Nova Scotia Route 311
Route 311 is a collector road in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It is located in Colchester County and connects Tatamagouche at Trunk 6 with Truro at Trunk 4. Truro Upper Onslow North River Central North River Upper North River Nuttby Earltown West Earltown The Falls Balfron Waugh's River Tatamagouche The entirety of Collector Highway 311 was once designated as Trunk Highway 11. List of Nova Scotia provincial highways
A charge-coupled device is a device for the movement of electrical charge from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. In recent years CCD has become a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal-oxide-semiconductors capacitors; these capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface. Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are used in professional and scientific applications where high-quality image data are required. In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors known as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors are used.
The charge-coupled device was invented in 1969 in the United States at AT&T Bell Labs by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith; the lab was working on semiconductor bubble memory when Boyle and Smith conceived of the design of what they termed, in their notebook, "Charge'Bubble' Devices". The device could be used as a shift register; the essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor from one storage capacitor to the next. The concept was similar in principle to the bucket-brigade device, developed at Philips Research Labs during the late 1960s; the first patent on the application of CCDs to imaging was assigned to Michael Tompsett. The initial paper describing the concept listed possible uses as a memory, a delay line, an imaging device; the first experimental device demonstrating the principle was a row of spaced metal squares on an oxidized silicon surface electrically accessed by wire bonds. The first working CCD made with integrated circuit technology was a simple 8-bit shift register.
This device had input and output circuits and was used to demonstrate its use as a shift register and as a crude eight pixel linear imaging device. Development of the device progressed at a rapid rate. By 1971, Bell researchers led by Michael Tompsett were able to capture images with simple linear devices. Several companies, including Fairchild Semiconductor, RCA and Texas Instruments, picked up on the invention and began development programs. Fairchild's effort, led by ex-Bell researcher Gil Amelio, was the first with commercial devices, by 1974 had a linear 500-element device and a 2-D 100 x 100 pixel device. Steven Sasson, an electrical engineer working for Kodak, invented the first digital still camera using a Fairchild 100 x 100 CCD in 1975; the first KH-11 KENNEN reconnaissance satellite equipped with charge-coupled device array technology for imaging was launched in December 1976. Under the leadership of Kazuo Iwama, Sony started a large development effort on CCDs involving a significant investment.
Sony managed to mass-produce CCDs for their camcorders. Before this happened, Iwama died in August 1982. In January 2006, Boyle and Smith were awarded the National Academy of Engineering Charles Stark Draper Prize, in 2009 they were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics, for their invention of the CCD concept. Michael Tompsett was awarded the 2010 National Medal of Technology and Innovation for pioneering work and electronic technologies including the design and development of the first charge coupled device imagers, he was awarded the 2012 IEEE Edison Medal "For pioneering contributions to imaging devices including CCD Imagers and thermal imagers". In a CCD for capturing images, there is a photoactive region, a transmission region made out of a shift register. An image is projected through a lens onto the capacitor array, causing each capacitor to accumulate an electric charge proportional to the light intensity at that location. A one-dimensional array, used in line-scan cameras, captures a single slice of the image, whereas a two-dimensional array, used in video and still cameras, captures a two-dimensional picture corresponding to the scene projected onto the focal plane of the sensor.
Once the array has been exposed to the image, a control circuit causes each capacitor to transfer its contents to its neighbor. The last capacitor in the array dumps its charge into a charge amplifier, which converts the charge into a voltage. By repeating this process, the controlling circuit converts the entire contents of the array in the semiconductor to a sequence of voltages. In a digital device, these voltages are sampled and stored in memory. Before the MOS capacitors are exposed to light, they are biased into the depletion region; the gate is biased at a positive potential, above the threshold for strong inversion, which will result in the creation
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Canso, Nova Scotia
Canso is a community in Guysborough County, on the north-eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia, next to Chedabucto Bay. In January 2012, it ceased to be a separate town and as of July 2012 was amalgamated into the Municipality of the District of Guysborough; the area was established in 1604, along with Nova Scotia. The British construction of a fort in the village, was instrumental in contributing to Dummer's War; the town is of national historic importance because it was one of only two British settlements in Nova Scotia prior to the establishment of Halifax. Canso played a key role in the defeat of Louisbourg. Today, the town attracts people internationally for the annual Stan Rogers Folk Festival; the community is located on the southern shore of Chedabucto Bay. The southern limit of the bay is at Cape Canso, a headland 3 km southeast of the community. Canso is the southeastern terminus of Trunk 16, an important secondary highway in Antigonish and Guysborough counties; as the community is situated on the end of a peninsula jutting into the Atlantic Ocean, Canso experiences fog during the warmer summer months when continental air temperatures collide with cooler ocean temperatures offshore.
