Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains and express coaches. The group was founded in 1980 by current chairman Brian Souter, his sister Ann Gloag, the group is headquartered in Perth and operates subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Stagecoach operates around 8,100 vehicles and covers over 90 major towns and cities in the United Kingdom, Stagecoach UK Bus employs 18,000 people. In North America, Stagecoach owns the Coach USA and Coach Canada brands, previous operations in Australia, Hong Kong, Malawi, New Zealand and Sweden have been sold. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the FTSE250 Index, anns accountant brother Brian Souter joined the firm and expanded the business into bus hire. Robin Gloag subsequently sold his shareholding in the business and ceased any involvement in 1982 with the collapse of his marriage to Ann, for a while, they offered a very personal service with Brian Souter doing the driving and Ann Gloag making up sandwiches and snacks for the passengers.
Its early success allowed Stagecoach to take advantage of the privatisation of the national bus groups, several firms were purchased from the National Bus Company, Scottish Bus Group, London Buses and various city councils. The company consolidated its operations during the 1990s by purchasing ex NBC and SBG bus companies that had purchased by management. Stagecoach left the long distance coach market in 1988 when it sold its operations to National Express. It was sold to a management buyout before being purchased by Stagecoach in August 1996, in April 2000 Stagecoach sold Porterbrook to Abbey National for £773 million. In 1997 Stagecoach won the franchise to operate the Sheffield Supertram system, from the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive, when Stagecoach took over the system, it was struggling, both financially and in terms of attracting passengers, but it is now an extremely popular and successful operation. Stagecoach took another turn in 1998, when it purchased Scotlands Prestwick Airport for £41 million, by the summer of 1999, the company was rumoured to have been offered some £80 million for Prestwick.
They sold the airport in January 2001 to concentrate on surface transport, on 21 November 2005 Stagecoach announced the sale of its New Zealand operations to Infratil. On 14 December 2005 Stagecoach purchased Barnsley based Traction Group for £26m, Traction operated 840 buses in South and West Yorkshire and Angus. Traction was the largest remaining privately owned independent bus operator in the UK, in September 2005, following competition with its Megabus coach operation, Stagecoach launched a joint venture with Scottish Citylink coaches. After a competition enquiry, in October 2006 Stagecoach was instructed to sell some of the Scottish coach services, Stagecoach are active in the rail industry, currently operating the South West Trains franchise and having a 49% stake in Virgin Rail Group. In 2007 the group won the right to take over the part of the old Central Trains franchise, in July 2007, Stagecoach commenced operating the Manchester Metrolink tram network. In January 2009, Stagecoach bought Preston Bus, a rival in the Lancashire area
Northern Rail (Serco-Abellio)
Northern Rail was an English train operating company owned by Serco-Abellio. It was the train operator in Northern England, and operated the most stations of any train operating company in the UK. Northern Rail operated the Northern Electrics sub-brand on electrified services in North West England using class 319 units from Thameslink, Northern Rail was replaced on 1 April 2016 by Arriva Rail Norths Northern brand. A TransPennine Express franchise would be created for the regional services. On 1 July 2004 the Strategic Rail Authority awarded the franchise to Serco-NedRailways, the franchise was awarded for six years and nine months, with a two-year extension subject to performance targets being achieved. Serco-NedRailways bid had assumed that some Class 142 Pacer trains would be released imminently when Manchester Metrolink services started between Manchester and Oldham, due to a substantial delay in extending the Metrolink, it became clear that this was not going to be the case. As a result, the signing was delayed, and the services operated by First North Western.
