Thomas Chalmers FRSE, was a Scottish minister, professor of theology, political economist, and a leader of the Church of Scotland and of the Free Church of Scotland. He has been called Scotlands greatest nineteenth-century churchman and he served as Vice-president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh from 1835–42. The Dunedin, New Zealand town of Port Chalmers was named after Chalmers and he was born at Anstruther in Fife, the son of John Chalmers, a merchant, and Elizabeth Hall. At the age of eleven Chalmers was entered as a student at St Andrews, in January 1799 he was licensed as a preacher of the Gospel by the St Andrews presbytery. Kilmany was a small and predominantly agricultural parish, with a population under 800 in 1811, Chalmers made an issue within St Andrews of the quality of mathematics teaching. It came to involve attacks on John Rotheram, the professor of natural philosophy and his mathematical lectures roused enthusiasm, but they were discontinued by order of the authorities. Chalmers opened mathematical classes on his own account which attracted students, at the same time he delivered a course of lectures on chemistry.
In 1805 he became a candidate for the vacant professorship of mathematics at The University of Edinburgh, in 1815 he became minister of the Tron Church, Glasgow, in spite of determined opposition to him in the town council on the grounds of his evangelical teaching. From Glasgow his reputation as a preacher throughout the United Kingdom. When he visited London Samuel Wilberforce wrote, all the world is wild about Dr Chalmers, in November 1817 Chalmers used a memorial sermon for Princess Charlotte of Wales to appeal for a Christian effort to deal with the social condition of Glasgow. His parish contained about 11,000 persons, and of these about one-third were not connected with any church and he considered that parochial organizations had not kept pace in the city with the growing population. He declared that twenty new churches, with parishes, should be erected in Glasgow, and he set to work to revive the old parochial economy of Scotland. The town council agreed to one new church, attaching to it a parish of 10,000 persons, mostly weavers and factory workers.
In September 1819 he became minister of the church and parish of St John and he first addressed himself to providing schools for the children. Two school-houses with four endowed teachers were established, where 700 children were taught, between 40 and 50 local Sabbath schools were opened, where more than 1000 children were taught. The parish was divided into 25 districts with 60 to 100 families, Chalmers was the centre of the whole system, visiting families and holding evening meetings. In 1823 Chalmers accepted the chair of philosophy at St Andrews University. His lectures led some students to devote themselves to missionary effort, among his pupils were William Lindsay Alexander, Alexander Duff, and James Aitken Wylie
John Knox was a Scottish minister and writer who was a leader of the Reformation and is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. He is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews, influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church. He was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546 and he was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549. While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England and he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. In England, he met and married his first wife, Margery Bowes, when Mary Tudor ascended the throne and re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox was forced to resign his position and leave the country. Knox moved to Geneva and to Frankfurt, in Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity.
He created a new order of service, which was adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He left Geneva to head the English refugee church in Frankfurt but he was forced to leave over differences concerning the liturgy, on his return to Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility. The movement may be seen as a revolution, since it led to the ousting of Mary of Guise, Knox helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk. He continued to serve as the leader of the Protestants throughout Marys reign. In several interviews with the Queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices, when she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband Lord Darnley and King James VI was enthroned in her stead, he openly called for her execution. He continued to preach until his final days, John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian.
His father, William Knox, was a merchant, All that is known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child. Their eldest son, carried on his fathers business, Knox was probably educated at the grammar school in Haddington. In this time, the priesthood was the path for those whose inclinations were academic rather than mercantile or agricultural. He proceeded to further studies at the University of St Andrews or possibly at the University of Glasgow and he studied under John Major, one of the greatest scholars of the time. Knox first appears in records as a priest and a notary in 1540. Rather than taking up duties in a parish, he became tutor to two sons of Hugh Douglas of Longniddry
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the worlds largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013, the departments annual budget is in excess of £350 million, it has 3,500 staff,2,000 of whom are journalists. BBC News domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, all nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
As with all media outlets, though, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum. The British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO on 14 November 1922, on Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report. The BBC gradually gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, however, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II. Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, a weekly Childrens Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers. The network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London. The publics interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953 and it is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radios audience of 12 million for the first time.
