Interstate 76 (Ohio–New Jersey)
Interstate 76 is an Interstate Highway in the United States, running about 434 miles from an interchange with I-71 west of Akron, east to I-295 in Bellmawr, New Jersey. Just west of Youngstown, I-76 heads around the south side of Youngstown. In Pennsylvania, I-76 runs across most of the state on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, passing near Pittsburgh and Harrisburg before leaving the Turnpike to enter Philadelphia on the Schuylkill Expressway, crossing the Walt Whitman Bridge into New Jersey. After I-76 reaches its eastern terminus, the freeway continues as Route 42 and the Atlantic City Expressway to Atlantic City. I-76 begins at I-71 at exit 209, east of Ohio; the interchange was a double trumpet, but was reconstructed in 2010.) I-76 begins at the beginning of the ramp from I-71 north. After passing through rural Medina County, I-76 enters Summit County and soon crosses SR 21, once the main north–south route through the area until I-77 replaced it, at a cloverleaf interchange. I-76 passes Barberton and enters Akron.
Soon after entering Akron, I-76 exits the main freeway, which continues east as I-277, onto the short Kenmore Expressway. Shortly after heading north from the I-277 interchange, I-76 meets I-77 and again turns east, joining southbound I-77 through Downtown Akron on the West Expressway. A partial interchange provides access to SR 59, the Innerbelt, I-76 crosses through the Central Interchange, where I-77 goes south and SR 8 begins to the north. Leaving the Akron area, I-76 again heads through rural areas, crossing Portage County and entering Mahoning County. West of Youngstown, the freeway crosses the Ohio Turnpike. I-76 transfers to the Turnpike at the overpass, with a similar change happening with I-80. In reality, access between the roads is via a double trumpet connection in the northeast corner of the crossing, along which I-76 traffic and I-80 traffic run in opposite directions; the Ohio Turnpike carries I-76 starting from around Ohio until the Pennsylvania border. From the Ohio border, the Pennsylvania Turnpike carries I-76 into and across most of Pennsylvania, bypassing Youngstown to the south and Pittsburgh to the north.
From the Ohio border until Warrendale, the turnpike uses a non-ticketing toll system while east of Warrendale, the ticketing system begins. There is I-79 near Wexford. At one point, I-76 used to begin in Pittsburgh on a route, now signed as I-376, around the 1970s. From New Stanton to Breezewood, I-76 is concurrent with I-70. In this section are the bypass of the Laurel Hill Tunnel the still-in-use Allegheny Mountain Tunnel in a unpopulated section of South Central Pennsylvania, an indirect connection with I-99 in Bedford; the highway passes through a wind farm in Somerset County and is the closest interstate highway to the 9/11 Flight 93 National Memorial in Shanksville. At Breezewood, I-70 exits the turnpike, while I-76 bypasses the Rays Hill and Sideling Hill tunnels along a new alignment built in the 1960s. I-76 bypasses Harrisburg and Reading both to the south; the major features of this section are more mountains with the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel and a double tunnel prior to PA 997 near Shippensburg.
I-76 intersects I-81 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania I-83 and I-283 near Harrisburg. The Susquehanna River Bridge is a new six lane bridge, constructed in 2003 using precast segments that replaced an older bridge across the Susquehanna River. At Valley Forge, I-76 diverges towards Philadelphia. At Valley Forge, northwest of Philadelphia, I-76 leaves the Turnpike to run into Philadelphia on the Schuylkill Expressway. After exiting the Turnpike, I-76 interchanges with the US 202 and US 422 freeways near King of Prussia. I-76 crosses I-476 near Conshohocken, begins running along the southwest shore of the Schuylkill River. I-76 enters the city/county limits of Philadelphia where Interchanges provide access to the Roosevelt Expressway and the Vine Street Expressway. After the Grays Ferry Avenue exit near University City, I-76 crosses the Schuylkill Expressway Bridge to go towards the South Philadelphia Sports Complex near the Lincoln Financial Field, Wells Fargo Center, the Citizens Bank Park; the last interchange before the Walt Whitman Bridge over the Delaware River into New Jersey is with I-95.
