Grande Ronde River
For other places with the same name, see Grande Ronde. The Grande Ronde River is a tributary of the Snake River, 182 miles long, in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington in the United States, it drains an area southeast of the Blue Mountains and northwest of the Wallowa Mountains, on the Columbia Plateau. It flows through the agricultural Grande Ronde Valley in its middle course and through a series of scenic canyons in its lower course; the Grande Ronde River rises in the Blue Mountains near the Anthony Lakes recreation area in the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest in southwestern Union County 20 miles south of La Grande. It flows north along the east side of the Blue Mountains east, past La Grande generally northeast through the Grande Ronde Valley in a meandering course between the Blue Mountains and the Wallowa Mountains, receiving Catherine Creek east of La Grande. 10 miles northwest of Minam it receives the Wallowa River from the southeast receives the Wenaha River at Troy just south of the Washington border.
It crosses into southeastern Washington, traversing the extreme southeast corner of the state and entering the Snake from the east 5 miles north of the Oregon border and 15 miles downstream from the mouth of the Salmon River. It receives Joseph Creek from the south 2 miles upstream from its mouth on the Snake; the mouth of the Grande Ronde River is at the Snake's river mile 169, 493 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. A diversion channel 5 miles long in the Grande Ronde Valley east of La Grande allows the river to bypass a long meandering loop, providing access to its water for irrigation. In the early 19th century, the valley of the river was inhabited by Nez Perce, Walla Walla, Cayuse tribes of Native Americans. Numerous archaeological sites are on the public land around the river; the Grande Ronde River was given its name sometime before 1821 by French Canadian voyageurs working for the Montreal-based fur trading North West Company. Grande Ronde is a French name meaning "great round".
A portion Grande Ronde and its valley were part of the Oregon Trail. It was first used by settlers in 1844 when Moses "Black" Harris led his party to the river from Fort Hall and turned northwest to cross the Blue Mountains. Harris' navigation would be subsequently repeated. In 1988, the United States Congress designated about 44 miles of the river, from its confluence with the Wallowa River to the Oregon–Washington border, as the Grande Ronde Wild and Scenic River, as part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the river today is a popular destination for hunting for game animals such as mule deer, black bear and bighorn sheep. Fishing and hiking are popular along the designated Wild and Scenic portion of the river. Most of the middle reaches of the river are inaccessible to motor vehicles; the Grande Ronde River supports populations of spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead, bull trout, mountain whitefish, as well as other species. The river has some tribal fishing for spring chinook.
List of rivers of Oregon List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of Washington Joseph Canyon Grande Ronde Model Watershed Media related to Grande Ronde River at Wikimedia Commons Grande Ronde Wild and Scenic River
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies by state, states may create other local governments. State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in republican principles, each provides for a government, consisting of three branches, each with separate and independent powers: executive and judicial.
States possess a number of rights under the United States Constitution. States and their residents are represented in the United States Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives; each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that directly elects the President of the United States. Additionally, each state has the opportunity to ratify constitutional amendments, with the consent of Congress, two or more states may enter into interstate compacts with one another; the tasks of local law enforcement, public education, public health, regulating intrastate commerce, local transportation and infrastructure have been considered state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well. Over time, the Constitution has been amended, the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed; the general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did.
There is a continuing debate over states' rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states' powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government and the rights of individuals. The Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959; the Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, held; the 50 U. S. states, in alphabetical order, along with each state's flag: As sovereign entities, each of the 50 states reserves the right to organize its individual government in any way deemed appropriate by its people. As a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they vary with regard to form and substance. No two state governments are identical.
The government of each state is structured in accordance with its individual constitution. Many of these documents more elaborate than their federal counterpart; the Constitution of Alabama, for example, contains 310,296 words – more than 40 times as many as the U. S. Constitution. In practice, each state has adopted the three-branch frame of the federal government: executive and judicial. In each state, the chief executive is called the governor, who serves as both head of state and head of government. All governors are chosen by direct election; the governor may approve or veto bills passed by the state legislature, as well as push for the passage of bills supported by their party. In 44 states, governors have line item veto power. Most states have a plural executive, meaning that the governor is not the only government official in the state responsible for its executive branch. In these states, executive power is distributed amongst other officials, elected by the people independently of the governor—such as the lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, others.