Those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission and that year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, and four and a half million by 1955. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a commentary by John Snagge. It was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were finally introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – mainly at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherds Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it. It was from here that the first Panorama, a new programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of News and Current Affairs and he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole
Sir Archibald Alison, 1st Baronet
Sir Archibald Alison, 1st Baronet, GCB, FRSE was a Scottish advocate and historian. He held several prominent legal appointments and he was the younger son of the Episcopalian cleric and author Archibald Alison. His elder brother was the physician and social reformer William Alison and he was born at the parsonage at Kenley, Shropshire, to the Rev. Archibald Alison and his wife Dorothea Gregory, daughter of John Gregory, and granddaughter of James Forbes, 17th Lord Forbes. In 1800 his parents moved the back to Edinburgh, as his father thought that he could give his sons a better education. In 1853, he received a Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law by the University of Oxford, benefited from the compensation paid out following the abolition of slavery in 1833. The record containing the facts discovered can be found at the UCLs Legacies of British Slave-ownership database, and the National Archive and the records of the Slave Compensation Commission. When travelling in France in 1814 he conceived the idea of his expansive History of Europe from the commencement of the French revolution to the restoration of the Bourbons.
This multi-volume set is usually regarded as Alisons chief historical work and is considered to be the first scholarly English-language study of the French Revolution. Published in ten volumes between 1833 and 1843, History of Europe was revised and reprinted many times throughout the century, the work is one of vast industry, contain a wealth of information communicated in a vigorous though wordy style. Disraeli satirises the author in Coningsby as Mr. Wordy, who wrote a history to prove that Providence was on the side of the Tories, such criticism notwithstanding, History of Europe proved to be a huge commercial success. By 1848100,000 copies had sold in the United States. It was translated into French and even Arabic, Alison composed a comprehensive survey of the military campaigns of the Duke of Marlborough, as well as two standard works on the criminal law of Scotland. He was elected Lord Rector successively of Marischal College, Aberdeen, in 1852 he was created a baronet, during Lord Derbys administration.
In 1825, he married Elizabeth Glencairn, the daughter of Patrick Tytler, both sons became distinguished British officers. The 1st Baronets autobiography was published in 1883, his portrait was painted by Robert Scott Lauder, Alison died at Possil House, Glasgow, at the age of 74, and was interred in Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh. He enjoyed great popularity in Glasgow and his funeral was attended by a crowd of from 100,000 to 150,000 people. His grave lies amid the Lords Row against the western wall and he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his elder son, Sir Archibald Alison, 2nd Baronet. I, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. LVIII Montesquieu, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. LVIII Humboldt, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, II, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. LVIII Marlborough
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current President of the United States. Prior to entering politics he was a businessman and television personality, Trump was born and raised in Queens, New York City, and earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He took charge of The Trump Organization, the estate and construction firm founded by his paternal grandmother, which he ran for four. During his real career, Trump has built and managed numerous office towers, casinos. Besides real estate, he started several ventures and has lent the use of his name for the branding of various products. He owned the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he hosted The Apprentice, as of 2017, Forbes listed him as the 544th wealthiest person in the world with a net worth of $3.5 billion. Trump first publicly expressed interest in running for office in 1987. He won two Reform Party presidential primaries in 2000, but withdrew his candidacy early on, in June 2015, he launched his campaign for the 2016 presidential election and quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 candidates in the Republican primaries.
His final opponents suspended their campaigns in May 2016, and in July he was nominated at the Republican National Convention along with Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate. His campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention, many of the statements he made at rallies, in interviews, or on social media were controversial or false. Trump won the election on November 8,2016, in a surprise victory against Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. His political positions have been described by scholars and commentators as populist, Trump was born on June 14,1946 at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, New York City. He was the fourth of five born to Frederick Christ Fred Trump. His siblings are Maryanne, Fred Jr. Elizabeth, and Robert, Trumps ancestors originated from the village of Kallstadt, Germany on his fathers side, and from the Outer Hebrides isles of Scotland on his mothers side. All his grandparents, and his mother, were born in Europe and his mothers grandfather was christened Donald.