In May 2010 the Department for Transport confirmed that Northern had met the performance targets, in May 2012 the Department for Transport granted Northern a six-month extension until 31 March 2014. In March 2013 the Secretary of State for Transport announced the franchise would be extended to February 2016. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced Abellio, Arriva, on 9 December 2015, it was announced that Arriva trading as Northern had been awarded a new franchise to run from 1 April 2016 through to March 2025. The 10,17 service from Sheffield on Sundays continues to Carlisle creating a train service between Sheffield and Carlisle for the first time since the demise of British Rail. The service returns from Carlisle at 15,10, in May 2015 Northern Rail announced the re-introduction of a direct service between Blackburn and Manchester Victoria via Burnley following the reopening of the Todmorden Curve. The service operates hourly, seven days a week, services on the route from Thorpes Bridge Junction, Newton Heath to Rochdale East Junction via Oldham, known as the Oldham Loop Line, ceased on 3 October 2009.
The line was converted for Manchester Metrolink operation and reopened as a Metrolink route in 2012. Northern Rail won Public Transport Operator of the Year 2007 at the National Transport Awards and was praised by the judges for attracting 20% more passengers since 2004. In the period 15 October 2009 to 14 November 2009, Northerns punctuality was 91. 1%, Northerns passenger charter targets were 91% for punctuality and 99% for reliability. The franchise agreement commits to a 15% reduction in delays in the first five years and to a new incentive/penalty regime and a more local focus on performance. The latest official figures released by NR rate punctuality at 91. 9% and an MAA of 90. 7% for period 7, the annual report for 2012, published in March 2013, of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen stated that Northern Rail transported 263,000 passengers daily
British Rail Engineering Limited
The vast majority of BRELs output was for British Rail, including Mark 1, Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages, the latter for locomotive haulage and InterCity 125 diesel High Speed Trains. BREL built the NIR80 Class diesel-electric multiple units for Northern Ireland Railways, other Mark 3 derived vehicles included Class 150 diesel multiple units in the 1980s and numerous electric multiple units such as Classes 313 and 317. BREL had limited success in the market, notably with Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages for Irish Rail. BREL built prototypes such as the Class 210 DEMU and the experimental high-speed Advanced Passenger Train tilting during the 1970s, the Class 210 were externally very similar to the first batch of Class 317 EMUs, but half of the forward carriage was taken up by the engine room. Power was provided by a diesel engine driving a generator to power traction motors on the axles. A single engine was fitted at one end of the unit, BREL major production centres were at Crewe, Doncaster and York.
The historic site at Wolverton in Milton Keynes was progressively run down until the 1980s before being relegated to maintenance duties, latterly, BREL often acted as a sub contractor to a main contractor such as GEC, which supplied traction equipment. These contracts required BREL to build the frames, body shells and bogies, much of the electric locomotive construction programme of the 1980s, such as Classes 87,90 and 91, was carried out in this way. In 1989 BREL was purchased by the Swiss-Swedish conglomerate ABB, Trafalgar House, in 1992 it was bought out by ABB to form ABB Transportation Ltd. It has since become part of Bombardier Transportation, the privatisation of British Rail led to a hiatus in the ordering of rolling stock, which predictably led to the almost complete collapse of the rolling stock manufacturing industry. When purchases of rolling stock resumed, with little remaining capacity in the UK contracts were increasingly placed overseas, like Metro Cammell, BREL helped in the planning, design and, on occasion, the manufacturing of London Underground stock.
High Speed Train Advanced Passenger Train InterCity 225 British Rail London Underground 1986 Stock
West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive
The West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive was the public body responsible for public transport in the West Midlands from 1969 until 2016. The organisation operated under the name Centro from 1990, and was branded as Network West Midlands from 2005. Initially, WMPTE was responsible for the operation of bus services within the West Midlands, following deregulation in 1986 it ceased operating services directly and assumed a purely coordinating role. WMPTE was dissolved in 2016 following the establishment of the West Midlands Combined Authority and its transport arm, when first established, WMPTE was governed by the West Midlands Passenger Transport Authority. Initially, this consisted of members from the government authorities existing within WMPTEs operating area. From that date, the original WMPTA was disbanded, in its place, the new West Midlands County Council became the PTA for the West Midlands. However, this new arrangement ultimately proved to be lived, as the 1985 Local Government Act abolished the metropolitan county councils.