The constitutions of 19 states allow for citizens to remove and replace an elected public official before the end of their term of office through a recall election. Each state follows its own procedures for recall elections, sets its own restrictions on how and how soon after a general election, they may be held. In all states, the legislatures can remove state executive branch officials, including governors, who have committed serious abuses of their power from office; the process of doing so includes impeachment, a trial, in which legislators act as a jury. The primary responsibilities of state legislatures are to enact state laws and appropriate money for the administration of public policy. In all states, if the governor vetoes a bill, it can still become law if the legislature overrides the veto by a two-thirds vote in each chamber. In 49 of the 50 states the legislature consists of two chambers: a lower house (termed the House of Representati
Nez Perce people
The Nez Perce are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time. Members of the Sahaptin language group, the Niimíipuu were the dominant people of the Columbia Plateau for much of that time after acquiring the horses that led them to breed the appaloosa horse in the 18th century. Prior to "first contact" with Western civilization the Nimiipuu were economically and culturally influential in trade and war, interacting with other indigenous nations in a vast network from the western shores of Oregon and Washington, the high plains of Montana, the northern Great Basin in southern Idaho and northern Nevada. After first contact, the name "Nez Perce" was given to the Niimíipuu and the nearby Chinook people by French explorers and trappers; the name means "pierced nose", but only the Chinook used that form of decoration. Today they are a federally recognized tribe, the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, govern their Indian reservation in Idaho through a central government headquartered in Lapwai, Idaho known as the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee.
They are one of five federally recognized tribes in the state of Idaho. Some still speak their traditional language, the Tribe owns and operates two casinos along the Clearwater River in Idaho in Kamiah and outside of Lewiston, health clinics, a police force and court, community centers, salmon fisheries, radio station, other things that promote economic and cultural self-determination. Cut off from most of their horticultural sites throughout the Camas Prairie by an 1863 treaty, confinement to reservations in Idaho and Oklahoma Indian Territory after the Nez Perce War of 1877, Dawes Act of 1887 land allotments, the Nez Perce remain as a distinct culture and political economic influence within and outside their reservation. Today, hatching and eating salmon is an important cultural and economic strength of the Nez Perce through full ownership or co-management of various salmon fish hatcheries, such as the Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Kooskia, Idaho or the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Orofino, Idaho.
Their name for themselves is Nimíipuu, meaning, "The People", in their language, part of the Sahaptin family. Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area in the late 18th century, meaning "pierced nose". English-speaking traders and settlers adopted the name in turn. Since the late 20th century, the Nez Perce identify most as Niimíipuu in Sahaptin; the Lakota/ Dakota named them the Watopala, or Canoe people, from Watopa. However, after Nez Perce became a more common name, they changed it to Watopahlute; this comes from pahlute, nasal passage and is a play on words. If translated it would come out as either "Nasal Passage of the Canoe" or "Nasal Passage of the Grass"; the tribe uses the term "Nez Perce", as does the United States Government in its official dealings with them, contemporary historians. Older historical ethnological works and documents use the French spelling of Nez Percé, with the diacritic; the original French pronunciation is, with three syllables.
The interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition mistakenly identified this people as the Nez Perce when the team encountered the tribe in 1805. Writing in 1889, anthropologist Alice Fletcher, who the U. S. government had sent to Idaho to allot the Nez Perce Reservation, explained the mistaken naming. She wrote, It is never easy to come at the name of an Indian or of an Indian tribe. A tribe has always at least two names. All the tribes living west of the Rocky Mountains were called "Chupnit-pa-lu", which means people of the pierced noses; the tribes on the Columbia river used to pierce the nose and wear in it some ornament as you have seen some old fashioned white ladies wear in their ears. Lewis and Clark had with them an interpreter whose wife was a Shoshone or Snake woman and so it came about that when it was asked "What Indians are these?" the answer was "They are'Chupnit-pa-lu'" and it was written down in the journal. In his journals, William Clark referred to the people as the Chopunnish, a transliteration of a Sahaptin term.
