Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty under settler colonialism. The requirements of proof for the recognition of aboriginal title, the content of aboriginal title, the methods of extinguishing aboriginal title, the availability of compensation in the case of extinguishment vary by jurisdiction. Nearly all jurisdictions are in agreement that aboriginal title is inalienable, that it may be held either individually or collectively. Aboriginal title was first acknowledged in the early 19th century, in decisions in which indigenous peoples were not a party. Significant aboriginal title litigation resulting in victories for indigenous peoples did not arise until recent decades; the majority of court cases have been litigated in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the United States. Aboriginal title is an important area of comparative law, with many cases being cited as persuasive authority across jurisdictions.
Many commentators believe. Aboriginal title is referred to as indigenous title, native title, original Indian title, customary title. Aboriginal title jurisprudence is related to indigenous rights and influenced by non-land issues, such as whether the government owes a fiduciary duty to indigenous peoples. While the judge-made doctrine arises from customary international law, it has been codified nationally by legislation and constitutions. Aboriginal title arose at the intersection of three common law doctrines articulated by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: the Act of State doctrine, the Doctrine of Continuity, the Recognition Doctrine; the Act of State doctrine held that the Crown could confiscate or extinguish real or personal property rights in the process of conquering, without scrutiny from any British court, but could not perpetrate an Act of State against its own subjects. The Doctrine of Continuity presumed that the Crown did not intend to extinguish private property upon acquiring sovereignty, thus that pre-existing interests were enforceable under British law.
Its mirror was the Recognition Doctrine, which held that private property rights were presumed to be extinguished in the absence of explicit recognition. In 1608, the same year in which the Doctrine of Continuity emerged, Edward Coke delivered a famous dictum in Calvin's Case that the laws of all non-Christians would be abrogated upon their conquest. Coke's view was not put into practice, but was rejected by Lord Mansfield in 1774; the two doctrines were reconciled, with the Doctrine of Continuity prevailing in nearly all situations in Oyekan v Adele. The first Indigenous land rights case under the common law, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut, was litigated from 1705 to 1773, with the Privy Council affirming without opinion the judgement of a non-judicial tribunal. Other important Privy Council decisions include In re Southern Rhodesia and Amodu Tijani v. Southern Nigeria; the former rejected a claim for aboriginal title, noting that: Some tribes are so low in the scale of social organization that their usages and conceptions of rights and duties are not to be reconciled with the institutions or the legal ideas of civilized society.
Such a gulf cannot be bridged. Two years Amodu Tijani laid the basis for several elements of the modern aboriginal title doctrine, upholding a customary land claim and urging the need to "study of the history of the particular community and its usages in each case." Subsequently, the Privy Council issued many opinions confirming the existence of aboriginal title, upholding customary land claims. Modern decisions have heaped criticism upon the views expressed in Southern Rhodesia; the requirements for establishing an aboriginal title to the land vary across countries, but speaking, the aboriginal claimant must establish occupation from a long time ago before the assertion of sovereignty, continuity to the present day. Aboriginal title does not constitute allodial title or radical title in any jurisdiction. Instead, its content is described as a usufruct, i.e. a right to use, although in practice this may mean anything from a right to use land for specific, enumerated purposes, or a general right to use which approximate fee simple.
It is common ground among the relevant jurisdictions that aboriginal title is inalienable, in the sense that it cannot be transferred except to the general government —although Malaysia allows aboriginal title to be sold between indigenous peoples, unless contrary to customary law. In Australia, the content of aboriginal title varies with the degree to which claimants are able to satisfy the standard of proof for recognition. In particular, the content of aboriginal title may be tied to the traditions and customs of the indigenous peoples, only accommodate growth and change to a limited extent. Aboriginal title can be extinguished by the general government, but again, the requirement to do this varies by country; some require the legislature to be explicit when it does this, others hold that extinguishment can be inferred from the government's treatment of the land. In Canada, the Crown cannot extinguish aboriginal title without the explicit prior informed consent of the proper aboriginal title holders.
