North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Preferred terms include mixed race, biracial, polyethnic, half-and-half, Métis, Dougla, mulatto, Criollo, zambo, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo; some of the terms are considered offensive. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found. In many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, people with multiracial backgrounds make up the majority of the population. Other countries where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, France, Spain, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius and Fiji. While defining race is controversial,race remains a used term for categorization. Insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will be subjective. According to U. S. sociologist Troy Duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African.
Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. In the United States: Many state and local agencies comply with the U. S. Office of Management and Budget 1997 revised standards for the collection and presentation of federal data on race and ethnicity; the revised OMB standards identify a minimum of five racial categories: White. The most significant change for Census 2000 was that respondents were given the option to mark one or more races on the questionnaire to indicate their racial identity. Census 2000 race data are shown for people who reported a race either alone or in combination with one or more other races. In the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish, caboclo, cafuzo and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and métis in French for people of multiracial descent; these terms are in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world.
In Canada, the Métis are a recognized ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent, who have status in the law similar to that of First Nations. Terms such as mulatto for people of African descent and mestizo for people of Native American descent are still used by English-speaking people of the western hemisphere, but when referring to the past or to the demography of Latin America and its diasporic population. Half-breed is a historic term. Mestee, once used, is now used for members of mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Redbones, Brass Ankles and Mayles. In South Africa, much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person and Asians not of African descent. While the term is accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era. In Latin America, where mixtures became tri-racial after the introduction of African slavery, a panoply of terms developed during the colonial period, including terms such as zambo for persons of Amerindian and African descent.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, were illustrations of the different classifications. At one time, Latin American census categories have used such classifications, but in Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times, for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except the Asian Brazilians of some European descent and vice versa, tend to be thrown into the single category of "pardo", although race lines in Brazil do not denote ancestry but phenotype, as such a westernized Amerindian of copper-colored skin is a "pardo", a caboclo in this case, despite being not multiracial, but a European-looking person with one or more African or Indigenous American ancestor is not a "pardo" but a "branco", or a white Brazilian; the same applies to Afro-Brazilians and European or Amerindian ancestors. Most Brazilians of all racial groups are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. In English, the terms miscegenation and amalgamation were used for unions between whites and other ethnic groups.
These terms are now considered offensive and are becoming obsolete. The terms mixed-race, biracial or multiracial are becoming accepted. In other languages, translations of miscegenation did not become politically incorrect. In the United States, the 2000 census was the first in the history of the country to offer respondents the option of identifying themselves as belonging to more than one race; this multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing. Multiracial Americans numbered 6.1 million in 2006, or 2.0% of the population. There is considerable evidence. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their mul
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
SS Princess Sophia
The SS Princess Sophia was a steel-built coastal passenger liner in the coastal service fleet of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Along with SS Princess Adelaide, SS Princess Alice, SS Princess Mary, Princess Sophia was one of four similar ships built for CPR during 1910-1911. On 25 October 1918, Princess Sophia sank with the loss of all aboard after grounding on Vanderbilt Reef in Lynn Canal near Juneau, Territory of Alaska. All 364 persons on the ship died, making the wreck of the Princess Sophia the worst maritime accident in the history of British Columbia and Alaska; the circumstances of the wreck were controversial, as some felt that all aboard could have been saved. Beginning in 1901, Canadian Pacific Railway ran a line of steamships on the west coast of Canada and the southeast coast of Alaska; the route from Victoria, BC and Vancouver, BC ran through the winding channels and fjords along the coast, stopping at the principal towns for passengers and mail. This route is called the Inside Passage.
