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Status Quo Synagogue

The Synagogue Status Quo Ante from Târgu Mureș, located at No. 24, Aurel Filimon street, is the cultural centre for the small Jewish community in the city of Târgu Mureș proper, as well as the larger Transilvanian region. It was constructed during the Austro-Hungarian period, in 1899–1900, in an eclectic architectural style. In 2004, the synagogue Status Quo Ante from Târgu Mureș was added to the list of historic monuments for Mureș County, under registration code MS-II-mB-15544 The presence of Jews in Târgu Mureș is recorded as far back as 1682. Over the next few decades, the Jewish community in the city grew quickly, such that by the time Transilvania, under Austro-Hungarian control, was known as Grand Principality of Transylvania, it was second in size only to the one in Alba Iulia. By around 1785 or so, the Jewish community in Târgu Mureș had just one wooden synagogue to congregate in, which could fit between 150–200 people. By 1870, the community grew to around 1,511 people; the Jewish population played an important role in the development of the city.

Jews would be found amongst a wide range of professions – editors, industrialists, bankers and small scale artisans. A youth school was founded in 1880. During the XIXth century, as part of the Schism in Hungarian Jewry, a majority of the community moved away from orthodox judaism, adopted the Status Quo Ante monicker – a monicker used by some Jewish communities in Transilvania; the size of the Jewish population continued to grow through the first part of the XXth century, up until the start of World War 2, passing 2755 in 1910 and 3246 in 1920 to a peak of 5693 in 1941. By the time of the Interwar period, the community was operating two synagogues – the Great Synagogue on Școlii street, another one on Brăilei street, for a total seating capacity of 1200; the Second Vienna Award and the annexation of northern Transylvania into Hungary in September 1940 was catastrophic for the Jewish community in the city. By 1944, the city had attracted many refugees from the smaller cities and villages in the area, the population was estimated to be around 8000, representing 16% of the population of Târgu Mureș.

The Hungarian authorities, under instructions from admiral Miklós Horthy –, at the time regent of the Kingdom of Hungary and an ally to the Third Reich – moved the Jewish population into a ghetto installed in an ancient brick factory. Between 27 May and 8 June 1944, under orders received from Adolf Eichmann, the Jewish population from Târgu Mureș and the surrounding region was deported to Auschwitz. None of the 7550 deported Jews survived. After the end of World War 2, most of the survivors of the Shoah moved to Israel; the remaining Jewish community in Târgu Mureș was reduced – in a 1977 census, only 646 Jewish citizens were counted in the entire Mureș County. By the start of the XXIst century, the population was further reduced, was no bigger than 200 in Târgu Mureș; the grand synagogue in Târgu Mureș was built in 1899–1900 -during the austro-Hungarian period, in an eclectic architectural style, following plans provided by the vienese architect Jakob Gartner, of moravian descent. The start of construction of the synagogue at the end of the 19th century signaled, for the "Status Quo" Jewish community of Târgu Mureș, a definitive detachment from the orthodox Jewish community in the rest of Transylvania.

The synagogue was inaugurated in 1900 by rabbi Dr. Joachim Wilhelm, in the presence of leaders of the local Jewish community: Adalbert Burger and Mendel Farcas; the inauguration celebrations took 3 nights. A marble plaque, placed in the entrance hall, is marked with the names of principal donors to the construction; the synagogue continues to be known to this day under the familiar name Sinagoga de pe ulița Școlii in Hungarian Iskola utcai Zsinagóga, despite the eventual change of name for the street, change of address for the synagogue. In 1998, with funding provided by the Federation of the Jewish Communities in Romania and by various private donors, a renovation was started, reaching eventual completion in 2000. Significant work was performed, including reinforcing the walls and foundations and exterior restoration matching and following the original architectural designs and paint. Most of the efforts to raise funds and complete the restoration, rehabilitate the synagogue, were performed by the president of the community, Bernath Sauber, by his secretary, Alexandru Ausch.