New Zealand required consent, but today requires only a justification, akin to a public purpose requirement. Jurisdict
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
The Odawa, said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada. They have long had territory that crosses the current border between the two countries, they are federally recognized as Native American tribes in the United States and have numerous recognized First Nations bands in Canada, they are one of the Anishinaabeg, related to but distinct from the Potawatomi peoples. After migrating from the East Coast in ancient times, they settled on Manitoulin Island, near the northern shores of Lake Huron, the Bruce Peninsula in the present-day province of Ontario, Canada, they considered this their original homeland. After the 17th century, they settled along the Ottawa River, in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as through the Midwest south of the Great Lakes in the latter country. In the 21st century, there are 15,000 Odawa living in Ontario, Michigan and Oklahoma; the Ottawa dialect is part of the Algonquian language family.
This large family has numerous smaller tribal groups or “bands,” called “Tribe” in the United States and “First Nation” in Canada. Their language is considered a divergent dialect of Ojibwe, characterized by frequent syncope. Odawaa; the Potawatomi spelling of Odawa and the English derivative "Ottawa" are common. The Anishinaabe word for "Those men who trade, or buy and sell" is Wadaawewinini. Fr. Frederic Baraga, a Catholic missionary in Michigan, transliterated this and recorded it in his A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language as "Watawawininiwok," noting that it meant "men of the bulrushes", associated with the many bulrushes in the Ottawa River. But, this recorded meaning is more appropriately associated with the Matàwackariniwak, a historical Algonquin band who lived along the Ottawa River; the only American tribe, Odawa are the Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians, the rest are considered Ottawa. Their neighbors applied the "Trader" name to the Odawa because in early traditional times, during the early European contact period, they were noted as intertribal traders and barterers.
The Odawa were described as having dealt "chiefly in cornmeal, sunflower oil and skins, rugs and mats and medicinal roots and herbs."Like the Ojibwe, the Odawa identify as Nishnaabe, meaning "original people". The Odawa name in its English transcription is the source of the place names of Ottawa and the Ottawa River; the Odawa home territory at the time of early European contact, but not their trading zone, was well to the west of the city and river named after them. The tribe is the namesake for Tawas City and Tawas Point, which reflect the syncope-form of their name. Ottawa, Ohio is the county seat of Putnam County, developed at the site of the last Ottawa reservation in Ohio; the Odawa dialect is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Ojibwe language group, noted for its frequent syncope. In the Odawa language, the general language group is known as Nishnabemwin, while the Odawa language is called Daawaamwin. Of the estimated 5,000 ethnic Odawa and additional 10,000 people with some Odawa ancestry, in the early 21st century an estimated 500 people in Ontario and Michigan speak this language.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma has three fluent speakers. According to Anishinaabeg tradition, from recordings in Wiigwaasabak, the Odawa people came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, from along the East Coast. Directed by the miigis beings, the Anishinaabe peoples moved inland along the Saint Lawrence River. At the "Third Stopping Place" near what is now Detroit, the southern group of Anishinaabeg divided into three groups, the Ojibwe and Potawatomi. There is archaeological evidence that the Saugeen Complex people, a Hopewell-influenced group who were located on the Bruce Peninsula during the Middle Woodland period, may have evolved into the Odawa people; the Hopewell tradition was a extended trading network operating from about 200BCE to 500 CE. Some of these peoples constructed earthwork mounds for burials, a practice that ended about 250 CE; the Saugeen mounds have not been excavated. The Odawa, together with the Ojibwe and Potawatomi, were part of a long-term tribal alliance called the Council of Three Fires, which fought the Iroquois Confederacy and the Dakota people.
In 1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain met 300 men of a nation which, he said, "we call les cheueux releuez" near the French River mouth. Of these, he said: "Their arms consisted only of a bow and arrows, a buckler of boiled leather and the club, they wore no breech clouts, their bodies were tattooed in many fashions and designs, their faces painted and their noses pierced." In 1616, Champlain left the Huron villages and visited the "Cheueux releuez," who lived westward from the lands of the Huron Confederacy. The Jesuit Relations of 1667 report three tribes living in the same town: the Odawa, the Kiskakon Odawa, the Sinago Odawa. All three tribes spoke the same language. Due to the extensive trade network maintained by the Odawa, many of the North American interior nations became known by names which their trading partners used for them, rather than by the nations’ own names. For example, these exonyms include Winnebago for t
Alexander McKee was an agent in the British Indian Department during the French and Indian War, the American Revolutionary War, the Northwest Indian War. He achieved the rank of colonel. Alexander McKee was born about 1735 as the second son of Thomas McKee an Irish immigrant, fur trader, Indian Agent, interpreter for General Forbes at Fort Pitt, his mother, was a white captive from a North Carolina settler's family, adopted and assimilated into the Shawnee tribe. She died, he had an older half-brother, Thomas Alexander McKee, who had immigrated with their father to the colonies from Ireland. The senior Thomas McKee married Margaret Tecumsapah Opessa, a daughter of Pride Opessa, who signed the original Treaty with Wm Penn on April 23, 1701, a granddaughter of King Opessa and Chief Cornstalk. Margaret was an older sister to Alexander McKee's first wife, Sewatha Sarah Straighttail, to Metheotashe Mary Opessa, the mother of the great Shawnee leader Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet, it was Margaret.