Major ports of call along the Inside Passage include Prince Rupert, BC. Many different types of vessels navigated the Inside Passage, but the dominant type on longer routes was the "coastal liner". A coastal liner was a vessel which if necessary could withstand severe ocean conditions, but in general was expected to operate in protected coastal waters. For example, as a coastal liner, Princess Sophia would only be licensed to carry passengers within 50 miles of the coastline. Coastal liners carried both passengers and freight, were the only link that isolated coastal communities had with the outside world. Coastal liners were built of wood, continued to be so built until well after the time when ocean liners had moved to iron and steel construction. After several shipwrecks in the Inside Passage and other areas of the Pacific Northwest showed the weakness of wooden hulls, CPR switched over to steel construction for all new vessels. Princess Sophia was called a "pocket liner" because she offered amenities like a great ocean liner, but on a smaller scale.
The ship was part of the CPR "Princess fleet,", composed of ships having names which began with the title "Princess". Princess Sophia was a steamship of 2,320 tons gross and 1,466 tons net register, built by Bow, McLachlan and Company at Paisley, Scotland. A strong, durable vessel, she was built of steel with a double hull. Princess Sophia was capable of handling more than just the Inside Passage, as her use on the stormy west coast of Vancouver Island demonstrated. Princess Sophia was equipped with full electric lighting; the ship was launched in November 1911 and completed in 1912. She was brought around Cape Horn by Captain Albert Adolphus Lindgren, who had brought two other CPR coastal liners, SS Princess Adelaide and SS Princess May, out from Scotland on the same route; as built, Princess Sophia burned coal. While not as luxurious as her fleet-mates serving the Pacific Northwest, Princess Sophia was comfortable throughout in first class, she had a forward observation lounge panelled in maple, a social hall with a piano for first-class passengers, a 112-seat dining room with large windows for observing the coastal scenery.
At the time of her sinking, Captain Leonard Locke, commanded her, with Captain Jeremiah Shaw as second in command. On arrival Princess Sophia was put on the route from Victoria to Prince Rupert, BC; the next summer CPR assigned Princess Sophia to run once every two weeks from Victoria to Skagway, alternating with Princess May, stopping in Prince Rupert along the way. Princess Sophia was diverted to other routes, such as an excursion to Bellingham, Washington. In 1914 the Great War began and with Canada as a participant, early wartime economic disruption resulted in a sharp decline of business for the CPR fleet, a number of vessels, including Princess Sophia were temporarily taken out of service by November 1914. Princess Sophia and other CPR vessels transported. On 12 September 1918, Princess Sophia struck the United States Bureau of Fisheries fishery patrol vessel MV Auklet while Auklet was moored at Juneau, Alaska. Auklet suffered significant damage to her deckhouse. On 23 October 1918, Princess Sophia departed Skagway, Alaska, at 22:10, more than three hours behind schedule.
She was due to stop at Alaska, on the 24th. On board were 75 crew and about 268 passengers, including families of men serving overseas in the war and crews of sternwheelers that had finished operations for the winter. Fifty women and children were on the passenger list, including the wife and children of gold speculator John Beaton. Four hours after leaving Skagway, while proceeding south down Lynn Canal, the steamship encountered heavy blinding snow driven by a strong and rising northwest wind. Historian Ken Coates pointed out. Capt. Locke navigated the Lynn Canal at full speed in an attempt to make up time, according to David Leverton, the executive director of the Maritime Museum of British Columbia, he added that the conditions included heavy snowfall so the crew was required to use dead reckoning by blowing the ship's whistle and making calculations as to their location within the canal, based on the time it took for the echo of the whistl
Nenana is a Home Rule City in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of the Unorganized Borough in the Interior of the U. S. state of Alaska. Nenana developed as a Lower Tanana community at the confluence where the tributary Nenana River enters the Tanana; the population was 378 at the 2010 census, down from 402 in 2000. Completed in 1923, the 700-foot-long Mears Memorial Bridge was built over the Tanana River as part of the territory's railroad project connecting Anchorage and Fairbanks. Nenana is in the westernmost portion of Tanana territory; the town was first known by European Americans as Tortella, a transliteration of the Indian word Toghotthele, which means "mountain that parallels the river." It was named for the river and the Nenana people who live nearby. The Nenana people became accustomed to contact with Europeans, due to trading journeys to the Village of Tanana, where Russians bartered Western goods for furs from 1838; the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. Early American explorers and traders, such as Henry Tureman Allen, Arthur Harper and Bates, first entered the Tanana Valley in 1874 and 1885.
