The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition, although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing, according to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems.
The overall period is characterized by use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques, tin must be mined and smelted separately, added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of use of metals. The dating of the foil has been disputed, the Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics, the usual tripartite division into an Early and Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people, ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC, the Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.
Over 100 years later, it took over the other city-states. Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use, by that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use. Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia, in the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it
Walls of Jerusalem National Park
The Walls of Jerusalem National Park is a national park located in the Central Highlands region of Tasmania, Australia. The park is located approximately 144 km northwest of Hobart, east of the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park and it is south of Mole Creek and Rowallan Lake. The national park forms part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, the park takes its name from the geological features of the park which are thought to resemble the walls of the city of Jerusalem. As a result, many places and features within the park have Biblical references for names, such as Herods Gate, Lake Salome, Solomons Jewels, Damascus Gate, the Pool of Bethesda. The most prominent feature of the park is King Davids Peak with an elevation of 1,509 metres above sea level, much of the walking track consists of raised boards, from Wild Dog Creek through to Dixons Kingdom, with the purpose of protecting the fragile alpine vegetation. Walking tracks elsewhere in the park consist of rock, rocky earth, protected areas of Tasmania Savage River National Park
Jordan, officially The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north, Israel and the Dead Sea to the west, Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe. The capital, Amman, is Jordans most populous city as well as the countrys economic, what is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age, Moab, rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Emir Abdullah I and became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state known as The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. Jordan captured the West Bank, which it lost in 1967, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and is one of two Arab states to have signed a peace treaty with Israel.
The country is a monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a relatively-small, semi-arid, almost-landlocked country with a population numbering at 9.5 million, Sunni Islam, practiced by around 92% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan. It coexists with an indigenous Christian minority, Jordan is considered to be among the safest of Arab countries in the Middle East, and has avoided long-term terrorism and instability. The kingdom is a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing the Islamic State, while Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure. Jordan is classified as a country of high human development with a middle income economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce, the country is a major tourist destination, and attracts medical tourism due to its well developed health sector.
Nonetheless, a lack of resources, large flow of refugees. Jordan is named after the Jordan River, where Jesus is said to have been baptized, the origin of the rivers name is debated, but the most common explanation is that it derives from the word yarad, found in Hebrew and other Semitic languages. Others regard the name as having an Indo-Aryan origin, combining the words yor and don, another theory is that it is from the Arabic root word wrd, as in people coming to a major source of water. The name Jordan appears in an ancient Egyptian papyrus called Papyrus Anastasi I, the lands of modern-day Jordan were historically called Transjordan, meaning beyond the Jordan River. The name was Arabized into Al-Urdunn during the Muslim conquest of the Levant, during crusader rule, it was called Oultrejordain
Nebuchadnezzar II was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c.605 BCE – c.562 BCE. Both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalems temple are ascribed to him and he is featured in the Book of Daniel and is mentioned in several other books of the Bible. The Akkadian name,
Abdi-Heba was a local chieftain of Jerusalem during the Amarna period. Abdi-Hebas name can be translated as servant of Hebat, a Hurrian goddess, whether Abdi-Heba was himself of Hurrian descent is unknown, as is the relationship between the general populace of pre-Israelite Jerusalem and the Hurrians. Egyptian documents have him deny he was a ḫazānu and assert he is a soldier, unknown is whether he was part of a dynasty that governed Jerusalem or whether he was put on the throne by the Egyptians. Abdi-Heba himself notes that he holds his position not through his parental lineage but by the grace of Pharaoh, during Abdi-Hebas reign the region was under attack from marauding bands of Habiru. Abdi-Heba made frequent pleas to the Pharaoh of Egypt, for an army or, at least, an officer to command. Abdi-Heba made requests for military aid in fighting off his enemies, both Canaanite warlords and bands of Apiru, Say to the king, my lord, Message of Abdi-Heba. I fall at the feet of my lord 7 times and 7 times and Tagi brought troops into Qiltu against me.