Some of the ramps involve traffic signals, as the ramps to I-95 were retrofitted into an existing interchange when I-95 was built, the toll booth for the bridge lies west of the crossing of the two roads. Just after crossing the Delaware River on the Walt Whitman Bridge, I-76 turns south and becomes the North-South Freeway, which carries I-676 north to Downtown Camden; the exit numbers in New Jersey are backwards. Though signed eastbound towards Atlantic City, the route ends near Gloucester City in western Camden County at an interchange with I-295. From the exit for I-676 to the end, I-76 had local and expres
Barrier transfer machine
A barrier transfer machine known as zipper machine or road zipper, is a heavy vehicle used to transfer concrete lane dividers, such as jersey barriers, which are used to relieve traffic congestion during rush hours. Many other cities use them temporarily during construction work; the lanes created by the machine are sometimes referred to as "zipper lanes". One advantage of barrier systems over other lane management treatments is that a solid, positive barrier prevents vehicle collisions due to motorists crossing over into opposing traffic flow. A disadvantage is that lane widths can be reduced; the vehicle contains an S-shaped, inverted conveyor channel in its undercarriage which lifts the barrier segments off the road surface and transfers them over to the other side of the lane, reallocating traffic lanes to accommodate increased traffic for the dominant direction These barriers are linked together with steel connectors to create a sturdy but flexible safety barrier. The minimum length for some barrier systems is 100 feet.
The length can vary based on application and the amount of barrier needed to deflect an errant vehicle. Some barrier systems have four rubber feet on the bottom of each segment “to increase the coefficient of friction between the barrier element and the road surface”; this helps the barrier resist vehicle impact and keeps the barrier from moving if struck. Barrier transfer machines can move their barrier segments anywhere between 4 and 24 feet in one pass at a speed between 5 and 10 miles per hour; some models of the machine hold 50 feet of barrier at a time. The machine can transfer within the regular traffic flow without hindering other vehicles: Admirably engineered, the barrier-moving process does not compromise traffic flow in either direction, the truck is shielded by the blocks it's moving. If you're traveling in the same direction as the truck, the lane it's working behind is blocked, and if you pass the vehicle at the speed limit, you can safely move into the lane ahead of it. Oncoming motorists, are prevented from entering the zipper's lane by the concrete barriers in front of it, they can move into a lane after they have passed the truck.
Upon completing its pass, some barrier transfer machines can be moved across outside traffic lanes away from the area. However, other systems park in a median between their movable barrier and an affixed barrier to keep them from impeding traffic flow. A barrier transfer machine that operates outside of Honolulu has its own garage in the space between viaducts. Moveable barriers are in permanent use in such cities as The Road Zipper brand movable barrier model is one vehicle, piloted by two operators located at opposite ends of it at a 25 degree angle along the barrier. Sophisticated models can be customized for their application and local road characteristics. Hydraulically adjustable units and computerized steering guidance systems in such models further aid in accurate transfer vehicle movement and barrier placement. Permanent, sophisticated units can cost around US $1 million each. Another variant of the machine uses two narrower machines running in tandem; this setup tends to be used in reversible lanes when the movable barrier is used to divide two directions of traffic—the narrower machines are less of an impediment to traffic in either direction.
The Road Zipper variant has been in existence since 1984-1985. Auckland Harbour Bridge had its original moveable barrier system installed in 1990; the Hawaii Department of Transportation debuted a Zipper Lane on Oahu on August 18, 1998. The Ben Franklin Bridge has had a permanent barrier transfer system since the year 2000, when it was installed by the Delaware River Port Authority. A moveable barrier system was introduced in Sydney, NSW, Australia, in 2012; the Golden Gate Bridge had a permanent 13,340-foot movable barrier system installed in January 2015. Reversible lane
Camden County, New Jersey
Camden County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is Camden; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 510,719, making it the state's 8th-largest county, representing a 0.7% decrease from the 513,657 enumerated at the 2010 Census, in turn having increased by 4,725 from the 508,932 counted in the 2000 Census. The most populous place was Camden, with 77,344 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Winslow Township covered 58.19 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. It was formed on March 1844, from portions of Gloucester County; the county was named for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, a British judge, civil libertarian, defender of the American cause. The county is part of the Camden, NJ Metropolitan Division of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD / Delaware Valley Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 227.293 square miles, including 221.263 square miles of land and 6.030 square miles of water.