Canso Harbour is protected by the Canso Islands, a small archipelago lying north and east of the mainland, with Durells Island, Piscataqui Island, George Island, Grassy Island being the largest. The islands were designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1925 due to their role as an important fishing base for the French in the 16th century and the British during the 18th century, as the staging point for the 1745 expedition against Louisbourg. "Grassy Island Fort", the remains of early 18th-century British fortifications on Grassy Island, was individually designated as a National Historic Site in 1962. Since the 16th century, Canso has been a strategically important fishery base, it is said that the harbour of Canso was frequented by European fur traders and fishermen within a dozen years of the arrival of Columbus in America, an attempt at settlement was made here as early as 1518. Acadian Governor Razill built a fortified post, Fort Saint-Francois at Canso with Nicholas Le Creux, Sieur du Breuil as lieutenant.
Shortly after Cyprian Southack established himself at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the Mi'kmaq raided the station and burned it to the ground. In response, on September 17–24, 1718, Southback led a raid on Canso and Chedabucto in what became known as the Squirrel Affair. Southack laid siege for three days to Fort St. Louis at Chedabucto, defended by Acadians. There were 300 Acadians in the area. On board HMS Squirrel, Southack imprisoned others. On September 18, British marines landed on Lasconde's Grave and seized the entrance to Chedabucto Harbour; the following day Squirrel landed troops at Salmon River who proceeded to the rear of the village. Squirrel made he first attempt to enter the harbour but was beaten back by the Acadian cannon fire from the fort. In the day the village was captured by the land troops. On September 20 Squirrel made a second, successful, attempt to enter the harbour. Once in the harbor, the ship fired upon the fort. On September 23, Southack burned the village; the pillaged goods were loaded onto several French ships, captured in the harbor.
The following day, September 24, Southack released the Acadian prisoners onto the Canso Islands without any provisions or clothing. Others fled to Petit-de-Grat, Nova Scotia, he seized two French ships, encouraged Governor of Nova Scotia Richard Philipps to fortify Canso. On August 7, 1720, 60–75 Mi'kmaq joined French fishermen from Petit de Grat, attacked the fortification as it was being built; the Mi ` kmaq wounded four more and caused significant damage. The New Englanders took 21 prisoners; the raid on Canso was significant because of the involvement of the Mi'kmaq and was a chief factor leading up to Father Rale's War. In the Fall of 1720, the New Englanders finished building Fort William Augustus. Construction of such a permanent facility was a violation of long-standing agreements between the Mi'kmaq and the fishermen, helped to precipitate Father Rale's War. In 1721, the Governor of Massachusetts took a proprietary attitude toward the Canso fisheries, sent HMS Seahorse to patrol the waters off Nova Scotia.
With the arrival of British troops, the Mi'kmaq were discouraged from attacking until the following year. HMS Seahorse was replaced in 1721 by the first naval ship of Nova Scotia, William Augustus, under the command of Cyprian Southack. In the lead up to Father Rale's War, in July 1722, the Mi'kmaq and some Abenakis began a major offensive against New England fishermen and traders in an attempt to blockade the Nova Scotia capital of Annapolis Royal. Natives captured eighteen trading vessels in the Bay of Fundy and an additional eighteen New England fishing schooners between Cape Sable and Canso; as a result, the New England Governor declared war on the Mi ` kmaq. The ship William Augustus led ships from Canso to protect the fisheries, which resulted in the battle at Jeddore Harbour, Nova Scotia. Only five native bodies were recovered from the battle and the New Englanders decapitated the corpses and set the severed heads on pikes surrounding Canso's new fort. On July 23, 1723, the village was raided again by the Mi'kmaq and they killed three men, a woman and a child.
In this same year, the New
Simon Newcomb was a Canadian–American astronomer, applied mathematician and autodidactic polymath, Professor of Mathematics in the U. S. Navy and at Johns Hopkins. Though he had little conventional schooling, he made important contributions to timekeeping as well as other fields in applied mathematics such as economics and statistics in addition to writing a science fiction novel. Simon Newcomb was born in the town of Nova Scotia, his parents were Emily Prince, the daughter of a New Brunswick magistrate, itinerant school teacher John Burton Newcomb. John moved around teaching in different parts of Canada in different villages in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Emily was a daughter of Thomas Prince and Miriam Steeves, making Simon a great-great-grandson of Heinrich Stief, a not-too-distant cousin of William Henry Steeves, a Canadian Father of Confederation. Newcomb seems to have had little conventional schooling other than from his father and from a short apprenticeship to Dr. Foshay, a charlatan herbalist, in New Brunswick in 1851.