On that date, a new WMPTA was formed, comprising members from the West Midlands seven metropolitan borough councils, the 2008 Local Transport Act subsequently saw the WMPTA reconstituted as the West Midlands Integrated Transport Authority. These agenda were broken down into six groups, with a set of councillors responsible for each, policy Co-ordination and Development ensured the WMPTEs policies were effectively delivered. Finance, Delivery & Performance Monitoring managed the WMPTEs budget, putting Passengers First ensured the WMPTEs policies met the needs of the public. Task & Finish ensured WMPTEs task and finish groups met their delivery timescales, partner Engagement, Petitions & Appeals Sub-Committee - considered appeals against bus shelter placements and ensured the authority worked effectively with industry partners. Public consultations were held to gather views on proposed projects. The authority was primarily funded by a tax levy from the seven metropolitan boroughs, although some projects were funded by the Department for Transport.
In 1990 WMPTE adopted the name of Centro. Local British Rail Class 150 and Class 323 trains were painted in a green Centro livery, central Trains applied an updated lime green livery to the Class 150 fleet. From 2007, some received a blue and green livery when Network West Midlands. Following the franchise passing to London Midland, the introduction of Class 172 rolling stock, promotion of the brand included television advertising, print media, and online media. All bus stops, Metro stops, and train station signs were replaced with Network West Midlands signage, WMPTE was created by the Transport Act 1968 and came into being on 1 October 1969 to operate and coordinate public transport in the large West Midlands conurbation
The Leyland Leopard was a mid-engined single-decker bus and single-decker coach chassis manufactured by Leyland between 1959 and 1982. The Leyland Leopard was introduced in 1959 and it was developed from the Leyland Tiger Cub, one of the most important changes being the introduction of the larger and more powerful 0.600 engine. The Leopard was superseded by the Leyland Tiger, the original 30 ft bus version was coded L1, it was right hand drive with a 16 ft 2in wheelbase and an overall length of 29 ft 4in. The 30 ft coach was the L2 which had the wheelbase but was an inch shorter overall. All had a turning circle of 68 ft. As at May 1964 all Leopards had the O,600 engine and they were preceded by C-class buses for Córas Iompair Éireann which were to the same length as the PSU4 but coded PSU3. All PSU4A and PSU3A Leopards had the larger O.680 engine, new passenger models did not get the suffix so the 20 ft wheelbase version announced in 1968 was the PSU5. 4R. The first was delivered to Córas Iompair Éireann, differences from the PSU3A and 4A included the option of a ten-speed splitter gearbox with wide ratio five speed standard, a Worldmaster front axle and a Maudslay rear axle.
From December 1970, shorter Leopards were altered to conform with the PSU5, resulting in a change to the B-suffix, during 1976 springs and axles were uprated and the close-ratio version of the five speed Pneumocyclic became standard this applied to the PSU3D, PSU4D and PSU5B. In England, sizeable Leopard fleets were built up by various National Bus Company subsidiaries including Birmingham & Midland Omnibus Company, BET Group subsidiaries were major customers for Leopards. For buses and dual-purpose vehicles, a BET standard design of bodywork was produced, primarily by Marshall and Willowbrook but to an extent by Weymann. Another major English customer for the Leyland Leopard was Barton Transport of Chilwell near Nottingham, many other operators took advantage of this and bought Leopards built to the grant specification. In Scotland, many were bought by subsidiaries of the Scottish Bus Group and were bodied by Alexander with the Y type body. The Leopard was extremely common on Northern Irish roads for over 40 years, with the first one arriving in 1965, during this period a total of 1,500 Leopards were built.