Located in a coastal / alluvial plain, the county is uniformly low-lying. The highest points are a survey benchmark near the Burlington County line at 219 feet above sea level; the low point is sea level, along the Delaware River. The county borders the following counties: Burlington County, New Jersey – northeast Atlantic County, New Jersey – southeast Gloucester County, New Jersey – southwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania – northwest Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Camden have ranged from a low of 26 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −11 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in August 1918. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.75 inches in February to 4.35 inches in July. While many of its municipalities are working class, Camden County has many contrasts in its demographics. Most of Camden and parts of Lindenwold are considered impoverished, while Cherry Hill, Voorhees Township, Haddon Heights and Haddonfield have upper-income enclaves.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 513,657 people, 190,980 households, 129,866.400 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,321.5 per square mile. There were 204,943 housing units at an average density of 926.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 65.29% White, 19.55% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 5.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 7.08% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.24% of the population. There were 190,980 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 9% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37.9 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.7 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 508,932 people, 185,744 households, 129,835 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,289 people per square mile. There were 199,679 housing units at an average density of 898 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.88% White American, 18.09% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 3.72% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.09% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 9.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 20.6% of residents were of Irish, 18.2% Italian, 15.7% German and 8.1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 185,744 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families.
25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,097, the median income for a family was $57,429. Males had a median income of $41,609 versus $30,470 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,354. About 8.1% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. The county is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members chosen at-large in partisan elections for three-year terms on a staggered basis by the residents of the county, with either two or three seats up for election each year as part of the November general election.
At a reorganization meeting held in January after each election, the newly constituted Freeholder Board selects one of its members to ser
Walter Whitman was an American poet and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon called the father of free verse, his work was controversial in its time his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, described as obscene for its overt sexuality. Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, a government clerk, and—in addition to publishing his poetry—was a volunteer nurse during the American Civil War. Early in his career, he produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans. Whitman's major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money; the work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892. After a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined; when he died at age 72, his funeral became a public spectacle.
Walter Whitman was born on May 31, 1819, in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents with interests in Quaker thought and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. The second of nine children, he was nicknamed "Walt" to distinguish him from his father. Walter Whitman Sr. named three of his seven sons after American leaders: Andrew Jackson, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson. The oldest was named Jesse and another boy died unnamed at the age of six months; the couple's sixth son, the youngest, was named Edward. At age four, Whitman moved with his family from West Hills to Brooklyn, living in a series of homes, in part due to bad investments. Whitman looked back on his childhood as restless and unhappy, given his family's difficult economic status. One happy moment that he recalled was when he was lifted in the air and kissed on the cheek by the Marquis de Lafayette during a celebration in Brooklyn on July 4, 1825. At age eleven Whitman concluded formal schooling, he sought employment for further income for his family.
There, Whitman learned about typesetting. He may have written "sentimental bits" of filler material for occasional issues. Clements aroused controversy when he and two friends attempted to dig up the corpse of Elias Hicks to create a plaster mold of his head. Clements left the Patriot shortly afterward as a result of the controversy; the following summer Whitman worked for Erastus Worthington, in Brooklyn. His family moved back to West Hills in the spring, but Whitman remained and took a job at the shop of Alden Spooner, editor of the leading Whig weekly newspaper the Long-Island Star. While at the Star, Whitman became a regular patron of the local library, joined a town debating society, began attending theater performances, anonymously published some of his earliest poetry in the New-York Mirror. At age 16 in May 1835, Whitman left the Brooklyn, he moved to New York City to work as a compositor though, in years, Whitman could not remember where. He attempted to find further work but had difficulty, in part due to a severe fire in the printing and publishing district, in part due to a general collapse in the economy leading up to the Panic of 1837.
