A walkie-talkie is a hand-held, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald L. Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, engineering teams at Motorola. First used for infantry, similar designs were created for field artillery and tank units, after the war, walkie-talkies spread to public safety and commercial and jobsite work. Typical walkie-talkies resemble a telephone handset, with a speaker built into one end and a microphone in the other and an antenna mounted on the top of the unit, they are held up to the face to talk. A walkie-talkie is a half-duplex communication device. Multiple walkie-talkies use a single radio channel, only one radio on the channel can transmit at a time, although any number can listen; the transceiver is in receive mode. Canadian inventor Donald Hings was the first to create a portable radio signaling system for his employer CM&S in 1937, he called the system a "packset", although it became known as a "walkie-talkie".
In 2001, Hings was formally decorated for the device's significance to the war effort. Hings' model C-58 "Handy-Talkie" was in military service by 1942, the result of a secret R&D effort that began in 1940. Alfred J. Gross, a radio engineer and one of the developers of the Joan-Eleanor system worked on the early technology behind the walkie-talkie between 1938 and 1941, is sometimes credited with inventing it; the first device to be nicknamed a "walkie-talkie" was developed by the US military during World War II, the backpacked Motorola SCR-300. It was created by an engineering team in 1940 at the Galvin Manufacturing Company; the team consisted of Dan Noble. The first handheld walkie-talkie was the AM SCR-536 transceiver from 1941 made by Motorola, named the Handie-Talkie; the terms are confused today, but the original walkie-talkie referred to the back mounted model, while the handie-talkie was the device which could be held in the hand. Both devices were powered by high voltage dry cell batteries.
Following World War II, Raytheon developed the SCR-536's military replacement, the AN/PRC-6. The AN/PRC-6 circuit used 13 vacuum tubes; the unit was factory set with one crystal which could be changed to a different frequency in the field by replacing the crystal and re-tuning the unit. It used a 24-inch whip antenna. There was an optional handset. An adjustable strap was provided for support while operating. In the mid-1970s, the United States Marine Corps initiated an effort to develop a squad radio to replace the unsatisfactory helmet-mounted AN/PRR-9 receiver and receiver/transmitter handheld AN/PRT-4; the AN/PRC-68, first produced in 1976 by Magnavox, was issued to the Marines in the 1980s, was adopted by the US Army as well. The abbreviation HT, derived from Motorola's "Handie-Talkie" trademark, is used to refer to portable handheld ham radios, with "walkie-talkie" used as a layman's term or to refer to a toy. Public safety and commercial users refer to their handhelds as "radios". Surplus Motorola Handie-Talkies found their way into the hands of ham radio operators following World War II.
Motorola's public safety radios of the 1950s and 1960s were loaned or donated to ham groups as part of the Civil Defense program. To avoid trademark infringement, other manufacturers use designations such as "Handheld Transceiver" or "Handie Transceiver" for their products; some cellular telephone networks offer a push-to-talk handset that allows walkie-talkie-like operation over the cellular network, without dialing a call each time. However, the cellphone provider must be accessible. Walkie-talkies for public safety and industrial uses may be part of trunked radio systems, which dynamically allocate radio channels for more efficient use of limited radio spectrum; such systems always work with a base station that acts as a repeater and controller, although individual handsets and mobiles may have a mode that bypasses the base station. Walkie-talkies are used in any setting where portable radio communications are necessary, including business, public safety, outdoor recreation, the like, devices are available at numerous price points from inexpensive analog units sold as toys up to ruggedized analog and digital units for use on boats or in heavy industry.
Most countries allow the sale of walkie-talkies for, at least, marine communications, some limited personal uses such as CB radio, as well as for amateur radio designs. Walkie-talkies, thanks to increasing use of miniaturized electronics, can be made small, with some personal two-way UHF radio models being smaller than a deck of cards. In addition, as costs come down, it is possible to add advanced squelch capabilities such as CTCSS and DCS to inexpensive radios, as well as voice scrambling and trunking capabilities; some units include DTMF keypads for remote o
"These Nights" is a collaboration single by Indonesian rapper Rich Brian and South Korean singer Chungha released on October 3, 2019, by 88rising. The track serves as one of the lead singles in 88rising's compilation album, Head in the Clouds II, released on 11 October 2019 through 88rising Records and 12Tone Music. Music and photo teasers were released weeks before the official release of the single. “These Nights” is a sophisticated track with an old-school style that features a memorable synthesizer sound. This track is written by Chungha, Montana Wayne Best, McCulloch Reid Sutphin, Jordan Orvosh and Rich Brian. “These Nights” is a song about existing for the nighttime and seizing the memorable moments one can make with their lover. The song serves as a stark difference to Brian’s debut song, Dat $tick and includes passionate modulated crooning rather than a harsh anti-authoritative attitude; the single was released through a hypnotizing music video that features the pair as they speed along a motorcycle, dancing together.
It shows Rich Brian rocking a bold mullet while holding an'80s-style brick phone. As Rich Brian comically locks eyes with the camera, the scene transits to one where Chungha and him are riding a motorcycle into the night
A New Testament minuscule is a copy of a portion of the New Testament written in a small, cursive Greek script. The numbers are the now standard system of Caspar René Gregory referred to as the Gregory-Aland numbers. Dates are estimated to the nearest 100 year increment. Content only describes sections of the New Testament: Gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, Pauline epistles, so on. Sometimes the surviving portion of a codex is so limited that specific books, chapters or verses can be indicated. Linked articles, where they exist specify content in detail, by verse. Digital images are referenced with direct links to the hosting web pages, with the exception of those at the INTF; the quality and accessibility of the images is as follows: † Indicates the manuscript has damaged or missing pages. P Indicates only a portion of the books were included. K Indicates manuscript includes a commentary. S Indicates lost portions of manuscript replaced via supplement of a hand.abs Indicates manuscript is copy.
Brackets around Gregory-Aland number indicate the manuscript belongs to an numbered manuscript, was found to not be a continuous text manuscript, was found to be written in modern Greek versus Koine Greek, was proved a forgery, or has been destroyed. List of New Testament papyri List of New Testament uncials List of New Testament minuscules List of New Testament minuscules List of New Testament minuscules List of New Testament minuscules ordered by Location/Institution List of New Testament lectionaries Aland, Kurt. Köster. Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. P. 95. ISBN 3-11-011986-2. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2014-09-09