On a visit to his village, he met Elisabeth Christ. He died from the flu pandemic of 1918 and Elizabeth incorporated the family real estate business, Elizabeth Trump and Son, which would become The Trump Organization. Trumps father Fred was born in the Bronx, and worked with his mother since he was 15 as a real estate developer, primarily in the New York boroughs of Queens and he eventually built and sold thousands of houses and apartments
Robert Burns, known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is in English and he wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest. Celebration of his life and work became almost a national charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, in 2009 he was chosen as the greatest Scot by the Scottish public in a vote run by Scottish television channel STV. As well as making original compositions, Burns collected songs from across Scotland. His poem Auld Lang Syne is often sung at Hogmanay, and he was born in a house built by his father, where he lived until Easter 1766, when he was seven years old. William Burnes sold the house and took the tenancy of the 70-acre Mount Oliphant farm, here Burns grew up in poverty and hardship, and the severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution.
By the age of 15, Burns was the principal labourer at Mount Oliphant, during the harvest of 1774, he was assisted by Nelly Kilpatrick, who inspired his first attempt at poetry, O, Once I Lovd A Bonnie Lass. In the summer of 1775, he was sent to finish his education with a tutor at Kirkoswald, despite his ability and character, William Burnes was consistently unfortunate, and migrated with his large family from farm to farm without ever being able to improve his circumstances. Subsequently, the family became integrated into the community of Tarbolton, to his fathers disapproval, Robert joined a country dancing school in 1779 and, with Gilbert, formed the Tarbolton Bachelors Club the following year. His earliest existing letters date from this time, when he began making overtures to Alison Begbie. In spite of four songs written for her and a suggestion that he was willing to marry her, Robert Burns was initiated into masonic Lodge St David, Tarbolton, on 4 July 1781, when he was 22. This venture accordingly came to an end, and Burns went home to Lochlea farm, during this time he met and befriended Captain Richard Brown who encouraged him to become a poet.
He continued to write poems and songs and began a book in 1783. The case went to the Court of Session, and Burnes was upheld in January 1784, a fortnight before he died. During the summer of 1784 Burns came to know a group of girls known collectively as The Belles of Mauchline, one of whom was Jean Armour, the daughter of a stonemason from Mauchline. His first child, Elizabeth Paton Burns, was born to his mothers servant, Elizabeth Paton, while he was embarking on a relationship with Jean Armour, Burns signed a paper attesting his marriage to Jean, but her father was in the greatest distress, and fainted away. To avoid disgrace, her parents sent her to live with her uncle in Paisley, although Armours father initially forbade it, they were eventually married in 1788
Hugh Miller was a self-taught Scottish geologist and writer, folklorist and an evangelical Christian. Born in Cromarty, he was educated in a school where he reportedly showed a love of reading. At 17 he was apprenticed to a stonemason, and his work in quarries, together with walks along the local shoreline, in 1834 he became accountant in one of the local banks, and in the next year brought out his Scenes and Legends in the North of Scotland. In 1837 he married Lydia Mackenzie Falconer, among his geological works are The Old Red Sandstone, Footprints of the Creator, The Testimony of the Rocks, Sketch-book of Popular Geology. Of these books, perhaps The Old Red Sandstone was the best-known and he denied the Epicurean theory that new species occasionally budded from the soil, and the Lamarckian theory of development of species, as lacking evidence. In a biographical review about him, he was recognized as a person by Sir David Brewster. For most of 1856, Miller suffered severe headaches and mental distress, and he feared that he might harm his wife or children because of persecutory delusions.
Miller committed suicide, shooting himself in the chest with a revolver in his house on Tower Street and that night he had finished checking printers proofs for his book on Scottish fossil plants and vertebrates, The Testimony of the Rocks. Before his death, he wrote a poem called Strange but True and his funeral procession, attended by thousands, was amongst the largest in the memory of Edinburgh residents. He is buried in the Grange Cemetery in Edinburgh and his is a very simple red granite monument on the north boundary wall, close to the NW corner. His son Hugh Miller FRSE, only six years old when his father killed himself, though he had no academic credentials, he is today considered one of Scotlands premier palaeontologists. Millers second daughter, Harriet Miller Davidson was a poet who married a clergyman after her fathers suicide. She moved to Adelaide where her husband was a minister and she published poems, there is a bust of Hugh Miller in the Hall of Heroes at the Wallace Monument in Stirling.