In May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Long Island. Whitman taught intermittently at various schools until the spring of 1838, though he was not satisfied as a teacher. After his teaching attempts, Whitman went back to Huntington, New York, to found his own newspaper, the Long-Islander. Whitman served as publisher, editor and distributor and provided home delivery. After ten months, he sold the publication to E. O. Crowell, whose first issue appeared on July 12, 1839. There are no known surviving copies of the Long-Islander published under Whitman. By the summer of 1839, he found a job as a typesetter in Jamaica, Queens with the Long Island Democrat, edited by James J. Brenton, he left shortly thereafter, made another attempt at teaching from the winter of 1840 to the spring of 1841. One story apocryphal, tells of Whitman's being chased away from a teaching job in Southold, New York, in 1840. After a local preacher called him a "Sodomite", Whitman was tarred and feathered. Biographer Justin Kaplan notes that the story is untrue, because Whitman vacationed in the town thereafter.
Biographer Jerome Loving calls the incident a "myth". During this time, Whitman published a series of ten editorials, called "Sun-Down Papers—From the Desk of a Schoolmaster", in three newspapers between the winter of 1840 and July 1841. In these essays, he adopted a constructed persona, a technique he would employ throughout his career. Whitman moved to New York City in May working a low-level job at the New World, working under Park Benjamin Sr. and Rufus Wilmot Griswold. He continued working for short periods of time for various newspapers, he contributed freelance fiction and poetry throughout the 1840s. Whitman lost his position at the Brooklyn Eagle in 1848 after siding with the free-soil "Barnburner" wing of the Democratic party against the newspaper's owner, Isaac Van Anden, who belonged to the conservative, or "Hunker", wing of the party. Whitman was a delegate to the 1848 founding convention of the Free Soil Party, concerned about the threat slavery would pose to free white labor and northern businessmen moving
The Schuylkill Expressway, locally known as "the Schuylkill", is a two to eight lane freeway through southwestern Montgomery County and the city of Philadelphia, the easternmost segment of Interstate 76 in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It extends from the Valley Forge exit of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in King of Prussia, paralleling its namesake Schuylkill River for most of the route, to the Walt Whitman Bridge in South Philadelphia, it serves as the primary corridor into Philadelphia from points west. Maintenance and planning are administered through PennDOT District 6. Constructed over a period of ten years from 1949 to 1959, a large portion of the expressway predates the 1956 introduction of Interstate Highway System; the rugged terrain, limited riverfront space covered by the route and narrow spans of bridges passing over the highway have stymied attempts to upgrade or widen the highway. With the road being over capacity, it has become notorious for its chronic congestion. In recent years, it is the busiest road in Philadelphia, as well as in the entire commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
An average 163,000 vehicles use the road daily in Philadelphia County, an average of 109,000 use the highway in Montgomery County. Its narrow lane and left shoulder configuration, left lane entrances and exits, common construction activity and congested conditions have led to many accidents, critical injuries and fatalities, leading to the highway's humorous nickname of the "Surekill Expressway" or in further embellishment, the "Surekill Distressway" or the “Surekill Crawlway"; the Schuylkill Expressway begins at the Valley Forge Interchange of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in the community of King of Prussia in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County. The I-76 designation continues west on the Pennsylvania Turnpike from this point, while the Pennsylvania Turnpike from this point east is designated I-276; the road heads southeast from the trumpet interchange as a nine-lane freeway carrying four westbound lanes and five eastbound lanes, designated as part of I-76, passing through the Valley Forge Interchange toll plaza.