May the king know all the lands are at peace, but I am at war. May the king provide for his land, consider the lands of Gazru, Ašqaluna, and Lakisi. They have given them food and any other requirement, so may the king provide for archers and send the archers against men that commit crimes against the king, my lord. If this year there are archers, the lands and the hazzanu will belong to the king, but if there are no archers, the king will have neither lands nor hazzanu. This neither my father nor my mother gave to me, the strong hand of the king gave it to me. This is the deed of Milkilu and the deed of the sons of Labayu, as a result, conspiracy charges are made against Abdi Heba, who defended himself strenuously in his correspondence with Pharaoh. In years Abdi-Heba appears to have reconciled with the Apiru, or at least certain bands of them, I fall at the feet of the king, my lord, my god, my Sun,7 times and 7 times. The king, my lord, permitted me to wage war against Qeltu and it is now at peace with me, my city is restored to me.
Why did Abdi-Heba write to the men of Qeltu, Accept silver, Labaya, who used to take our towns, is dead, but now another Labaya is Abdi-Heba, and he seizes our town. So, may the king take cognizance of his servant because of this deed, Abdi-Heba was the author of letters EA 285-290. The Amarna Age, A Study of the Crisis of the Ancient World, university Press of the Pacific,2004. Amarna Diplomacy, The Beginnings of International Relations
Artaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I /ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksiːz/ was the fifth King of Persia from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the son of Xerxes I. He may have been the Artasyrus mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the satrapy of Bactria. In Greek sources he is surnamed μακρόχειρ Macrocheir, allegedly because his hand was longer than his left. Artaxerxes was probably born in the reign of his grandfather Darius I, to the son and heir. In 465 BC, Xerxes I was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard, Greek historians give contradicting accounts of events. According to Ctesias, Artabanus accused the Crown Prince Darius, Xerxess eldest son, of the murder and persuaded Artaxerxes, but according to Aristotle, Artabanus killed Darius first and killed Xerxes. After Artaxerxes discovered the murder, he killed Artabanus and his sons and he had to face a revolt in Egypt in 460–454 BC led by Inaros II, who was the son of a Libyan prince named Psamtik, presumably of the old Saite line. In 460 BC, Inaros II revolted against the Persians with the help of his Athenian allies, the Persians retreated to Memphis, and the Athenians were finally defeated in 454 BC, by the Persian army led by Megabyzus, after a two-year siege.
Inaros was captured and carried away to Susa, after Persia had been defeated at Eurymedon, military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece and this indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus, after Cimons failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed among Athens and Persia in 449 BC. Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was probably his father Xerxess greatest enemy for his victory at the Battle of Salamis, Artaxerxes I gave him Magnesia and Lampsacus to maintain him in bread and wine. In addition, Artaxerxes I gave him Palaescepsis to provide him with clothes, Themistocles would go on to learn and adopt Persian customs, Persian language, and traditions.
Artaxerxes commissioned Ezra, a Jewish priest and scribe, by means of a letter of decree, to charge of the ecclesiastical. A copy of this decree may be found in Ezra 7, Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year of Artaxerxes reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the month of the seventh year. The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 BC, and the foundation of this Second Temple was laid in 536 BC, in the second year of their return
The Armenian Quarter is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem. Located in the corner of the Old City, it can be accessed through the Zion Gate. It occupies an area of 0.126 km², which is 14% of the Old Citys total, in 2007, it had a population of 2,424. In both criteria, it is comparable to the Jewish Quarter, the Armenian Quarter is separated from the Christian Quarter by David Street and by Habad Street from the Jewish Quarter. The Armenian presence in Jerusalem dates back to the fourth century AD when Armenia adopted Christianity as a national religion and it is thus considered the oldest living diaspora community outside the Armenian homeland. The quarter developed gradually around the St. James Monastery—which dominates the quarter—and took its shape by the 19th century. The monastery houses the Armenian Apostolic Churchs Jerusalem Patriarchate, which was established as a diocese in the seventh century, the patriarchate is the de facto administrator of the quarter and acts as a mini-welfare state for the Armenian residents.
