. There were 10,266 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.7% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.1% under the age of 18, 29.3% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 152.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 163.8 males. The prison population is included in the city's population, which results in a skewed sex ratio; the median income for a household in the city was $27,075, the median income for a family was $40,562. Males had a median income of $27,386 versus $22,908 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,576. About 13.1% of families and 23.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Huntsville is located at 30°42′41″N 95°32′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a land area of 35.86 square miles in 2010. At the area code level, land area covers 559.661 sq. mi. and water area 7.786 sq. mi. Huntsville is about 70 miles north of Houston, it is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Huntsville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. As of 2005 the largest employer in Huntsville is the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, with 6,744 employees. In 1996 the TDCJ had 5,219 employees in Huntsville. Robert Draper of the Texas Monthly described Huntsville as the "company town" of the TDCJ; as of 1996 the TDCJ employed over twice the number of people employed by Sam Houston State University, the city's second-largest employer. As of 2005 Sam Houston State remained the second-largest employer in Huntsville, with 2,458 employees; the university has a strong role in the study of criminology. The third-largest employer is the Huntsville Independent School District, with 974 employees; the fourth-largest employer, Huntsville Memorial Hospital, has 540 employees. 517 employees work for Wal-Mart. As of 2007 Huntsville's average income was lower than Texas's average income. Huntsville has the headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Tex