Past the toll plaza, the Schuylkill Expressway narrows to four lanes comes to an eastbound exit and entrance with Gulph Road, providing access to Valley Forge National Historical Park and the King of Prussia Town Center, a westbound exit and entrance with Mall Boulevard, providing access to the King of Prussia mall to the northeast of the road. The freeway passes businesses and comes to an interchange with US 202, the eastern terminus of US 422, Swedesford Road that serves King of Prussia. A westbound collector/distributor road carrying two lanes provides access to the US 202/US 422/Swedesford Road and Mall Boulevard interchanges. I-76 passes under the Chester Valley Trail and Norfolk Southern's Dale Secondary and continues east-southeast as a six-lane road between residential areas to the southwest and commercial areas to the northeast narrowing to four lanes; the freeway heads east and comes to a westbound exit and entrance with Gulph Road and Henderson Road. The Schuylkill Expressway curves southeast near wooded areas of homes before coming to an interchange with PA 320 in the community of Gulph Mills.
This interchange has a westbound exit. Within this interchange, the highway passes over SEPTA's Norristown High Speed Line. Past the PA 320 interchange, I-76 continues east-southeast through woodland near residential development, heading into Lower Merion Township; the freeway enters the borough of West Conshohocken and comes to an interchange with I-476 that has ramps providing access to PA 23 and serving the boroughs of West Conshohocken and Conshohocken. Past the I-476 interchange, the Schuylkill Expressway heads east and comes to a westbound exit and eastbound entrance providing access to PA 23 and Conshohocken, passing near residential and commercial development; the freeway passes over PA 23 and leaves West Conshohocken for Lower Merion Township, where it heads through wooded areas and runs on top of a cliff, with Norfolk Southern's Harrisburg Line and the Schuylkill River parallel to the north below the cliff and another cliff rising above the highway to the south. East of Conshohocken at about mile marker 331, it curves southeast in a 90-degree turn locally known as the "Conshohocken Curve" or "Conshy Curve", which has a history of traffic congestion and dangerous conditions.
I-76 continues southeast through wooded areas, with the railroad tracks and the river parallel to the northeast. Farther southeast, the Schuylkill Expressway comes to a westbound exit and eastbound entrance with Hollow Road that provides access to the Main Line community of Gladwyne; the freeway passes over the Flat Rock Tunnel carrying Norfolk Southern's Harrisburg Line and continues to the southeast with the Schuylkill River to the northeast and the railroad tracks to the southwest. I-76 comes to a diamond interchange with Belmont Avenue and Green Lane, with Belmont Avenue heading south through Lower Merion Township and Green Lane crossing the river into the Philadelphia neighborhood of Manayunk. Following this interchange, the freeway passes under the Manayunk Bridge that carries an extension of the Cynwyd Heritage Trail across the Schuylkill River; the Schuykill Expressway passes over Norfolk Southern's Harrisburg Line and runs southeast between the West Laurel Hill Cemetery to the southwest and an industrial area to the northeast, sandwiched between the railroad tracks and the river.
I-76 comes to an interchange with City Avenue on the border of Lower Merion Township and the city of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County.
Walt Whitman (Davidson)
Walt Whitman is a statue by Jo Davidson of which there are several castings. Davidson began working on a depiction of Walt Whitman after entering a competition for one in 1925. Although that statue was never realized, Davidson continued to refine; when working on the statue Davidson first made a life-sized clay nude had a special armature created that allowed him to independently move the arms and legs, allowing him to get the exact movement that he was seeking. Davidson stated, "Nothing in my statue of Walt Whitman could be static and I got the rhythm I was after."The statue was first exhibited at the New York Worlds Fair in 1939. In 1939 Averell Harriman suggested to Davidson that the work be placed in the Bear Mountain State Park. Whitman inspected the site, found it acceptable and the statue was placed there. At the statue’s unveiling New York Park Commissioner Robert Moses quipped, "I am not sure if this is a statue of Walt Whitman by Jo Davidson or a statue of Jo Davidson by Walt Whitman."