It was here that he found his first fossil ammonite, in Jurassic rocks, the haven was originally a salmon fishing station, and a former fishermens bothy, open to the public, has a display board about the geology of the area and Millers fossil discoveries. The BP-operated Miller oilfield in the North Sea was named after Hugh Miller, Hugh Miller Place, a street in the Stockbridge Colonies area of Edinburgh, is named in his honour. Hugh Miller, introducing palaeobotany to a wider audience, in, Bowden, A. J. Burek, C. V. & Wilding, R. Geological Society, Special Publications,241,63 –90 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, London, J. M. Dent & Sons
Battle of Stirling Bridge
The Battle of Stirling Bridge was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence. The Earl of Surrey had won a victory over the aristocracy of Scotland at the Battle of Dunbar, however, by August 1297 Moray and Wallace controlled almost all of Scotland north of the Forth, except for Dundee. Surrey marched north with an army from Berwick to relieve Dundee, the town of Stirling was the key entry point to the north of Scotland. The earl arrived at the narrow, wooden bridge over the River Forth near Stirling Castle, so he delayed crossing for several days to allow for negotiations, and to reconnoiter the area. On 10 September Warenne gave orders to cross the river the next day, at dawn the English and Welsh infantry started to cross only to be recalled due to the fact that Warenne had overslept. The Scots arrived first and encamped on Abbey Craig which dominated the soft, the English force of English and Scots knights and foot soldiers camped to the south of the river. Hugh Cressingham, King Edwards treasurer in Scotland, persuaded the Earl to reject this advice, the Scots waited as the English knights and infantry made their slow progress across the bridge on the morning of 11 September.
It would have several hours for the entire English army to cross. Wallace and Moray waited, according to the Chronicle of Hemingburgh, when a substantial number of the troops had crossed the attack was ordered. The Scots spearmen came down from the ground in rapid advance. They gained control of the east side of the bridge, caught on the low ground in the loop of the river with no chance of relief or of retreat, most of the outnumbered English on the east side were probably killed. A few hundred may have escaped by swimming across the river, who was left with a pitiful contingent of archers, had remained to the south of the river and was still in a strong position. The bulk of his army remained intact and he could have held the line of the Forth, denying the triumphant Scots a passage to the south, but his confidence was gone. James Stewart, the High Steward of Scotland, and Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, whose forces had been part of Surreys army, observing the carnage to the north of the bridge, withdrew.
Then the English supply train was attacked at The Pows, a marshy area, by James Stewart. The location of Stirling Bridge at the date of the battle is believed to lie about 180 yards upstream from the 15th century stone that still crosses the river today. Four stone piers have been found underwater just north and at an angle to the extant 15th-century bridge, along with man-made stonework on one bank in line with the piers. The site of the fighting was along either side of a causeway leading from the Abbey Craig, atop which the Wallace Monument is now located
Scottish national identity
Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity and common culture of the Scottish people. In the early Middle Ages, what is now Scotland was divided between four major groups and kingdoms. In the east were the Picts, who fell under the leadership of the kings of Fortriu, in the west were the Gaelic -speaking people of Dál Riata with close links with the island of Ireland, from which they brought with them the name Scots. In the south-west was the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, often named Alt Clut, in the late eighth century this situation was transformed by the beginning of ferocious attacks by the Vikings, who eventually settled in Galloway, Orkney and the Hebrides. These threats may have speeded a long process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms. There was a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish crowns, when he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900, Domnall II was the first man to be called rí Alban. In the High Middle Ages the word Scot was only used by Scots to describe themselves to foreigners and they called themselves Albanach or simply Gaidel.