According to D. E. Walker in 1998, writing for the Smithsonian, this term is an adaptation of the term cú·pŉitpeľu; the term is formed from cú · peľu. By contrast, the Nez Perce Language Dictionary has a different analysis than did Walker for the term cúpnitpelu; the prefix cú- means "in single file". This prefix, combined with the verb -piní, "to come out". With the suffix of -pelú, meaning "people or inhabitants of". Together, these three elements: cú- + -piní + pelú = cúpnitpelu, or "the People Walking Single File Out of the Forest". Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name "Cuupn'itpel'uu" meant "we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains" and referred to the time before the Nez Perce had horses; the Nez Perce language, or Niimiipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family, which in turn may be related to a larger Penutian g
Narcissa Prentiss Whitman was an American missionary in the Oregon Country of what would become the state of Washington. On their way to found the Protestant Whitman Mission in 1836 with her husband, near modern-day Walla Walla, Washington and Eliza Hart Spalding became the first documented European-American women to cross the Rocky Mountains. Narcissa Prentiss was born in Prattsburgh, New York, on March 14, 1808, she was the third of nine children of Clarissa Prentiss. She was the oldest of the five girls, followed by Clarissa, Mary Ann and Harriet, she had four brothers. Like many young women of the era, she became caught up in the Second Great Awakening, she decided that her true calling was to become a missionary, was accepted for missionary service in March 1835. She was educated at the Franklin Academy in Prattsburgh before her marriage to Dr. Marcus Whitman on February 18, 1836 in Angelica, New York, her birthplace in Prattsburgh is open to the public as the Narcissa Prentiss House. Shortly after their wedding, the Whitmans along with the recently married Henry and Eliza Spalding headed west for the Oregon Country in March 1836 to begin their missionary activities amongst the natives.
The journey was by sleigh, canal barge, river sternwheeler and foot. The founder of Ogden, Miles Goodyear, traveled with them until Fort Hall. On September 1, 1836, they arrived at Fort Walla Walla, a Hudson's Bay Company outpost near present-day Walla Walla, Washington, they traveled on to Fort Vancouver where they were hosted by Dr. John McLoughlin before returning to the Walla Walla area to build their mission. Whitman and Spalding were the first white women to live in the area, she was something of a novel addition to the community for the Cayuse. The Whitman Mission began to take shape in 1837 growing into a major stopping point along the Oregon Trail. Methodist missionary Jason Lee would stop off in 1838 at the mission on his way east to gather reinforcements in the United States for his mission in the Willamette Valley. In 1840, mountain man Joseph Meek, whom the Whitmans met on their journey to the area, stopped off on his way to the Willamette Valley. Built at Waiilatpu, the settlement was about six miles from Fort Walla Walla and along the Walla Walla River.
At the mission, Whitman gave Bible classes to the native population, as well as teaching them Western domestic chores that were unknown to the Native Americans. Besides the missionary goals of converting the natives, she ran the household, her daily activities included cooking and ironing clothes, churning butter, making candles and soap, baking. On March 14, 1837, on her twenty-ninth birthday, Whitman gave birth to the first white American born in Oregon Country, she named her Alice Clarissa after her grandmothers, she would be their only natural child. She drowned in the Walla Walla River on June 23, 1839 at age two. Unattended for only a few moments, she had gone down to the river bank to fill her cup with water and fell in. Though her body was found shortly after, all attempts to revive her failed. However, other children came to the mission, including the Sager orphans, to whom Whitman became a second mother. Just before winter, in late 1842, Marcus traveled back east to recruit more missionaries for the mission.
During the time he was away, Whitman traveled west and visited other outposts in the territory including Fort Vancouver, Jason Lee’s Methodist Mission near present-day Salem and another mission near Astoria, Oregon. Marcus returned with his nephew, from his trip east in 1843. Throughout their time in Oregon Country, the Whitmans encountered trouble with the native tribes; the Cayuse and the Nez Percé tribes were suspicious of the activities and the encroachment of the Americans. As early as 1841, Tiloukaikt had tried to force them to leave the ancestral homeland. In 1847, a measles epidemic broke out among the native population. Spread to the natives by contact with whites, the native population lacked immunity to the disease and it spread quickly; the American populations had some limited immunity to measles which meant a lower mortality rate than the natives. This discrepancy stirred discontent among the natives who felt Marcus was only curing the white people while letting Indian children die.
