Vehicle registration plates of Austria
Clemento RAB 888Nvehicle registration plates displaying the registration mark of motor vehicles in Austria. They are used to verify street legality, proof of a liability insurance and to identify. The license plates are made of metal, the text is in black letters. Since November 1,2002 the common design comprises a section on the left with the EU circle of stars. On the top and bottom, there are red-white-red tribands, the colors of Austria. Two plates have to be present on each car, dealer plates show white letters on a green background, temporary plates show white letters on a cyan background, and foreign trailers show white letters on a red background. For motorbikes and cars with smaller areas for plates, smaller license plates are available with two lines of text, moped plates are in different appearance and shape, they show white letters on a red background. As a general rule, State capitals have one letter, other districts have two letters, heraldic emblem of the federal state the district belongs to, diplomatic vehicles have a dash instead, federal official vehicles wear the Austrian Federal Eagle. A three to six-letter/number sequence which uniquely distinguishes each of the vehicles displaying the same area code.
The letter Q is excluded from all sequences, There are several lettering schemes, The letter/number sequence must contain at least three characters. In countryside districts, the maximum is five characters, regular plates start with a digit and end with a letter. Personalized plates, which can be obtained by paying a fee, are ordered vice versa. The letter/number sequence of state capitals contains up to six characters, since 2000 the vehicle registration have been carried out by car insurance companies on behalf of the government. The branch offices of companies issue the plates, which show three digits and two letters in each district or four digits and two letters in state capitals respectively. Army, police etc. have a number up to five digits only There are standardized abbreviations for special types of cars. But most of them are in use in Vienna only, BB Bundesbahnen, the prefixes are G= Bosnia and Herzegovina, U= Hungary, Z= All other countries. From 1919 until 1930, the format is the same as before.
From 1930 until 1939, the plates comprised one letters followed by five digits, the thousands of digits encoded the districts
A cadastral community records property ownership in a cadastre, which is a register describing property ownership by boundary lines of the real estate. Maria Theresas son Emperor Joseph II ordered the implication of a complete urbarium for property tax purposes in 1785, the present-day cadastre was completed after the Napoleonic Wars from 1817 onwards under Emperor Francis I of Austria. Since then, the Austrian crown lands were subdivided in Katastralgemeinden, municipalities as administrative subdivisions with certain rights of self-governance were not established until after the 1848 revolutions. Most of the nowadays Katastralgemeinden once had been independent communes and were incorporated on the occasion of a municipal territory reforms and they can be further divided into smaller villages and localities. As of 2014 there are 7,847 Katastralgemeinden in Austria, for land registration, the unit identifier used in a Katastralgemeinde is KG-Nr. The Dutch system of kadastrale gemeenten was set up around 1830
In Austrian politics, a district is a second-level division of the executive arm of the countrys government. e. District administrative authorities that only exist as a role filled by something that primarily is a city. As of 2015, there are 95 districts,80 districts headed by district commissions and 15 statutory cities, many districts are geographically congruent with one of the countrys 116 judicial venues. Statutory cities are not usually referred to as districts outside of government publications, a district headed by a district commission typically covers somewhere between ten and thirty municipalities. As a purely administrative unit, a district does not hold elections, the district governor is appointed by the provincial governor, the district civil servants are province employees. In the provincial laws of Lower Austria and Vorarlberg, districts headed by district commissions are called administrative districts, in Burgenland, Salzburg, Upper Austria, and Tyrol, the term used is political district.
National law, including constitutional law, uses all three variants interchangeably. A statutory city is a city vested with both municipal and district administrative responsibility, town hall personnel serves as district personnel, the mayor discharges the powers and duties of a head of district commission. City management thus functions both as a government and a branch of the national government at the same time. Most of the 15 statutory cities are major population centers with residents numbering in the tens of thousands. The last community to have invoked this right is Wels, a city since 1964. As of 2014, ten other communities are eligible but not interested, the statutory city of Vienna, a community with well over 1.7 million residents, is divided into 23 municipal districts. Despite the similar name and the role they fill, municipal districts have a different legal basis than districts. The statutory cities of Graz and Klagenfurt have referred to as municipal districts. Austria strictly speaking does not name districts but district administrative authorities, the German term for district commission and city, Bezirkshauptmannschaft and Stadt, respectively, is part of the official proper name of each such entity.