During the 30 years of The Troubles in Northern Ireland, a total of 228 Leopards were stolen from their depots, in 2006, all Leopards were withdrawn from public service, with some even clocking up an incredible 28 years of service. In the 1980s, Ulsterbus shortened a few of its Leopards for use as towbuses, Leyland Leopards saw use with the British Military, and were exported to many other countries. Although the vast majority were used as buses or coaches, a few were bodied as pantechnicons, the Leopard was popular with National Express operators. The Leopard was popular with Australian operators, the Public Transport Commission purchased 745 for use in Sydney and Newcastle between 1967 and 1976 giving it the worlds largest Leopard fleet
The Leyland Atlantean is a double-decker bus chassis manufactured by Leyland Motors between 1958 and 1986. In the years immediately following World War II, bus operators in the United Kingdom faced a downturn in the numbers of passengers carried, a few experimental rear-engined buses had been produced before the war but none successfully made it beyond the prototype stage. The need to minimise the intrusion of the engine into passenger carrying space was a priority, such designs raised the height of the floor of the vehicle, forcing additional steps at the entrance. On double decker buses, these problems were amplified, causing either an increase in the height of the vehicle or an inadequate interior height. In 1952, Leyland began experimenting with ideas for a rear-engined double-decker bus, a prototype was built, with a body by Saunders-Roe, to the maximum permitted width of 7 feet 6 inches. It was fitted with a version of the Leyland 0.350 engine. The chassis was a frame of steel and light alloy with deep stressed side-members.
An automatic clutch and self change gearbox were fitted, the vehicle was designated the PDR1. In 1956, a prototype was constructed, this time with a Metro-Cammell body and. It had a clutch, Pneumocyclic gearbox and angle drive. This vehicle was 13 feet 2.75 inches in height, with a 16-foot-2. 875-inch wheelbase, Leyland christened this prototype the Lowloader. Though two prototypes were tested, the same problem of a front-engined bus remained, they had rear entrances with the space alongside the driver being wasted. An amendment to the Construction and Use Regulations in 1956 saw the length for double-deckers increased to 30 feet. This was initially to allow the driver to supervise boarding whilst the conductor collected fares, Leyland took advantage of the new regulation to launch the first prototype Atlantean at the 1956 Commercial Motor Show at Earls Court Exhibition Centre. Though it featured the front entrance design that would redefine the bus industry, the main problem was the high level of engine noise inside the lower saloon, as the engine was still inside the body, with the compartment being used for bench seating.
The Atlantean had a light and strong fabricated frame, light alloy floor plates were rivetted directly to the framework, fulfilling the dual purpose of reinforcing the frame and providing a foundation for the saloon floor. The platform-type sub-frame concept from the Lowloader was retained for the prototype, a drop-centre rear axle allowed the flat floor, only one step up from ground level, to continue for the full length of the bus. The prototype was demonstrated around the country to various operators and it had an unregistered sister vehicle, which was used as a testbed
The Mercedes-Benz O305 was a highly successful single-decker bus, double-decker bus and articulated bus manufactured by Mercedes-Benz in Mannheim, West Germany from 1969 until 1987. The O305 was designed for use as a bus, however it was designed to accommodate double-decker bodies. Mercedes-Benz unveiled the O305 prototype in 1967, production in Mannheim started in 1969, a slightly elongated Standard-Überlandbus suburban model followed in 1970, replaced by the O307 class in 1972. From 1974 the O305 received a powerful engine and an epicyclic gear rear axle plainly audible by its distinctive singing noise. An articulated version was named the O305G, in the mid 1970s, the Falkenried rolling stock manufacturer had developed a transmission concept with the engine and the power train placed in the rear part. After Mercedes-Benz had acquired the patent, a 1977 prototype was deployed by the Hamburger Hochbahn public transport operator, four dual-mode bus types were built in 1983 and deployed in Esslingen and Essen.