The resentment concerning all the different issues boiled over on November 29, 1847, when Tiloukaikt and others attacked the mission killing both the Whitmans. This event would be remembered as the Whitman massacre, in which eleven others were killed, including young brothers John and Francis Sager, many more taken hostage. According to author O. W. Nixon, who published a portrait of Whitman drawn after her death: No authentic picture of Mrs. Whitman is in existence; this portrait of her has been drawn under the supervision of a gentleman familiar with her appearance and with suggestions from members of her family. It is considered a good likeness of her." Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Converting the West: A Biography of Narcissa Whitman. University of Oklahoma Press, 1991 Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo; the Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. University of Nebraska Press, 1989, 1996 Thompson, Erwin N. Whitman Mission National Historic Site: Here They Labored Among the Cayuse Indians. National Park Service Historical Handbook Series No.
37, 1964 Eaton, Jeanette. Narcissa Whitman: Pioneer of Oregon. Harcourt, Brace, & Co. 1941 "How One Woman Saved Three States for Union". Madera Mercury. November 1, 1925. Retrieved August 30, 2018 – via California Digital Newspaper Archive (University of California
The Minam River is a tributary of the Wallowa River, 51 miles long, in northeastern Oregon in the United States. It drains a rugged wilderness area of the Wallowa Mountains northeast of La Grande, it rises in the Wallowas in the Eagle Cap Wilderness of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, just south of the Wallowa–Union border 25 miles southeast of La Grande at Blue Lake. It flows northwest through the mountains along the Wallowa–Union county line, it joins the Wallowa from the south at the community of Minam near Oregon Route 82. Its headwaters include springs stemming from outflow from Minam Lake the source of the Lostine River. From its headwaters to the Eagle Cap Wilderness boundary downstream of Cougar Creek, a distance of 39 miles, the Minam River was declared part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in 1988. Accessible by United States Forest Service trails, the river basin supports diverse wildlife, including wolverine, bighorn sheep, American black bear, cougar; the Minam, except for the lower 8 miles, where the surrounds have been logged and otherwise altered, is pristine.
It and the Wenaha River are the two largest rivers in Oregon. From source to mouth, the named tributaries of the Minam River are Pop and Trail creeks, which enter from the left. Cap and Lackey creeks, all from the left. Threemile, Whoopee, Wallowa and Horse Basin creeks, all from the right. Murphy, Cougar and Squaw creeks, all from the right. List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of Oregon List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Grande Ronde Model Watershed
The Wallowa River is a tributary of the Grande Ronde River 55 miles long, in northeastern Oregon in the United States. It drains a valley on the Columbia Plateau in the northeast corner of the state north of Wallowa Mountains; the river begins at the confluence of its east and west forks, which rise in southern Wallowa County, in the Eagle Cap Wilderness of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest. It flows northwest through the Wallowa Valley, past the communities of Joseph and Wallowa, it receives the Minam River from the left at the hamlet of Minam. Continuing north another 10 miles, it joins the Grande Ronde along the Wallowa–Union county line about 10 miles north-northeast of Elgin and about 81 miles from the larger river's confluence with the Snake River; the Wallowa Valley was home to Chief Joseph's band of the Nez Perce Tribe. Chief Joseph asked the first white settlers to leave when they arrived in 1871; the U. S. government expelled the tribe and seized their property and livestock in 1877, when non-Indian farmers and ranchers wanted to settle the fertile Wallowa valley.
The tribe was barred from returning to their homeland by the government after repeated petitions. The tribal members were shipped in unheated box cars to Indian Territory to be placed in a prisoner of war camp never to see their home again; the Wallowa River supports populations of steelhead, spring Chinook salmon, mountain whitefish among other species. Sockeye salmon were extirpated from the Wallowa River when a small dam was constructed at the outlet of Wallowa Lake in the headwaters of the river; the dam was constructed to raise the level of the lake to store water for irrigation. List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of Oregon Grande Ronde Model Watershed National Wild and Scenic Rivers System Media related to Wallowa River at Wikimedia Commons