He developed a lifelong relationship with the Ohio Indian tribes. As a young man, Alexander McKee began working with traders who did business with the Indians of the Ohio Country. Soon, he was able to establish his own trading business; because of his good relations with the Ohio tribes, Indian agent George Croghan enlisted McKee in the service of the Crown's Indian Department. Around 1764, McKee settled in what is now McKees Rocks and built a substantial house. George Washington visited him there in 1770, mentions this in his diary. McKee continued in the service of Pennsylvania for some time after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. Following mistreatment by the settlers, he left the Americans in favor of the British at Detroit, it was during this transition that he established his well-known association with Matthew Elliott and the Girty brothers: Simon and George. During the next 25 years, Alexander McKee led efforts to promote the alliance of the Indians with the British, most with the Shawnee, but with the majority of the Northwest Indian tribes.
He was their honest friend. The Continental Congress branded him a traitor for remaining loyal to the British Empire and organizing several tribes on the side of the British. "Alexander McKee, the British Indian Agent, who resided at the Machachac towns, on Mad River, during the incursion of General Logan from Kentucky in 1786, was obliged to flee with his effects. He had a large lot of swine, which were driven on to the borders of this stream, when the Indians came on they called the river Koshko Sepe, which in the Shawnee language signified'The Creek of the Hogs, or Hog Stream'." McKee died in Canada in 1799. He was mourned and honored by the Northwest tribes, his son Thomas McKee was political figure. The borough of McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, is the site of Alexander McKee's original 1,200-acre land grant, which the agent was awarded on November 25, 1764 by Colonel Bouquet; the McKee plantation was called FairView. George Washington dined at Fairview in 1770, the 8-room log mansion was mentioned by George Washington in his journal.
The home was razed by the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad in 1902. Nelson, Larry L. A Man of Distinction Among Them. Alexander McKee and British-Indian Affairs along the Ohio Country Frontier 1754-1799. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1999. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online A Short Biography Alexander McKee
Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the indigenous peoples. This includes not only the most basic human rights of physical survival and integrity, but the preservation of their land, language and other elements of cultural heritage that are a part of their existence as a people; this can be used as an expression for advocacy of social organizations or form a part of the national law in establishing the relation between a government and the right of self-determination among the indigenous people living within the borders of Canada, or in international law as a protection against violation of indigenous rights by actions of governments or groups of private interests. Indigenous rights belong to those who, being indigenous peoples, are defined by being the original people of a land, conquested and colonized by outsiders. Who is a part of the indigenous peoples is disputed, but can broadly be understood in relation to colonialism; when we speak of indigenous peoples we speak of those pre-colonial societies that face a specific threat from this phenomenon of occupation, the relation that these societies have with the colonial powers.
The exact definition of who are the indigenous people, the consequent state of rightsholders, varies. It is considered both to be bad to be too inclusive. In the context of modern indigenous people of European colonial powers, the recognition of indigenous rights can be traced to at least the period of Renaissance. Along with the justification of colonialism with a higher purpose for both the colonists and colonized, some voices expressed concern over the way indigenous peoples were treated and the effect it had on their societies. In the Spanish Empire, the crown established the General Indian Court in Mexico and in Peru, with jurisdiction over cases involving the indigenous and aimed at protecting Indians from ill-treatment. Indians' access to the court was enabled by a small tax; the issue of indigenous rights is associated with other levels of human struggle. Due to the close relationship between indigenous peoples' cultural and economic situations and their environmental settings, indigenous rights issues are linked with concerns over environmental change and sustainable development.