His father provided him with an excellent foundation for his future studies. Newcomb's apprenticeship with Dr. Foshay occurred, they entered an agreement that Newcomb would serve a five-year apprenticeship during which time Foshay would train him in using herbs to treat illnesses. For two years he was an apprentice but became unhappy and disillusioned with his apprenticeship and about Foshay's unscientific approach, realizing that the man was a charlatan, he made the decision to break their agreement. He walked the 120 miles to the port of Calais in Maine where he met the captain of a ship who agreed to take him to Salem, Massachusetts so that he could join his father. In about 1854, he joined his father in Salem, the two journeyed together to Maryland. After arriving in Maryland, Newcomb taught for two years from 1854 to 1856. In his spare time he studied a variety of subjects such as political economy and religion, but his deepest studies were made in mathematics and astronomy. In particular he read Newton's Principia at this time.
In 1856 he took up a position as a private tutor close to Washington and he travelled to that city to study mathematics in the libraries there. He was able to borrow a copy of Bowditch's translation of Laplace's Traité de mécanique céleste from the library of the Smithsonian Institution but found the mathematics beyond him. Newcomb studied mathematics and physics and supported himself by teaching before becoming a human computer at the Nautical Almanac Office in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1857. At around the same time, he enrolled at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, graduating BSc in 1858. Newcomb studied mathematics under Benjamin Peirce and the impecunious Newcomb was a welcome guest at the Peirce home. However, he was said to develop a dislike of Peirce's son, Charles Sanders Peirce and has been accused of a "successful destruction" of C. S. Peirce's career. In particular, Daniel Coit Gilman, president of Johns Hopkins University, is alleged to have been on the point of awarding tenure to C. S. Peirce, before Newcomb intervened behind the scenes to dissuade him.
About 20 years Newcomb influenced the Carnegie Institution Trustees, to prevent C. S. Peirce's last chance to publish his life's work, through a denial of a Carnegie grant to Peirce though Andrew Carnegie himself, Theodore Roosevelt, William James and others, wrote to support it. In the prelude to the American Civil War, many US Navy staff of Confederate sympathies left the service and, in 1861, Newcomb took advantage of one of the ensuing vacancies to become professor of mathematics and astronomer at the United States Naval Observatory, Washington D. C.. Newcomb set to work on the measurement of the position of the planets as an aid to navigation, becoming interested in theories of planetary motion. By the time Newcomb visited Paris, France in 1870, he was aware that the table of lunar positions calculated by Peter Andreas Hansen was in error. While in Paris, he realised that, in addition to the data from 1750 to 1838 that Hansen had used, there was further data stretching as far back as 1672.
His visit allowed little serenity for analysis as he witnessed the defeat of French emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War and the coup that ended the Second French Empire. Newcomb managed to escape from the city during the ensuing rioting that led up to the formation of the Paris Commune and which engulfed the Paris Observatory. Newcomb was able to use the "new" data to revise Hansen's tables, he was offered the post of director of the Harvard College Observatory in 1875 but declined, having by now settled that his interests lay in mathematics rather than observation. In 1877 he became director of the Nautical Almanac Office where, ably assisted by George William Hill, he embarked on a program of recalculation of all the major astronomical constants. Despite fulfilling a further demanding role as professor of mathematics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins University from 1884, he conceived with A. M. W. Downing a plan to resolve much international confusion on the subject. By the time he attended a standardisation conference in Paris, France, in May 1896, the international consensus was that all ephemerides should be based on Newcomb's calculations—Newcomb's Tables of the Sun.
A further conference as late as 1950 confirmed Newcomb's constants as the int
The Sunrise Trail is a scenic roadway in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It is located along the province's North Shore on the Northumberland Strait for 316 km from Amherst to the Canso Causeway. Lorneville Port Howe Pugwash Wallace Malagash Tatamagouche River John Caribou Northumberland Ferries Pictou New Glasgow Westville Antigonish Doctors Brook Lower Barney's River Morristown Cape George Georgeville Malignant Cove Tracadie Havre Boucher Auld's Cove Canso Causeway Amherst Shore Provincial Park Arisaig Bayfield Beach Caribou/Munroes Island Provincial Park Fox Harbour Beach Gulf Shore Beach Heather Beach Melmerby Beach Nelson Memorial Provincial Park Northport Beach Powells Point Pomquet Beach Rushtons Beach Tatamagouche Provincial Park Tidnish Dock Provincial Park Waterside Beach for Exit list of the Sunrise Trail see Nova Scotia Highway 104 #Exit list. Http://www.novascotiaparks.ca/misc/northumberland.asp
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied