Walmart Inc. is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, grocery stores, headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas. The company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962 and incorporated on October 31, 1969, it owns and operates Sam's Club retail warehouses. As of January 31, 2020, Walmart has 11,503 stores and clubs in 27 countries, operating under 55 different names; the company operates under the name Walmart in the United States and Canada, as Walmart de México y Centroamérica in Mexico and Central America, as Asda in the United Kingdom, as the Seiyu Group in Japan, as Best Price in India. It has wholly owned operations in Argentina, Chile and South Africa. Since August 2018, Walmart only holds a minority stake in Walmart Brasil, renamed Grupo Big in August 2019, with 20 percent of the company's shares, private equity firm Advent International holding 80 percent ownership of the company. Walmart is the world's largest company by revenue, with US$514.405 billion, according to the Fortune Global 500 list in 2019.
It is the largest private employer in the world with 2.2 million employees. It is a publicly traded family-owned business. Sam Walton's heirs own over 50 percent of Walmart through their holding company Walton Enterprises and through their individual holdings. Walmart was the largest U. S. grocery retailer in 2019, 65 percent of Walmart's US$510.329 billion sales came from U. S. operations. Walmart was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972. By 1988, it was the most profitable retailer in the U. S. and it had become the largest in terms of revenue by October 1989. The company was geographically limited to the South and lower Midwest, but it had stores from coast to coast by the early 1990s. Sam's Club opened in New Jersey in November 1989, the first California outlet opened in Lancaster, California, in July 1990. A Walmart in York, Pennsylvania opened in the first main store in the Northeast. Walmart's investments outside the U. S. have seen mixed results. Its operations and subsidiaries in Canada, the United Kingdom, Central America, South America and China are successful, whereas its ventures failed in Germany and South Korea.
See Criticism of Walmart, such as U. S. labor relations, overseas labor relations, understaffed stores, no AEDs in stores. In 1945, businessman and former J. C. Penney employee Sam Walton bought a branch of the Ben Franklin stores from the Butler Brothers, his primary focus was selling products at low prices to get higher-volume sales at a lower profit margin, portraying it as a crusade for the consumer. He experienced setbacks because the lease price and branch purchase were unusually high, but he was able to find lower-cost suppliers than those used by other stores and was able to undercut his competitors on pricing. Sales increased 45 percent in his first year of ownership to US$105,000 in revenue, which increased to $140,000 the next year and $175,000 the year after that. Within the fifth year, the store was generating $250,000 in revenue; the lease expired for the location and Walton was unable to reach an agreement for renewal, so he opened up a new store at 105 N. Main Street in Bentonville, naming it "Walton's Five and Dime".
That store is now the Walmart Museum. On July 2, 1962, Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store at 719 W. Walnut Street in Rogers, Arkansas; the building is now occupied by a hardware store and an antiques mall, while the company's "Store #1" has since expanded to a Supercenter several blocks west at 2110 W. Walnut Street. Within its first five years, the company expanded to 24 stores in Arkansas and reached US$12.6 million in sales. In 1968, it opened its first stores outside Arkansas in Sikeston and Claremore, Oklahoma; the company was incorporated as Wal-Mart, Inc. on October 31, 1969, changed its name to Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. in 1970. The same year, the company opened a home office and first distribution center in Bentonville, Arkansas, it had 38 stores operating with 1,500 sales of $44.2 million. It began trading stock as a publicly held company on October 1, 1970, was soon listed on the New York Stock Exchange; the first stock split occurred in May 1971 at a price of $47 per share.
By this time, Walmart was operating in five states: Arkansas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. As the company moved into Texas in 1975, there were 125 stores with 7,500 employees and total sales of $340.3 million. In the 1980s, Walmart continued to grow and by the company's 25th anniversary in 1987, there were 1,198 stores with sales of $15.9 billion and 200,000 associates. This year marked the completion of the company's satellite network, a $24 million investment linking all stores with two-way voice and data transmissions and one-way video communications with the Bentonville office. At the time, the company was the largest private satellite network, allowing the corporate office to track inventory and sales and to communicate to stores. By 1984, Sam Walton had begun to source between 6% and 40% of his company's products from China. In 1988, Walton was replaced by David Glass. Walton remained as Chairman of the Board. With the contribution of its superstores, the company surpassed Toys "R" Us in toy sales in 1998.
While it was the third-largest retailer in the United States, Walmart was more profitable than rivals Kmart and Sears by the late 1980s. By 1990, it became the largest U. S. retailer by revenue. Prior to the summer of 1990, Walmart had no presence on the West Coast or in the Northeast (except for a single Sam's Cl
Eric William Padwick was a professional bibliographer who compiled the definitive bibliography of cricket literature. He was Deputy Librarian of the Guildhall Library; the Cricket Society commissioned him to compile a comprehensive bibliography of cricket literature under the title A Bibliography of Cricket. The first edition, published in 1977 by the Library Association had 8294 entries, it covered the period until 1973. A revised edition, published in 1984, extended the number of entries to over 10,000. A second volume, published in 1991 as Padwick's Bibliography of Cricket, Volume 2, was compiled by Stephen Eley and Peter Griffiths and covered works published between 1980 and 1990. In 2008 Stephen W. Gibbs published in a limited edition Post Padwick: The Gibbs Extension of Padwick's Bibliography, 1990-2006, with 7049 entries. Of the first edition, John Arlott wrote in his review of the cricket books of 1977 in Wisden Cricketers' Almanack that it "is one of the most important works in the entire history of cricket literature...
This is a major contribution not only to cricket at present, but to its literature of the future."Padwick died on 29 March 2010, aged 87. Items are "by E. W. Padwick" except; the Librarian Subject Guide to Books, Vol. 1, travel & description / general editor Lionel R. McColvin, associate editors K. R. McColvin, E. W. Padwick. Pub. Clarke, 1959; the Librarian Subject Guide to Books, Volume Two, Family History, Genealogy Etc.. general editor Lionel R. McColvin, associate editors K. R. McColvin, E. W. Padwick. Pub. James Clarke, 1960. Education: A Guide to Current Literature, 1963, ISBN 978-0-902837-02-7. Bibliographical Method, pub. James Clarke & Co Ltd, 1969, ISBN 978-0-227-67718-6. A Bibliography of Cricket, 1st edition, pub. Library Association, 1977, ISBN 978-0-85365-129-1. Sixteen Fleet Street, 1522-1980: A house and its tenants, private circulation only, 1982. A Bibliography of Cricket, 2nd edition, pub. Library Association in association with McKenzie on behalf of Cricket Society, 1984, ISBN 978-0-85365-902-0.
William Herbert 1772-1851: Actor and Librarian, by Donovan Dawe and E. W. Padwick, Guildhall Library Publications, 1998, ISBN 978-0-900422-43-0. Irving Rosenwater, The Padwick "bibliography" - Its Genesis, Newnham-on-Severn: Christopher Saunders, 2002
Miniature is an album by drummer Joey Baron, saxophonist Tim Berne and cellist Hank Roberts, who would become known as Miniature, recorded in 1988 and released on the JMT label. The Penguin Guide to Jazz said "Baron's drumming and occasional electronic flourishes provide its most pleasures though Berne and the tricksterish Roberts play their parts as well". All compositions by Tim Berne except as indicated "Ethiopian Boxer" - 7:18 "Circular Prairie Song" 2:35 "Hong Kong Sad Song" - 8:44 "Lonely Mood" - 8:03 "'Narlin'" - 6:09 "Peanut" - 6:28 "Abeetah" - 4:46 "Sanctuary" - 9:17 Tim Berne - alto saxophone Hank Roberts - cello, voice Joey Baron - drums, synthesizer