According to scientists and organizations like the Rainforest Foundation, the struggle for indigenous peoples is essential for solving the problem of reducing carbon emission, approaching the threat on both cultural and biological diversity in general. The rights and identity of indigenous peoples are apprehended and observed quite differently from government to government. Various organizations exist with charters to in one way or another promote indigenous aspirations, indigenous societies have banded together to form bodies which jointly seek to further their communal interests. There are several non-governmental civil society movements, networks and non-indigenous organizations whose founding mission is to protect indigenous rights, including land rights; these organizations and groups underline that the problems that indigenous peoples are facing is the lack of recognition that they are entitled to live the way they choose, lack of the right to their lands and territories. Their mission is to protect the rights of indigenous peoples without states imposing their ideas of "development".
These groups say that each indigenous culture is differentiated, rich of religious believe systems, way of life and arts, that the root of problem would be the interference with their way of living by state's disrespect to their rights, as well as the invasion of traditional lands by multinational corporations and small businesses for exploitation of natural resources. Indigenous peoples and their interests are represented in the United Nations through the mechanisms of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations. In April 2000 the United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues as an advisory body to the Economic and Social Council with a mandate to review indigenous issues. In late December 2004, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2005–2014 to be the Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People; the main goal of the new decade will be to strengthen international cooperation around resolving the problems faced by indigenous peoples in areas such as culture, health, human rights, the environment, social and economic development.
In September 2007, after a process of preparations and negotiations stretching back to 1982, the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The non-binding declaration outlines the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to identity, language, health and other issues. Four nations with significant indigenous populations voted against the declaration: the United States, New Zealand and Australia. All four have since changed their vote in favour. Eleven nations abstained: Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Colombia, Kenya, Russia and Ukraine. Thirty-four nations did not vote. ILO 169 is a convention of the International Labour Organization. Once ratified by a state, it is meant to work as a law protecting tribal people's rights. There are twenty-two physical survival and integrity, but the preservation of their land and religion rights; the ILO is represents indigenous rights as they are the organisation that enforced instruments the deal with
Algonac is a city in St. Clair County of the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 4,110 at the 2010 census. Algonac is located at the southern end of the St. Clair River, just before it splits into a large delta region known as the St. Clair Flats; the St. Clair River is part of the Great Lakes Waterway. At the center of Algonac is Algonac City Park, a park which contains a half-mile long boardwalk along the St. Clair River. Just to the north of the city is Algonac State Park. Algonac was the birthplace of Emily Helen Butterfield, an artist and the first woman to be licensed as an architect in Michigan, she was famous for innovations in church architecture. It was the home of Chris-Craft boat company, it was the home of Gar Wood, the first great speed boat racer. Algonac was first settled by John Martin in 1805; the area was known as Manchester or Pointe Du Chêne. In 1836, it was the fourth village laid out by Americans along the St. Clair River. In 1863, it was described as containing "a church, two or three saw-mills, a grist-mill, woollen factory, about 700 inhabitants".
It served a farming area. The economy was based in lumbering and trades associated with maritime activities on the Great Lakes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.44 square miles, of which 1.43 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Algonac is situated on what is called "the largest fresh-water delta in the world", at the mouth of the St. Clair River; the city has many canals, which have earned Algonac its nickname of "The Venice of Michigan." The city is classified as in a sub-region of the Thumb. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,110 people, 1,756 households, 1,082 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,874.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,040 housing units at an average density of 1,426.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.1% White, 0.3% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population.
There were 1,756 households of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.4% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the city was 42.3 years. 21.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,613 people, 1,871 households, 1,212 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,291.7 per square mile. There were 2,014 housing units at an average density of 1,437.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.36% White, 0.15% African American, 0.95% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.02% of the population. There were 1,871 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,133, the median income for a family was $55,000. Males had a median income of $41,644 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,441. About 8.6% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 15.2% of those age 65 or over.
M-29 M-154 and Walpole Island. Just to the west of the city, ferry service is offered to Harsens Island. Ferry Service: Near Algonac's city center, ferry service is available to Russell Island Bus Service: The Blue Water Area Transportation Commission operates a Port Huron-to-Chesterfield Twp bus service morning and evening Monday-Friday that passes through Algonac via M-29; this connects with the SMART system of Metro Detroit. Chris-Craft - boating manufacturer, which started in Algonac in 1922 Garfield Wood - racing legend.