Both Scot and Gaidel were ethnic terms that connected them to the majority of the inhabitants of Ireland. At the beginning of the century, the author of De Situ Albanie noted, The name Arregathel means margin of the Scots or Irish, because all Scots. This identity was defined in opposition to English attempts to annexe the country and this document has been seen as the first nationalist theory of sovereignty. The epic poetic history of the The Brus and Wallace helped outline a narrative of united struggle against the English enemy. Arthurian literature differed from conventional version of the legend by treating Arthur as a villain and Mordred and it was in this period that the national flag emerged as a common symbol. Use of a background for the Saint Andrews Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century. The earliest reference to the Saint Andrews Cross as a flag is to be found in the Vienna Book of Hours, Renaissance ideas began to influence views on government, described as New or Renaissance monarchy, which emphasised the status and significance of the monarch.
The Roman Law principle that a king is emperor in his own kingdom can be seen in Scotland from the mid-fifteenth century, in 1469 Parliament passed an act that declared that James III possessed full jurisdiction and empire within his realm. It soon began to appear in heraldry, on seals, sculptures. James V was the first Scottish monarch to wear the imperial crown, in place of the open circlet of medieval kings. His diadem was reworked to include arches in 1532, which were re-added when it was reconstructed in 1540 in what remains the Crown of Scotland, her personal reign ended in civil war, deposition and execution in England
Allan Ramsay (poet)
Allan Ramsay was a Scottish poet, publisher and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh. Allan Ramsay was born at Leadhills, Lanarkshire to John Ramsay, superintendent of Lord Hopetouns lead-mines and his wife, Alice Bower, Allan Ramsay and his elder brother Robert probably attended the parish school at Crawfordjohn. In 1701 Allan was apprenticed to a wig-maker in Edinburgh and he married Christian Ross in 1712, a few years after he had established himself as a wig-maker in the High Street, and soon found himself in comfortable circumstances. His eldest child was Allan Ramsay, the portrait painter, Ramsays first efforts in verse-making were inspired by the meetings of the Easy Club, of which he was an original member, and in 1715 he became the Club Laureate. The choice of the two names has some significance, when we consider his life as the associate of the Queen Anne poets. In 1716 he had published a transcript of Christs Kirk on the Green from the Bannatyne Manuscript. In 1718 he republished the piece with more supplementary verses, in the following year he printed a collection of Scots Songs.
The success of these ventures prompted him to collect his poems in 1720, the volume was issued by subscription, and brought in the sum of four hundred guineas. Four years he removed to another shop, in the neighbouring Luckenbooths, Ramsay is considered to have created the first circulating library in Britain when he rented books from his shop in 1726. The Tea-Table Miscellany is A Collection of Choice Songs Scots and English, containing some of Ramsays own, some by his friends, several ballads and songs. In The Ever Green, being a Collection of Scots Poems wrote by the Ingenious before 1600, Ramsay had another purpose, nearly all the pieces were taken from the Bannatyne manuscript, though they are by no means verbatim copies. They included his version of Christs Kirk and a pastiche by the editor entitled The Vision. While engaged on two series, he produced, in 1725, his dramatic pastoral The Gentle Shepherd. In the volume of poems published in 1721 Ramsay had shown his bent to this genre, especially in Patie and Roger, the success of the drama was remarkable.
It passed through several editions, and was performed at the theatre in Edinburgh, its title is known in every corner of Scotland. In 1726 he published anonymously Poems in English and Latin, on the Archers and Royal Company of Archers and he wrote the words to the Archers March, Another volume of his poems appeared in 1728. Ramsay wrote little afterwards, though he published a few shorter poems, a complete edition of his Poems appeared in London in 1731 and in Dublin in 1733. With a touch of vanity he expressed the fear lest the coolness of fancy that attends advanced years should make me risk the reputation I had acquired and he was already on terms of intimacy with the leading men of letters in Scotland and England
Mel Colmcille Gerard Gibson AO is an American actor and filmmaker. He was born in Peekskill, New York, and moved with his parents to Sydney, Australia and he studied acting at the Australian National Institute of Dramatic Art. During the 1980s, he founded Icon Entertainment, a company which independent film director Atom Egoyan has called. Director Peter Weir cast him as one of the leads in the critically acclaimed World War I drama Gallipoli, the film helped to earn Gibson the reputation of a serious, versatile actor. He directed and produced the successful and controversial, biblical drama film The Passion of the Christ. He received further critical notice for his work of the action-adventure film Apocalypto. Gibson was born in Peekskill, New York, the sixth of eleven children, and the son of Hutton Gibson, a writer. One of Gibsons younger brothers, Donal, is an actor, because of his mother, Gibson retains dual Irish and American citizenship. Mel was twelve years old at the time, Gibson was educated by members of the Congregation of Christian Brothers at St Leos Catholic College in Wahroonga, New South Wales, during his high school years.