This means that there can be pairs of districts whose two proper names contain the same toponym, several such pairs do in fact exist. There are, for example, two district administrative authorities sharing the toponym Innsbruck, the city of Innsbruck and the Innsbruck district commission. To avoid confusion, the names of the districts in these pairs are commonly rendered with the suffix -Land
The West Autobahn was the first motorway to be built in Austria, originating from plans drawn up for the so-called Reichsautobahn system. Completed in 1967, today it runs from the outskirts of Vienna via Linz to Salzburg, the A1 is Austrias main east-west thoroughfare and part of the major European routes E55 and E60. However, only two sections around Salzburg with a length of 12.5 km were opened to traffic when works discontinued in 1942 due to World War II. After the war, the construction works on the third section to Eugendorf were finished, nevertheless. The construction of the A1 continued upon the signing of the Austrian State Treaty in 1955, the first post-war section up to Mondsee in Upper Austria was opened in 1958, the route from Salzburg to Vienna was completed with the opening of the last segment at Amstetten. Finishing works near Strengberg on the border between Upper and Lower Austria and of parts between Lambach and Vöcklabruck in Upper Austria ended in the 1970s. In Vienna, the West Autobahn intersects with the B1 Wiener Straße highway in the Hietzing district at kilometre 9, traffic significantly increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 and the 2004 enlargement of the European Union.
The motorway links to the following additional motorways and major roads, Autobahns of Austria Media related to West Autobahn A1 at Wikimedia Commons
The Untersberg is a massif of the Berchtesgaden Alps, a prominent northern spur that straddles the border between Berchtesgaden and Salzburg, Austria. The highest peak of the mountain is the Berchtesgaden Hochthron at 1,973 metres. The distinctive, lopsided peak gained international fame as the mountain featured at the beginning, the Untersberg rises at the rim of the Northern Limestone Alps, immediately at the Salzburg Basin and the broad Salzach Valley. Neighbouring peaks are the Hoher Göll in the southeast and Mt. Watzmann in the south, in the northwest, the Saalach Valley with Bad Reichenhall separates it from the Hochstaufen mountain range. About two-thirds of the area, including the Berchtesgaden Hochthron, is located in Germany, several trails lead to the top, though most people prefer the Untersbergbahn cable car. The first recorded ascent was in the first half of the 12th century, by Eberwein, the mountain lends its name to an 1829 opera, Der Untersberg, by Johann Nepomuk von Poißl.
The Karst topography of the limestone includes numerous caves, so far, more than 400 have been explored—including the Schellenberg ice cave at an elevation of 1,570 m, a show cave since 1925, and the Kolowrat Cave with a 300 m high dome. The Riesending cave with a depth of 1,059 m, there is a lake at 930 m depth. An expedition in August 2008 revealed that its lowest point had not yet been reached, the Untersberger marble ball mills are located in Marktschellenberg in Berchtesgaden, at the opening of the Almbachklamm valley. The Kügelmühlen were established in 1683, once popular childrens toys, these marbles were shipped all over the world. Through Rotterdam and London, marble shipping was directed toward the East and West Indies, marbles were welcome as cargo in sailing ships, as they were suitable as ballast because of their high density. The last marbles went from Untersberg to London in 1921, as late as the 1850s, the Almbach valley had 40 ball mills with another 90 in the surrounding region, worked mainly by poor mountain farmers.