In 1902 the discovery of gold in Fairbanks brought intense activity to the region. The next year, Jim Duke built a trading post/roadhouse to supply river travelers and trade with the Nenana community. In 1905 the Episcopal Church, which had missionaries in Alaska, built the St. Mark's Episcopal mission and Tortella School a short distance upriver; the boarding school taught about 28 children of various ages at a time. Hudson Stuck, the Archdeacon of the Yukon visited the settlement, part of the 250,000 square-acre territory of the Interior he administered. Native children from other communities, such as Minto attended school in Nenana. A post office opened in 1908. In 1915, construction of the Alaska Railroad brought new settlers; the railroad connected Nenana to the southern port city of Anchorage. The community incorporated as a city in 1921; the Railroad Depot was completed in 1923. That year, United States President Warren Harding arrived to drive the final, golden spike at the north end of the 700-foot-long Mears Memorial Bridge built over the Tanana River as part of the state's railroad project.
This railroad truss bridge, the longest in the United States and its territories when completed, gave Nenana a rail transportation link north to Fairbanks and Seward, Alaska. The bridge still ranks as the longest span in Alaska and the third-longest truss bridge in the United States; the construction had encouraged businesses and settlement in town. According to local records, 5,000 residents lived in Nenana by the early 1920s. After the railroad was completed, however and construction workers left the area; the city suffered an economic slump, most of the residents migrated to seek work in other places. By 1930, the population had dropped to 291. Nenana was the starting point for the 1925 serum run to Nome, after diphtheria antitoxin had been transported by rail from Anchorage, it was carried by dog sled to Nome to treat people in an epidemic. In 1961, Clear Air Force Station was constructed 21 miles southwest. During this construction, many civilian contractors commuted from Nenana. A road was constructed south to Clear, but northbound vehicles had to be ferried across the Tanana River.
In 1967 the community was devastated by one of the largest floods recorded in the valley. In 1968 a $6 million bridge for vehicles was completed across the Tanana River, which gave the town a modern road link to Fairbanks and replaced the river ferry; the George Parks Highway was completed in 1971. The federally recognized tribe in the community is the Nenana Native Association, who traditionally spoke the Lower Tanana language. Under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, they have rights of self-government and managing some of their traditional territory. According to the 2000 Census, 41% of the city residents were Native American. Residents of Nenana sponsor a nature-based lottery. Entrants buy a ticket and pick a date in April or May and a time, to the closest minute, when they think the winter ice on the Tanana River will break up; this lottery began in 1917 among a group of surveyors working for the Alaska Railroad. They formed a betting pool as they waited for the river to open and boats to arrive with needed supplies.
The competition is run as follows: a large striped tripod is placed on the frozen Tanana River and connected to a clock. The winner is whoever comes closest to guessing the precise time when the ice beneath weakens to the point that the tripod moves and stops the clock. Interest in the pool attracts bettors statewide; this lottery has paid out nearly $10 million in prize money, with the winning pool in recent years being near $300,000. In the summer of 2008, Nenana suffered heavy damage due to flooding; the Tanana River reached its second-highest level since written record keeping began. Nenana is located at 64°33′50″N 149°5′35″W, in the Nenana Recording District. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles, of which, 6.0 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Nenana is located 55 road miles southwest of Fairbanks on the George Parks Highway and 304 road miles north of Anchorage, it is at mile 412 of the Alaska Railroad. The river is ice-free from early May to late October.