Another casting of the statue was done in 1957, purchased by the Fairmount Park Art Association and placed at the intersection of Broad Street and Packer Avenue, near the approach to the Walt Whitman Bridge. Poet Louis Simpson published a poem entitled “Walt Whitman at Bear Mountain in which he announces, “Even the bronze looks alive”; the work can be observed in the upper right hand of the 70 Sculptors photograph taken at the 3rd Sculpture International exhibition in Philadelphia in 1949. Davidson can be found in the picture seated in the front row, second from the right. List of public art in Philadelphia
E‑ZPass is an electronic toll collection system used on most tolled roads and tunnels in the Midwestern and Eastern United States, as far south as Florida and as far west as Illinois. The E-ZPass Interagency Group consists of 39 member agencies in operation within 17 states, which use the same technology and allow travelers to use the same transponder on toll roads throughout the network. Since its creation in 1987, various independent systems that use the same technology have been folded into the E-ZPass system, including the I-Pass in Illinois and the NC Quick Pass in North Carolina. Negotiations are ongoing for nation-wide interoperatibility in the United States. E‑ZPass tags are active RFID transponders, made by Kapsch TrafficCom, they communicate with reader equipment built into lane-based or open-road toll collection lanes by transmitting a unique radio signature. The most common type of tag is an internal tag that can be mounted on the inside of the vehicle's windshield in proximity to the rear-view mirror.
Though toll agencies advise adherence to the windshield with mounting strips, third-party options using trays with suction cups to adhere a pass to a windshield temporarily if used in multiple vehicles are available. Some vehicles have windshields. Although a tag can be used with a motorcycle, there are no official instructions given for mounting due to the numerous variations between bike designs and the small area of a motorcycle windshield which could prove a hindrance if the transponder is attached following automobile instructions. Transponders may be put in a jacket pocket, if necessary. Most E‑ZPass lanes are converted manual toll lanes and must have low speed limits for safety reasons, so that E‑ZPass vehicles can merge safely with vehicles that stopped to pay a cash toll and, in some cases, to allow toll workers to safely cross the E‑ZPass lanes to reach booths accepting cash payments. In some areas, there is no need to slow down, because E‑ZPass users can utilize dedicated traffic lanes that are physically separate from the toll-booth lanes.
Examples include: Other roads in the E-ZPass system have eschewed toll booths altogether, switched to all-electronic tolling. As vehicles pass at normal speed under toll collection gantries, tolls are collected either through the E-ZPass transponder or by billing the owner of the vehicle via automatic number-plate recognition. Examples include: Each E-ZPass tag is programmed for a particular class of vehicle; this will result in a violation and possible large fine assessed to the tag holder if a lower-class tag is being used in a higher-class vehicle such as a bus or truck. In an attempt to avoid this, E‑ZPass tags for commercial vehicles are blue in color, contrasting with the white tags assigned to standard passenger vehicles; the blue E‑ZPass is used in government employee vehicles. In New York, an orange E‑ZPass tag is issued to emergency vehicles as well as to employees of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York State Thruway Authority.
For purposes of interoperability, all agencies are connected to each other by a secure network. This network provides the means to exchange tag data and process toll transactions across the various agencies. Tag data is exchanged among the agencies on a nightly basis; this data can take up to 24 hours on the primary network the unit is issued by, but may be delayed by as much as 72 hours on other networks. The E‑ZPass transponder works by listening for a signal broadcast by the reader stationed at the toll booth; this 915 MHz signal is sent at 500 kbit/s using the TDM protocol in 256‑bit packets. Transponders use active. In April 2013, Kapsch made the protocol available to all interested parties royalty-free in perpetuity and is granting the right to sublicense the protocol; some issuing agencies offer a packaged E‑ZPass transponder preloaded with toll funds sold over-the-counter at a retail setting, valid immediately. A portion of the balance is available instantly. According to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 83.4% of vehicles crossing its six bridges and tunnels used E-ZPass for toll payment during all of 2016.
The notion of electronic tolling had been considered as early as the early 1990s in the New York metropolitan area. The tolling agencies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania—which constitute two-thirds of the United States' $3 billion-a-year toll industry—sought to create a compatible electronic-tolling technology that could be used on the toll roads and bridges of the three states, in an effort to reduce congestion on some of the busiest roadways and toll plazas in the United States. In 1991, the In