Today, a ball mill operates primarily as a tourist attraction. The ball mills were driven by the waters of the Almbach river, the lower fixed grinding stones are made of hard sandstone and the upper turntables from beech wood. Grinding of the balls varies from two to eight days according to their size, after course grinding on the sandstone, the marble balls underwent sanding and a polish. Untersberg marble forms the facade of buildings such as the Salzburg Cathedral, according to a king in the mountain legend, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa is asleep inside Mt. Untersberg until his resurrection. His beard is said to be growing longer and longer around a round table, myth says that when the beard has grown three times around the table the end of the world has come. When Frederick leaves the mountain, there will be no further Holy Roman Emperor and the last great battle of humankind will be fought on the Walserfeld, there is a similar legend for the Kyffhäuser Mountain in Thuringia
The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as mayor. Bürgermeister, in German, in Germany and formerly in Switzerland, in Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century, various current titles for roughly equivalent offices include Gemeindepräsident, Stadtpräsident and Stadtamtmann. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany, the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germanys 112 urban districts usually bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world, the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but often used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister.
In the Netherlands nominated by the council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post, bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Burmistrz, a title, derived from German. The German form Oberbürgermeister is often translated as Nadburmistrz, the German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare, the title is not used in Sweden in present times, boargemaster Pormestari In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was usually held simultaneously by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, known as a number plate or a license plate, is metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the owner within the issuing regions database. The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered, the next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration, the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well, the third part indicates the year of registration of the vehicle and is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates.
Alternately, the government will merely assign plate numbers, and it is the owners responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime. If the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country. Other jurisdictions follow a policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they already hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyers name, a person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them. Some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with personal plates, in some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement, often associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration. Plates are usually fixed directly to a vehicle or to a frame that is fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames, in some jurisdictions licence plate frames are illegal
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
A shopping arcade is a specific form serving the same purpose. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or malls, often accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters, as a single built structure, early shopping centers were often architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the shopping centre is used, especially in Europe, Australia. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America, outside of North America, shopping precinct and shopping arcade are used. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, malls are commonly referred to as shopping centres, the majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres, usually found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets.
Large examples include West Quay in Southampton, Manchester Arndale, Bullring Birmingham, Liverpool One, Trinity Leeds, Buchanan Galleries in Glasgow and these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year, there are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion and this represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajans Market in Rome located in Trajans Forum. Trajans Market was probably built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops.
Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, isfahans Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century. The 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehrans Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history, the oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is likely to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage, different rows specialized in different goods, such as Bakers Row or Fleshmongers Row. The Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris opened in 1628 and still runs today, the Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England opened in 1774 and still runs today. The Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798, the Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europes Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished. It was signed on 14 June 1985, near the town of Schengen, Luxembourg, in 1990, the Agreement was supplemented by the Schengen Convention which proposed the complete abolition of systematic internal border controls and a common visa policy. It currently consists of 26 European countries covering a population of over 400 million people, the Schengen treaties and the rules adopted under them operated independently from the European Union. Several non-EU countries are included in the area, systematic identity controls were still in place at the border between most member states. The agreement was signed on the Princess Marie-Astrid boat on the river Moselle near the town of Schengen, three of the signatories, Belgium and the Netherlands, had already abolished common border controls as part of the Benelux Economic Union. In 1990, the Agreement was supplemented by the Schengen Convention which proposed the abolition of border controls.
It was this Convention that created the Schengen Area through the abolition of border controls between Schengen member states, common rules on visas, and police and judicial cooperation. In December 1996 two non-EU member states and Iceland, signed an agreement with the signatories of the Agreement to become part of the Schengen Area. While this agreement never came into force, both countries did become part of the Schengen Area after concluding similar agreements with the EU, the Schengen Convention itself was not open for signature by non-EU member states. In 2009, Switzerland finalised its official entry to the Schengen Area with the acceptance of an agreement by popular referendum in 2005. Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the acquis communautaire, it has, for EU members, lost the status of a treaty, amendments are made according to the legislative procedure of the EU under EU treaties. Ratification by the former agreement signatory states is not required for altering or repealing some or all of the former Schengen acquis, legal acts setting out the conditions for entry into the Schengen Area are now made by majority vote in the EUs legislative bodies.
However, consultations with affected countries are conducted prior to the adoption of new legislation. In 2016, border controls were introduced in seven Schengen countries. This was a response to the European migrant crisis