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Theta Lupi

Theta Lupi, Latinized from θ Lupi, is a solitary star in the southern constellation of Lupus. It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.22. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 7.87 mas as seen from Earth, it is located 410 light years away from the Sun. Relative to its neighbors, this star has a peculiar velocity of 16.7±3.7 km/s. It is a member of the nearby Sco OB2 association; this is a B-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of B2.5 Vn, where the'n' suffix indicates nebulous lines due to spin. It is rotating with a projected rotational velocity of 331 km/s; this is giving the star an oblate shape with an equatorial bulge, an estimated 15% larger than the polar radius. The star has an estimated 6.5 times the mass of around 4.5 times the Sun's radius. With an age of just 24.6 million years, it is radiating 792 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 15,395 K. Kaler, James B. "Theta Lupi", University of Illinois, retrieved 2017-03-05

Roman Catholic Diocese of Mende

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Mende is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese covers the department of Lozère; the diocese was in existence in 314, since Genialis, a deacon of the Church of Gabalum, was present at the Council of Arles in that year. Louis Duchesne chooses to place the earliest known bishop, before 314, though he points out that his date depends on a synchronicity with an invasion of Aquitaine by a band of German marauders under the leadership of King Chrocus; the notion that a Saint Severianus was the first apostle of the Gevaudan, or that Privatus held the same honor, that the whole country was converted to Christianity in one stroke,has long been exploded, by a demonstration that the legends are based on representations made to Pope Urban V in the 14th century to obtain indulgences. The diocese of Mende was a suffragan of Bourges under the Ancien Régime; when it was re-established by the Concordat of 1801 it became a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lyon and united with the department of Ardèche, which however it lost again in 1822 by the creation of the Diocese of Viviers, at which point Mende became suffragan to Albi.

On December 16, 2002, Mende was made a suffragan to Montpellier. The Bishop has his seat at St. Privat in Mende. Funds to begin the cathedral were supplied by Pope Urban V. Before the French Revolution, the Cathedral Chapter consisted of a Praepositus, the Archdeacon and the Precentor and fifteen canons. There were 200 parishes, one abbey. In 2013, the diocese, rural, had a total population of 78,400, of whom 77.6% were claimed as Roman Catholics. They are served by 76 priests, there were 135 parishes. According to late legends belonging to the Limousin cycle relating to St. Martial, he passed through the territory of the Gabali of which Mende is the capital, appointed as its first bishop, St. Severian his disciple, about the beginning of the first century; the first bishop known to history is Saint Privatus, who according to Gregory of Tours, died in a grotto of Mount Mimmat, a victim of the ill treatment he suffered at the time of the invasion of the Alamanni under their King Chrocus. Gregory of Tours places this event about 260.

Louis Duchesne, places the invasion of Chrocus and the death of St. Privatus at the beginning of the reign of Constantine, c. 312 before the Council of Arles. It is certain that there was an organized church in the country of the Gabali from about 314, since in that year it was represented at the Council of Arles. Other bishops of the Gabali, who doubtless resided at Javoulx, near Mende, were: Hilarius, present at the Council of Auvergne in 535, founder of the monastery of Canourgue, whose personality has been wrongly described in certain traditions concerning Saint Illier. Towards the year 1000 Mende became the seat of the bishopric. Under Bishop Aldebert de Tournel, Pope Alexander III passed some days at Mende in the last two weeks of July 1162. Bishop Aldebert wrote two works, on the passion and on the miracles of St. Privatus whose relics were discovered at Mende in 1170. Bishop Adalbert's most noteworthy achievement, was his negotiation of an act of fealty with King Louis VII of France, sometimes called the'golden bull' or act of paréage of 1166.

King Louis noted that it was the first time that a bishop of Gévaudan had made his submission to a king of France. He recognized the powers of the bishop, not only in the spiritual sphere, but ad iudicandum in gladio, stated that the agreement in no way was to be taken to diminish the privileges enjoyed by the bishops; the King surrendered to the bishop and his successors all the regalian rights with reference to his crown. In 1278, under Bishop Stephanus, the Dominicans established a convent in Maruéjols, in the diocese of Mende; the city of Mende was not important enough to become the capital of the Gévaudan until the act of paréage of King Philip IV of 3 February 1307, which granted the bishops the title of Count and the high Seigneurie of Gévaudan. This act increased their temporal authority and brought the submission of all of the seigneurs of the region; the territory of Lodève had its own Estates from an early period, it retained it after it became part of the Estates of Languedoc in the fourteenth century.

The Bishop of Mende was the President of the Estates of Gévaudan. The Second Estate were represented by the eight Barons who were Peers of twelve gentlemen; the Estates met alternately at Mende and at Marvejols. The Estates opened with a procession from the Episcopal Palace to the Cathedral for a Mass of the Holy