Walking Liberty half dollar

The Walking Liberty half dollar is a silver 50-cent piece or half dollar coin, issued by the United States Mint from 1916 to 1947. In 1915, the new Mint Director, Robert W. Woolley, came to believe that he was not only allowed but required by law to replace coin designs, in use for 25 years, he therefore began the process of replacing the Barber coinage: dimes and half dollars, all bearing similar designs by long-time Mint Engraver Charles E. Barber, first struck in 1892. Woolley had the Commission of Fine Arts conduct a competition, as a result of which Weinman was selected to design the dime and half dollar. Weinman's design of Liberty striding towards the Sun for the half dollar proved difficult to perfect, Treasury Secretary William G. McAdoo, whose department included the Mint, considered having Barber create his own design. Mint officials were successful in getting Weinman's design into production, although it never struck well, which may have been a factor in its replacement by the Franklin half dollar beginning in 1948.

Art historian Cornelius Vermeule considered the piece to be among the most beautiful US coins. Since 1986, a modification of Weinman's obverse design has been used for the American Silver Eagle, the half dollar was issued in gold for its centennial in 2016. On September 26, 1890, the United States Congress passed an act providing: The Director of the Mint shall have power, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, to cause new designs... to be prepared and adopted... But no change in the design or die of any coin shall be made oftener than once in twenty-five years from and including the year of the first adoption of the design... But the Director of the Mint shall have power, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, to engage temporarily the services of one or more artists, distinguished in their respective departments of art, who shall be paid for such service from the contingent appropriation for the mint at Philadelphia; the Barber coinage was introduced in 1892. The new pieces attracted considerable public dissatisfaction.

Beginning in 1905, successive presidential administrations had attempted to bring modern, beautiful designs to United States coins. Following the redesign of the double eagle, half eagle and quarter eagle in 1907 and 1908, as well as the cent and nickel redesigns of 1909 and 1913 advocates of replacing the Barber coins began to push for the change when the coins' minimum term expired in 1916; as early as 1914, Victor David Brenner, designer of the Lincoln cent, submitted unsolicited designs for the silver coins. He was told in response that Secretary of the Treasury William G. McAdoo was occupied with other matters. On January 2, 1915, an interview with Philadelphia Mint Superintendent Adam M. Joyce appeared in the Michigan Manufacturer and Financial Record: So far as I know... There is no thought of issuing new coins of the 50-cent, 25-cent, 10-cent values. If, however, a change is made we all hope that more serviceable and satisfactory coins are produced than the recent Saint-Gaudens double eagle and eagle and the Pratt half and quarter eagle.

The buffalo nickel and the Lincoln penny are faulty from a practical standpoint. All resulted from the desire by the government to mint coins to the satisfaction of artists and not practical coiners. In January 1915, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury William P. Malburn sent McAdoo a memorandum about the silver subsidiary coinage, noting that "the present silver half dollar and dime were changed in 1892, a new design may, therefore, be adopted in 1916; this can be done any time in the year." In reply, McAdoo wrote "let the mint submit designs" on the memorandum. In April 1915, Robert W. Woolley took office as Mint Director. On April 14, he asked Joyce to request Engraver Barber in his 36th year in office, to prepare new designs; the same day, Malburn requested the opinion of the Treasury Department's Solicitor concerning the Mint view that it could strike new designs for the three denominations in 1916. On April 17, the Solicitor's Office responded. At the time, the Mint was intensely busy producing the Panama-Pacific commemorative coin issue, immediate action was not taken.

In October, Barber was summoned to Washington to discuss coin designs with Woolley, although it is uncertain whether or not he had by prepared sketches for the new coinage. On December 3, Woolley met with the Commission of Fine Arts. Woolley asked the Commission to view sketches produced by the Mint's engraving department. Barber was present to explain the coinage process to the Commission members. Woolley suggested to the members that if they did not like the Mint's work, they should select sculptors to submit designs for the new pieces, it was Woolley's intent to have distinct designs for the dime and half dollar—previously, the three pieces had been near-identical. The director informed the Commission that as the existing coinage had been in use for 25 years, it would have to be changed—which numismatic historian David Lange calls a "misinterpretation of the coinage laws"; the Commission disliked the sketches from the Mint and selected sculptors Adolph Weinman, Hermon MacNeil and Albin Polasek to submit proposals for the new coins.