The Armenian community has been in decline since the mid-20th century, although formally separate from Greek Orthodox and Latin Christians, the Armenians consider their quarter to be part of the Christian Quarter. The three Christian patriarchates of Jerusalem and the government of Armenia have publicly expressed their opposition to any division of the two quarters. However, for all intents and purposes, the Armenians living in the Armenian Quarter are considered Palestinians by Israel and they have faced many of the same restrictions on their lives as have the Palestinians. The Armenian Quarter is located in the corner of Jerusalems Old City. The quarter can be accessed through the Zion Gate and Jaffa Gate, according to a 2007 study published by the International Peace and Cooperation Center the quarter occupies an area of 0.126 km², which is 14% of the Old Citys total. The Armenian Quarter is formally separated from the Christian Quarter by David Street, according to a 2007 study published by the International Peace and Cooperation Center, the quarter occupies an area of 0.126 km², which is 14% of the Old Citys total.
In the early fourth century Armenia, under king Tiridates III, a large number of Armenian monks are recorded to have settled in Jerusalem as early as the fourth century, after the uncovering of Christian holy places in the city. However, the first written records are from the fifth century, Jerusalem is thus considered the oldest living diaspora community outside the Armenian homeland. Armenian churches were constructed during that period, including the St. James Monastery, the latter was last expanded in the mid-12th century. An Armenian scriptorium was in operation by the mid-fifth century, a secular community composed of merchants and artisans was established in the sixth century in the Zion Quarter, where an Armenian street existed. In the First Council of Dvin, the Armenian Church broke off from the rest of Christianity by rejecting the dual nature of Christ, thus the Armenians found themselves in direct confrontation with the Byzantine Empire
Solomon, called Jedidiah, according to the Bible, Quran and Hidden Words a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel and a son of David, the previous king of Israel. The conventional dates of Solomons reign are circa 970 to 931 BC and he is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets, in the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. Solomon was, according to the Quran, a king of ancient Israel as well as the son of David, the Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem. It portrays him as great in wisdom and power any of the previous kings of the country. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women, and ultimately turning away from Yahweh, Solomon is the subject of many other references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon.
Solomon was born in Jerusalem, the second child of David and his wife Bathsheba. The first child, a son conceived adulterously during Uriahs lifetime, had died before Solomon was conceived as a punishment on account of the death of Uriah by Davids order. Solomon had three named full brothers through Bathsheba, Nathan and Shobab, besides six known older half-brothers through as many mothers, according to the First Book of Kings, when David was old, he could not get warm. So they sought a young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the Shunammite. The young woman was very beautiful, and she was of service to the king and attended to him, while David was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. Solomon greatly expanded his military strength, especially the cavalry and chariot arms and he founded numerous colonies, some of which doubled as trading posts and military outposts. Trade relationships were a focus of his administration, Solomon is considered the most wealthy of the Israelite kings named in the Bible.
Solomon built the First Temple, beginning in the year of his reign. Solomon was the Biblical king most famous for his wisdom, in 1 Kings he sacrificed to God and prayed for wisdom. God personally answered his prayer, promising him great wisdom because he did not ask for self-serving rewards like long life or the death of his enemies. Perhaps the best known story of his wisdom is the Judgment of Solomon, Solomon easily resolved the dispute by commanding the child to be cut in half and shared between the two
Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)
The Jewish Quarter is one of the four traditional quarters of the Old City of Jerusalem. In the early 20th century, the Jewish population of the quarter reached 19,000, the quarter is inhabited by around 2,000 residents and is home to numerous yeshivas and synagogues, most notably the Hurva Synagogue, destroyed numerous times and rededicated in 2010. In CE135, when the Roman Emperor Hadrian built the city of Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of ancient Jerusalem, new structures, such as a Roman bathhouse, were built over the Jewish ruins. The Jewish quarter was located near the Gate of the Moors and Coponius Gate. Most of the property consisted of Muslim religious endowments, and was rented out to Jews. The population of the quarter was not homogeneously Jewish, such a rule being neither desired by the Jewish inhabitants nor enforced by the Ottoman rulers, during the Ottoman era, most of the homes in the quarter were leased from Muslim property owners. This is one of the reasons for the growth of buildings west of the city in the last years of the Ottoman Empire since land outside the city wall was freehold and easier to acquire.