Twenty hybrid electric variants were used by the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen public transport company, from 1984 onwards, the O305 was replaced by the second generation Mercedes-Benz O405 Standard-Linienbus. Production of the O305 ceased in early 1987, in Hong Kong, the O305 was the first bus model from outside United Kingdom and countries of Commonwealth of Nations to be purchased. A total of 41 buses were introduced, with the prototype in 1983, all were withdrawn and subsequently scrapped in 2001/02 except three, which are preserved by groups of bus enthusiasts in Hong Kong. For a long period of time, Hong Kong franchised bus operators were required by law to purchase double-decker buses produced in Commonwealth countries, after repealing the requirement in 1983, Mercedes-Benz supplied a two-axle 11-metre double-decker to Kowloon Motor Bus. The O305 demonstrator was registered on 4 August 1983, following successful trials, KMB ordered another 40 in 1985, with improved frontal design and ventilation system.
All the 41 buses were fitted with Alexander RH bodies, KMB adopted a policy of acquiring 3-axle double-decker buses of similar length. Because Mercedes-Benz did not offer a 3-axle version of the O305, the first bus ran on route 105, which was new, running between Lai Chi Kok and Sheung Wan. The O305s were renowned for their speed and power, with a speed of over 120 km/h reported. The buses provided services on the routes in Yuen Long until the mid-1990s. With newer buses available for services, the Mercedes were redistributed to North District and Tai Po. These buses had a livery designed by Kowloon Motor Bus. After evaluating the two Mercedes-Benz O305 double-decker buses acquired in 1982, Singapore Bus Services purchased 200 Mercedes-Benz O305 double-decker buses which were similar to KMBs O305
The Alexander ALX200 was a single-decker bus body built by Alexander of the United Kingdom. It was created for low-floor bus chassis produced from the late 1990s and it was launched in summer 1996 as a low floor replacement of the Alexander Dash. It was supposed to fill in the gap between the ALX100 minibus and the ALX300 full-size single-decker, as compared to the Dash, the ALX200 has a more rounded appearance. The body was built on Dennis Dart SLF and Volvo B6LE. It was given a front end refresh during 2001. It sold quite well, and buyers included Stagecoach, FirstGroup and Newport, citybus of Hong Kong purchased ten ALX200-bodied Volvo B6LE buses in 1997. Also, a number of ALX200-bodied Dennis Dart SLF had been exported to the Netherlands, a number were built by Thomas Built Buses, under license for use in the United States. List of buses Media related to Alexander ALX200 at Wikimedia Commons
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British.
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the operator of most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the Big Four British railway companies and lasted until the privatisation of British Rail. Originally a trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, and by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction. Passengers replaced freight as the source of business, and one-third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack, the British Rail double arrow logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed the arrow of indecision.
The rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century, during World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, and the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947. This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlees Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway, the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission.
The Bicester Military Railway was already run by the government, the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify socially, the general financial position of BR became gradually poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955. The Executive itself had abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in, later. Western Region of British Railways, former Great Western Railway lines, London Midland Region of British Railways, former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England
Kowloon Motor Bus
The Kowloon Motor Bus Company Limited, is a bus company operating franchised services in Hong Kong, and is the largest bus company in Hong Kong by fleet size and number of bus routes. It is a subsidiary of Transport International Holdings, KMB was founded on 13 April 1933 as a result of the reformation of public transport by the Hong Kong Government. Before the reformation, there were several independent bus operators working on both sides of Victoria Harbour including KMB, the KMB franchise allowed for the operation of public omnibus service on the Kowloon side as well as the New Territories. By 11 June 1933, KMB had a fleet of 106 single-deck buses, the founding members of KMB were, Tang Shiu-kin William Louey Sui Tak Lui Leung Tam Woon Tong Lam Ming Fan By 1940, KMB had 140 single-deckers operating on 17 routes. As only a handful of buses survived World War II, some lorries were temporarily converted into buses, by the late 1940s, KMB ridership increased with the huge influx of immigration from China.