The sculptors could submit multiple sketches. Although the Mint could decide to use a design on a denomination not intended by its sculptor, the designs were not interchangeable—by statute, an eagle had to appear on the reverse of the quarter and half dollar, but c

Robert Stanton (park director)

Robert G. "Bob" Stanton is a retired career civil service administrator who served for four decades in the United States National Park Service. He was the first African American to be appointed as the Director of the Park Service, serving 1997–2001. Stanton was born in Fort Worth, where he grew up in Mosier Valley, one of the oldest African-American communities in the state, he earned a B. S. in 1963 from Huston–Tillotson University, a black university in Austin, Texas. He did graduate work at George Washington University. Stanton began his Federal career as a seasonal park ranger at Grand Teton National Park, during the summers of 1962 and 1963, when he was completing college, he took a full-time position with the National Park Service in 1966, as a personnel management and public information specialist in the headquarters at Washington, D. C. In 1969, he moved to National Capital Parks-Central, as a management assistant, gaining experience in the regional operations, where many of the properties are ones of historic and cultural significance.

In 1970, he was promoted to superintendent of National Capital Parks-East. In 1971, he was selected as superintendent of Virgin Islands National Park, St. Thomas, gained experience in the Caribbean. In 1974, he was promoted to Deputy Regional Director of the Southeast Region, based in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1976, Stanton returned to Washington, D. C. as Assistant Director, Park Operations. In 1978, he was selected as Deputy Regional Director of the National Capital Region, a position he held for eight years. In 1987, he returned to headquarters as Associate Director for Operations. In 1988, he was selected as the Regional Director of the National Capital Region, where he served until his retirement from career service in 1997. Through this period, he has expanded the NPS development of private-public partnerships to achieve goals of recognizing and protecting cultural properties, as well as expanded recognition of properties and programs recognizing contributions by minority populations; the Park Service's National Capital Region of the Washington, DC metropolitan area includes many significant historic and cultural monuments and parks throughout the area, as well as having wide-ranging responsibilities for large groups of visitors, public events such as presidential inaugurations and demonstrations on the Mall, maintenance of the White House grounds.

Shortly after his retirement, that same year, Stanton was called back from retirement when he was appointed as the 15th National Park Service Director by President Bill Clinton. He served from August 1997 until January 2001. Stanton was the first African American to serve as NPS Director, as well as the first career civil service employee appointed to the position since Russell E. Dickenson's term from 1980 to 1985; as Director, Stanton supported increasing staff diversity, as well as programs to ensure recognition of cultural and historic sites related to contributions of minority peoples in the United States. He worked to improve the agency's public programs to better serve minority populations. Over his long NPS career, Stanton completed numerous programs in conservation and executive leadership. Stanton is an executive professor in the Department of Recreation and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University. National Park Service Roger G. Kennedy - 14th Director Fran P. Mainella - 16th Director Robert Stanton Papers at Clemson University Special Collections Library


Vatteville-la-Rue is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A village of forestry and farming situated in a meander of the river Seine in the Pays de Caux, some 22 miles west of Rouen on the D65 and D40; the area is popular for the hunting of boar and deer. There is considerable sand and gravel extraction at the large quarries; the church of St. Martin, dating from the sixteenth century; the chapel of St. Maur dating from the sixteenth century. Traces of several Roman villas in the forest of Brotonne; the ruins of a castle destroyed in 1123. Vestiges of the chateau of Quesney. A seventeenth-century windmill, in ruins. Philosopher Alain Etchegoyen is buried here. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Vatteville-la-Rue on the Quid website