While most residents of Jerusalem in the 19th century preferred to live near members of their own community, there were Muslims living in the Jewish Quarter, many Jews moved to the Muslim Quarter toward the end of the century due to intense overcrowding in the Jewish Quarter. In 1857, an organization of Dutch and German Jews named Kolel Hod bought a plot of land on which, between 1860 and 1890, the Batei Mahse housing complex was built. The most prominent building of the project, the two-storey Rothschild House, built in 1871 with money donated by Baron Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild, between December 1917 and May 1948, the entire city of Jerusalem was part of British-administered Palestine, known after 1920 as Mandatory Palestine. In 1948, during the Arab-Israeli War, the population of the Jewish Quarter counted about 2,000 Jews, who were besieged, the defenders surrendered on May 28,1948. Colonel Abdullah el Tell, local commander of the Jordanian Arab Legion, with whom Mordechai Weingarten negotiated the surrender terms, the operations of calculated destruction were set in motion.
I knew that the Jewish Quarter was densely populated with Jews who caused their fighters a good deal of interference, I embarked, therefore, on the shelling of the Quarter with mortars, creating harassment and destruction. Only four days after our entry into Jerusalem the Jewish Quarter had become their graveyard and destruction reigned over it. As the dawn of Friday, May 28,1948, was about to break, the Jordanian commander is reported to have told his superiors, For the first time in 1,000 years not a single Jew remains in the Jewish Quarter. Not a single building remains intact and this makes the Jews return here impossible. The Hurva Synagogue, originally built in 1701, was blown up by the Jordanian Arab Legion, during the nineteen years of Jordanian rule, a third of the Jewish Quarters buildings were demolished. According to a complaint Israel made to the United Nations, the synagogues were razed or pillaged and stripped and their interiors used as hen-houses or stables
Yehud is a city in the Central District in Israel that is part of the joint municipality of Yehud-Monosson. In 2007, Yehuds population is approximately 30,000, Yehud is mentioned in the Bible in a list of towns in the area. The actual size of Yehud during this time remains debated by scholars, in centuries Yehud became the Arab town of Al-Yehudiya, called Al-Abbasiyya, but the Arab population left in its entirety during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The town was repopulated in the early 1950s by Ladino-speaking Jews of Turkish extraction and subsequently by Jews from Białystok, the replica will be replete with neoclassical columns and colonnades. This project was scheduled to be finished and in fall 2016, in 2003, the Yehud-Monosson Municipality was formed to provide municipal services to Yehud and the neighboring community of Neve Monosson. Under the terms of the merger, Neve Monosson remains with a level of autonomy under the Neve Monosson Local Administration. The Neve Monosson Local Administration was granted status as an autonomous borough by the Interior Minister in 2005 within the implementation of the merger plan.
In a practical sense, the Yehud-Monosson Municipality really functions as the municipality of Yehud whilst providing basic statutory municipal services to Neve Monosson on an outsourcing basis, according to CBS, in 2001 the ethnic makeup of the city was all Jewish. According to CBS, in 2001 there were 10,500 males and 11,100 females, the population growth rate in 2001 was 2. 6%. Yehud serves as the base of the large Africa Israel Investments company majority owned by Lev Leviev, according to CBS, there are 10 schools and 5,159 students in the city. They are spread out as 6 elementary schools and 2,252 elementary school students,54. 2% of 12th grade students were entitled to a matriculation certificate in 2001. Football, Hapoel Yehud spent several seasons in the top division of Israeli football during the late 1970s and early 1980s, after several relegations the club folded in 1998. A new club, Hapoel Ironi Yehud, was established in 2004 and currently plays in Liga Gimel