Nenana has a continental subarctic climate. Nenana first reported on the 1910 U. S. Census as a
Henry Peter "Harry" Karstens was the first superintendent of Mount McKinley National Park, from 1921 to 1928. He was the guide and climbing leader of the first complete ascent of Denali in 1913, with expedition members Hudson Stuck, Episcopal Archdeacon of the Yukon and Arctic. John Fredson was one of two young Gwich ` in Alaska Natives. Harry Karstens was born in Chicago, Illinois on September 2, 1878, his parents were an immigrant from the Duchy of Holstein. His father owned livery. Harry was the fifth born of seven children in his family. Like many young men, Karstens went North for adventure to Dawson City, Canada during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. There, he helped lay out the town of Eagle, Alaska, he carried freight and mail with Charles McGonagall via dog teams among the frontier towns of Fairbanks and Kantishna, being paid $75 per month. He gained his nickname as the "Seventymile Kid" after working for the post office, he worked as a packer, hauling miners' supplies over the Chilkoot Pass on his back in 50-pound packs.
In winter, the ice leading to the summit was cut into 1500 steps, which travelers climbed in single file. Authorities required each "stampeder" to bring in two tons of supplies to provide for himself for a year in the camps. Karstens ran dog teams on the frontier, as well as riverboats. Drawing on his skills developed on the frontier, from 1906 to 1908, Karstens accompanied Charles Sheldon, a hunter and naturalist, on hunting trips into the Toklat River region. Sheldon, the chairman of the influential Boone and Crockett Club campaigned with Congress to have the area set aside as a national park. In 1917, Denali National Park was established as Mount McKinley National Park. On March 27, 1912, Hudson Stuck, Episcopal Archdeacon of the Yukon, sent Karstens a letter inviting him to join an expedition to climb Denali. Stuck emphasized the financial value of the trip, saying, "if we succeed in the ascent, the expedition will not be without the likelihood of financial value, that there will be return to you for the time and labour."
Karstens accepted. While Stuck had been traveling in Alaska for several years for his work and had experience mountain climbing, Karstens had the greater experience, which he applied as guide to the small expedition, its other members were 21 at the time. In addition, two Gwich'in youths from Stuck's mission school, Johnny Fredson and Esias George, supported the party by managing its dog teams, in base camp by hunting for meat and organizing supplies.. The expedition party left from Nenana on March 17, 1913, proceeded up the Tanana River valley; the first day, they hiked 30 miles up the Tanana with two sleds of supplies pulled by fourteen dogs. The 110-mile trip up the river to Eureka took eight days. After leaving Eureka, the terrain became rougher, the expedition's pace slowed to about 10 miles a day. At an elevation of 2,000 feet, the party established base camp near the tree line of the mountain, where they encountered temperatures as low as −46 °F, they set off again, up the steep Muldrow Glacier.
While they were camping at the top of the glacier, a tent full of supplies and food was accidentally burned. It took three weeks for Harper and Fredson to go to and return from base camp to replace their supplies; the next step was the northeast ridge. A previous expedition had called it "step, but practicable," so Karstens and Stuck were surprised to find huge chunks of rocks and ice in their path; these had been upturned by an earthquake the previous summer. The expedition's progress slowed while they maneuvered under, over, or sometimes through the debris, they camped on the ridge for three days, where temperatures ranged from 50 °F during the day to −21 °F at night. It took them three weeks to dig a road three miles long through the blockage of materials in their path; the party the year before had passed this area before the earthquake. After that, they climbed the upper glacier. Looking at the North Summit through field glasses, they saw a flagstaff set up by Thomas Lloyd and three other men.
Known as the "Sourdough Expedition", Lloyd's party had found their achievement doubted because others had not witnessed it. On June 6, the Karstens-Stuck party made their final camp at an elevation of 18,000 feet. At the time, it was the highest camp established in North America. At 4:00 the next morning, the group left camp for their final attempt at the summit. Around noon, they stopped in a small shelter; the remaining 1,000 feet went slowly because the thin air made breathing difficult. At about 1:30 p.m. they reached the summit of an elevation of 20,310 feet. They spent an hour and a half on the summit, during which Robert Tatum planted the American flag he had made earlier from red and blue handkerchiefs. Tatum said, "The scenery was of indescribable beauty... It was like looking out of a window of heaven."After reading their instruments and calculating the altitude, they began their d