In 1949, KMB bought 20 Daimler double-deckers from England, becoming the first operator of double-deckers in Hong Kong. Following the opening of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in 1972, KMB operated a number of cross-harbour routes jointly with CMB, China Motor Bus and this marked the first time KMB buses running on the island. In the same year, KMB began experimenting with buses operating without a fare collector, all passengers would board from the front door and pay the fare by putting money into the collection box next to the driver. In 1975, the first air-conditioned bus in Hong Kong was put into service by KMB, following the testing of double-deck air-conditioned buses Victory and Jubilant in the early 1980s, KMB became the worlds first operator of such buses. All purchases after 1995 have been for air-conditioned buses, in 1996, KMB formed a subsidiary, Long Win Bus Company, to provide service on the Lantau Link to the new Hong Kong International Airport and Tung Chung. In 1998, KMB extended its business into mainland China with a joint venture.
In 1999, KMB started to operate some KCR Feeder Bus routes, on 8 May 2012, KMB withdrew its last non-air-conditioned buses from service. From on, all franchised bus routes in Hong Kong have been operated solely by air-conditioned buses, discounts apply for Octopus users on specified route interchange combinations. On buses with sectional fares, the fare decreases as the bus passes each fare zone, the Scheme aims to help build a caring and inclusive society by encouraging these groups to participate more in community activities. As of 31 December 2014, Kowloon Motor Bus has a fleet of 3,855 air-conditioned buses, of which 3,682 are double-deckers. The Leyland Lion, Thornycroft CD4LW Cygnet, Commer Superpoise, Dodge G5, Bedford OB, Tilling-Stevens K5LA7, Bedford SB, Seddon MK17 and their buses have assigned the codes since the fleet numbering system began in 1968. The KMB fleet is divided among four depots in Kowloon and the New Territories, the depot of a bus is identified by the letter K, L, S, or U, and the letter is marked on the bottom left of the drivers windscreen or below windscreen.
Newer buses, such as the Alexander Dennis Enviro500, have colour CCTV cameras installed whereas older buses use a mirror, a bus stop announcement systems is installed on every bus and informs passengers of the next stop
SBS Transit Limited is a public transport operator in Singapore. Its major competitor in Singapores transport system is SMRT Corporation, which operates bus, taxi. On 1 November 2001, the name was changed to SBS Transit Limited to reflect its status as a bus. It is a subsidiary of ComfortDelGro, Singapore Bus Service was initially formed in 1973 with the merger of three private bus companies. The government-sanctioned merger was undertaken to improve standards of the bus transport system. With the shift towards the creation of transport companies, Singapore Bus Service changed its name to DelGro Corporation in November 1997. Bus operations were hived-off to a fully owned subsidiary called Singapore Bus Services Limited, on 29 March 2003, DelGro Corporation merged with Comfort Group to form ComfortDelGro. SBS Transit remains a subsidiary of the merged company, in 2003, SBS Transit started operating the North East Line of the Mass Rapid Transit network in addition to its existing bus operations.
On 29 August 2011, SBS Transit was given the license for the Downtown Line. SBS Transits primary business is providing public services in Singapore. Its more notable operations are the following, Bus operations in Singapore, comprising a fleet more than 3,000 buses, serving the entire island. Rapid transit operations along the North East Line and the partially opened Downtown Line of the MRT network, light rail operations and manages the 29 stations along the Sengkang and Punggol LRT lines. SBS Transit operates 75% of the bus market share in Singapore with more than 300 bus services. It consists of the largest depots, Ang Mo Kio, Bedok North, Bukit Batok Bus Depot, some of the latest additions were used for Bus Service Enhancement Programme since 17 September 2012. Three models, all wheelchair accessible and are either Euro IV or Euro V compliant, currently form the majority of SBS Transits fleet, SBS Transit operates a mix of single and double decker buses. However, with the current Bus Contracting Model, selected number of existing services run by SBS Transit will be handed over to the operators, namely Tower Transit.
As of 25 January 2016, there are 219 wheelchair-accessible bus services that SBS Transit operates, SBS Transit is the operator of the North East Line since 20 June 2003 and Downtown Line from 22 December 2013. The North East Line is the line in Singapore, and the worlds first fully underground