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Wallachia

Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections and Oltenia. Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections. Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary, although the first mention of the territory of Wallachia west of the river Olt dates to a charter given to the voivode Seneslau in 1246 by Béla IV of Hungary. In 1417, Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia to form the United Principalities, which adopted the name Romania in 1866 and became the Kingdom of Romania in 1881. Following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the resolution of the elected representatives of Romanians in 1918, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș were allocated to the Kingdom of Romania, thereby forming the modern Romanian state.

The name Wallachia is an exonym not used by Romanians themselves who used the denomination "Țara Românească/Rumânească" – Romanian Land. The term "Wallachia" is derived from the term walhaz used by Germanic peoples to describe Celts, romanized Celts and all Romance-speaking people. In Northwestern Europe this gave rise to Wales and Wallonia, among others, while in Southeast Europe it was used to designate Romance-speakers, subsequently shepherds generally. In the Early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi was used as a designation for its location; the term, translated in Romanian as "Ungrovalahia", remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia, in contrast to Thessalian or Great Vlachia in Greece or Small Wallachia in Serbia. The Romanian-language designations of the state were Muntenia, Țara Românească, RomâniaFor long periods after the 14th century, Wallachia was referred to as Vlaško by Bulgarian sources, Vlaška by Serbian sources, Voloschyna by Ukrainian sources and Walachei or Walachey by German-speaking sources.

The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is Havasalföld "Snowy Lowlands", the older form of, Havaselve, meaning "Land beyond the snowy mountains". In Ottoman Turkish, the term Eflâk Prensliği, or simply"Eflâk افلاق, appears. Arabic chronicles from the 13th century had used the name of Wallachia instead of Kingdom of Bulgaria, they gave the coordinates of Wallachia and specified that Wallachia was named al-Awalak and the dwellers ulaqut or ulagh. The area of Oltenia in Wallachia was known in Turkish as Kara-Eflak and Kuçuk-Eflak, while the former has been used for Ottoman Moldova. In the Second Dacian War western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province; the Roman limes was built along the Olt River in 119 before being moved to the east in the second century, during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucăr in the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245 and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region.

The area was subject to Romanization during the Migration Period, when most of present-day Romania was invaded by Goths and Sarmatians known as the Chernyakhov culture, followed by waves of other nomads. In 328, the Romans built a bridge between Sucidava and Oescus which indicates that there was a significant trade with the peoples north of the Danube. A short period of Roman rule in the area is attested under Emperor Constantine the Great, after he attacked the Goths in 332; the period of Goth rule ended when the Huns arrived in the Pannonian Basin and, under Attila and destroyed some 170 settlements on both sides of the Danube. Byzantine influence is evident during the 5th to 6th century, such as the site at Ipotești-Cândești, but from the second half of the 6th century and in the seventh century, Slavs crossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube. In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area.

Wallachia was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until the Hungarians' conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century. W

John William Rayner

Wing Commander John William Rayner was a British military officer who began his career in the Army during World War I. He became a flying ace during the closing months of the war, being credited with five aerial victories, he resumed his military career on 21 September 1929, when he joined the Reserve of Air Force Officers. He continued his service into World War II, joining the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, until he was medically discharged as a wing commander on 21 December 1944, he was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire. Rayner was born on 19 May 1897 in County Durham, England, he was working as a legal articled clerk before enlisting. After training as a cadet in the Officers' Training Corps, Rayner was commissioned as a second lieutenant on 14 April 1915, serving in the 1st Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers, he was confirmed in his rank, promoted to lieutenant on 3 November 1915. Rayner relinquished his acting rank of captain in the Fusiliers on 16 January 1917, on 22 February was appointed a flying officer in the Royal Flying Corps with the rank of lieutenant, with seniority from 18 January 1917.

He first served as an observer in No. 52 Squadron RFC, before training as a pilot, receiving Royal Aero Club Aviator's Certificate No. 5535 on 10 September 1917, being appointed a flying officer the same day. Rayner was posted to No. 89 Squadron RFC, a formed training unit based at Catterick, disbanded in July 1918 without becoming operational. With the Army's Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service having merged to form the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918, Rayner joined No. 60 Squadron RAF, based in France, to fly the S. E.5a single-seat fighter, being appointed flight commander of'A' Flight on 1 August 1918, with the temporary rank of captain. He gained his first aerial victories on the evening on 5 September when he set one German Fokker D. VII drove another down out of control over Avesnes-le-Sec. On the afternoon of 23 October he drove another one down out of control over Salesches, on the morning of 25 October he set a D. VII drove another one down out of control over Berlaimont to become an ace.

On 17 January 1919, Rayner was transferred to the unemployed list of the Royal Air Force. In July 1919 he received a mention in despatches from Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, former Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France, for "distinguished and gallant services and devotion to duty" during the period 16 September 1918 to 15 March 1919, he resigned his commission in the Northumberland Fusiliers on 1 April 1920, retaining the rank of lieutenant. Rayner returned to his legal studies, qualified as a solicitor. On 10 September 1929, he returned to his military career, being commissioned as a probationary flying officer in Class A of the Reserve of Air Force Officers. Six years on 10 September 1935, he transferred to the Class C reserves, he returned to active service during World War II, still serving in the Reserves, in which he was granted the war substantive rank of flight lieutenant on 6 August 1940, received his second mention in despatches from the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief on 24 September 1941, by which time he had been appointed an acting-squadron leader.

He relinquished his commission in the RAFO on 15 September 1943, on joining the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve with the rank of flight lieutenant. He was again appointed an acting-squadron leader, this was made war substantive on 6 March 1944. Two days on 8 March, he received his third mention in despatches. Rayner relinquished his commission on the grounds of ill-health on 21 December 1944, but was permitted to retain the rank of wing commander. Shortly afterwards, in the 1945 New Year Honours, Rayner was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire. After the war returned to the law, by the time of his retirement was a Justice of the Peace. Aerial victory standards of World War I BibliographyShores, Christopher F.. Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9

Günter Theißen

Günter Theißen is a German geneticist. He holds the chair of genetics at the University of Jena. Günter Theißen studied biology at the University of Düsseldorf and did his PhD in 1991 with Rolf Wagner at that university. From 1992–2001, he was a group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne, he did his second doctorate at the University of Cologne in 2000. In 2001, he was appointed professor at the University of Münster. In 2002, he was appointed to hold the chair of genetics at the University of Jena. In his research, Günter Theißen deals, among other things, with molecular genetics and evolution of plant development. In particular, he and his group investigate special transcription factors encoded by MADS-box genes