The building was re-inaugurated in 2000. According to the publication Seventy years of existence. Six hundred years of Jewish life in Romania. Forty years of partnership FEDROM – JOINT edited in 2008, by the Federation of the Jewish Communities in Romania, which contains a list of all of the synagogues in Romania, the synagogue Status Quo Ante from Târgu Mureș is marked as being in service; the current synagogue sports 552 seats, 314 on the lower level and reserved for men, 238 on the upper level, reserved for women. The eclectic architecture presents itself as a mix of styles; the exterior contains roman architectural elements, mixed with some elements showing gothic inspiration – for example the rose windows – as well as some showing moorish inspiration, such as scalloped profiles or domes which borrow from Islamic architecture. As part of th

Anthony Shadid

Anthony Shadid was a foreign correspondent for The New York Times based in Baghdad and Beirut who won the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting twice, in 2004 and 2010. Anthony Shadid was born on September 26, 1968, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, of Lebanese Christian descent. In 1990, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he wrote for The Daily Cardinal student newspaper. From 2003 to 2009 Shadid was a staff writer for The Washington Post where he was an Islamic affairs correspondent based in the Middle East, he worked as Middle East correspondent for the Associated Press based in Cairo and as news editor of the AP bureau in Los Angeles. He spent two years covering diplomacy and the State Department for The Boston Globe before joining the Post's foreign desk. In 2002, he was shot in the shoulder by an Israel sniper in Ramallah while reporting for the Boston Globe in the West Bank; the bullet grazed his spine. On March 16, 2011, Shadid and three colleagues were reported missing in Eastern Libya, having gone there to report on the uprising against the dictatorship of Col. Muammar Al-Ghaddafi.

On March 18, 2011, The New York Times reported that Libya agreed to free him and three colleagues: Stephen Farrell, Lynsey Addario and Tyler Hicks. The Libyan government released the four journalists on March 21, 2011. Shadid married Nada Bakri a reporter for The New York Times. Shadid had a daughter, from his first marriage. Michael Shadid was his great uncle. Shadid died at age 43 on February 16, 2012, from a “fatal asthma attack” while attempting to leave Syria. Shadid's smoking and extreme allergy to horses are believed to be the major contributing factors in causing his fatal asthma attack. "He was walking behind some horses," said his father. "He's more allergic to those than anything else—and he had an asthma attack." His body was carried to Turkey by a photographer for The New York Times. Shadid's cousin, Dr. Edward Shadid of Oklahoma City, challenged the Times' version of the death, instead blamed the publication for forcing him into Syria. 2003: George Polk Award for Foreign Reporting 2004: Michael Kelly Award Overseas Press Club award American Society of Newspaper Editors award Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting 2006: Ridenhour Book Prize for Night Draws Near 2010: Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting 2011: Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from the American University of Beirut 2012: George Polk Award for Foreign Reporting Finalist for National Book Award and National Book Critics Circle Award for House of Stone Shadid's experiences in Iraq formed the subject for his 2005 book Night Draws Near, an empathetic look at how the war has impacted the Iraqi people beyond liberation and insurgency.

Legacy of the Prophet: Despots and the New Politics of Islam Night Draws Near: Iraq's People in the Shadow of America's War Dove la notte non finisce House of Stone Anthony Shadid Award for Journalism Ethics Official website "Anthony Shadid collected news and commentary". The New York Times. Pulitzer Prize winning work at The Washington Post Anthony Shadid 1968–2012, pieces written for the Associated Press Appearances on C-SPAN Anthony Shadid on Charlie Rose Works by or about Anthony Shadid in libraries Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting in 2004 and 2010 – citation, biography, jury David Chambers, "Calling Helen Thomas", Saudi Aramco World, March/April 2006 – feature article profiling Anthony Shadid, Newsweek's Lorraine Ali and NBC's Hoda Kotb Amy Goodman, Anthony Shadid: Tunisia Has "Electrified People Across the Arab World", Democracy Now!, January 18, 2011 – video report Terry Gross, "A Foreign Correspondent Reflects On The Arab Spring", Fresh Air, December 21, 2011 – interview with Anthony Shadid