Gibson gained very favorable notices from critics when he first entered the cinematic scene. In 1982, Vincent Canby wrote that Mr. Gibson recalls the young Steve McQueen, I cant define star quality, but whatever it is, Mr. Gibson has it. Gibson has likened to a combination Clark Gable and Humphrey Bogart. Gibsons roles in the Mad Max series of films, Peter Weirs Gallipoli, Gibson expanded into a variety of acting projects including human dramas such as Hamlet, and comedic roles such as those in Maverick and What Women Want. He expanded beyond acting into directing and producing, The Man Without a Face, in 1993, Braveheart, in 1995, The Passion of the Christ, in 2004, jess Cagle of Time compared Gibson with Cary Grant, Sean Connery, and Robert Redford. Connery once suggested Gibson should play the next James Bond to Connerys M. Gibson turned down the role, Gibson studied at the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney. The students at NIDA were classically trained in the British-theater tradition rather than in preparation for screen acting.
As students and actress Judy Davis played the leads in Romeo and Juliet, and Gibson played the role of Queen Titania in an experimental production of A Midsummer Nights Dream. After graduation in 1977, Gibson immediately began work on the filming of Mad Max, but continued to work as a stage actor, and joined the State Theatre Company of South Australia in Adelaide
Stirling is a city in central Scotland. The market town, surrounded by farmland, grew up connecting the royal citadel, the medieval old town with its merchants and tradesmen, the bridge. Located on the River Forth, Stirling is the centre for the Stirling council area. It is proverbially the strategically important Gateway to the Highlands and it has been said that Stirling, like a huge brooch clasps Highlands and Lowlands together. Similarly he who holds Stirling, holds Scotland is often quoted, stirlings key position as the lowest bridging point of the River Forth before it broadens towards the Firth of Forth, made it a focal point for travel north or south. This invited control for, military advantage in times of unrest, unsurprisingly an excise man was installed in a covered booth in the centre of the bridge to collect tax from any entering the royal burgh with goods. According to a 9th century legend, when Stirling was temporarily under Anglo-Saxon sway, however the sound of a wolf roused a sentry who alerted his garrison to force a Viking retreat.
This led to the wolf being adopted as a symbol of the town, even today it appears with a goshawk on the coat of arms along with the recently chosen motto, Steadfast as the Rock. Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling is visually dominated by Stirling Castle, the poet King was educated by George Buchanan and grew up in Stirling. He was also crowned King of England and Ireland on 25th July 1603, modern Stirling is a centre for local government, higher education, tourism and industry. The 2011 census recorded the population of the city as 45,750, One of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, Stirling was created a royal burgh by King David I in 1130. In 2002, as part of Queen Elizabeths Golden Jubilee, Stirling was granted city status, Stirling was originally a Stone Age settlement as shown by the Randolphfield standing stones and Kings Park prehistoric carvings that can still be found south of the city. The site has been significant since at least the Roman occupation of Britain, due to its naturally defensible crag and tail hill.
Coupled to this it enjoys a position which is not far from the Ochil Hills on the border between the Lowlands and Highlands. Its other notable feature is its proximity to the lowest ancient ford of the River Forth. It remained the rivers lowest crossing point until the construction of the Alloa Swing Bridge between Throsk and Alloa in 1885. It is supposed that Stirling is the fortress of Iuddeu or Urbs Giudi where Oswiu of Northumbria was besieged by Penda of Mercia in 655, as recorded in Bede and contemporary annals. Stirling was chartered as a burgh by King David in the 12th century