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Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst was a German chemist known for his work in thermodynamics, physical chemistry and solid state physics. His formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, he is known for developing the Nernst equation in 1887. Nernst was born in Briesen in West Prussia to Ottilie Nerger, his father was a country judge. Nernst had one younger brother, his third sister died of cholera. Nernst went to elementary school at Graudenz, he studied physics and mathematics at the universities of Zürich, Graz and Würzburg, where he received his doctorate 1887. In 1889, he finished his habilitation at University of Leipzig, it was said that Nernst was mechanically minded in that he was always thinking of ways to apply new discoveries to industry. His hobbies included fishing, his friend Albert Einstein was amused by "his childlike vanity and self-complacency" "His own study and laboratory always presented aspects of extreme chaos which his coworkers termed appropriately'the state of maximum entropy'".

Nernst married Emma Lohmeyer in 1892 with whom he had three daughters. Both of Nernst's sons died fighting in World War I. With his colleagues at the University of Leipzig, Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff and Svante Arrhenius, was establishing the foundations of a new theoretical and experimental field of inquiry within chemistry and suggested setting fire to unused coal seams to increase the global temperature, he was a vocal critic of Adolf Hitler and Nazism, two of his three daughters married Jewish men. After Hitler came to power they one to England and the other to Brazil. Nernst started university at Zurich in 1883 after an interlude in Berlin, he returned to Zurich, he wrote his thesis at Graz where Boltzmann was professor, though he worked under the direction of Ettinghausen. They discovered the Nernst effect: that a magnetic field applied perpendicular to a metallic conductor in a temperature gradient gives rise to an electrical potential difference. Next, he moved to Würzburg under Kohlrausch where he defended his thesis.

Ostwald recruited him to the first department of physical chemistry at Leipzig. Nernst moved there as an assistant, working on the thermodynamics of electrical currents in solutions. Promoted to lecturer, he taught at Heidelberg and moved to Göttingen. Three years he was offered a professorship in Munich, to keep him in Prussia the government created a chair for him at Göttingen. There, he wrote a celebrated textbook Theoretical Chemistry, translated into English and Russian, he derived the Nernst equation for the electrical potential generated by unequal concentrations of an ion separated by a membrane, permeable to the ion. His equation is used in cell physiology and neurobiology; the carbon electric filament lamp in use was dim and expensive because it required a vacuum in its bulb. Nernst invented a solid-body radiator with a filament of rare-earth oxides, known as the Nernst glower, it is still important in the field of infrared spectroscopy. Continuous ohmic heating of the filament results in conduction.

The glower operates best in wavelengths from 2 to 14 micrometers. It gives a bright light but only after a warm-up period. Nernst sold the patent for one million marks, wisely not opting for royalties because soon the tungsten filament lamp filled with inert gas was introduced. With his riches, Nernst in 1898 bought the first of the eighteen automobiles he owned during his lifetime and a country estate of more than a five hundred hectares for hunting, he increased the power of his early automobiles by carrying a cylinder of nitrous oxide that he could inject into the carburetor. After eighteen productive years at Göttingen, investigating osmotic pressure and electrochemistry and presenting a theory of how nerves conduct, he moved to Berlin, was awarded the title Geheimrat In 1905, he proposed his "New Heat Theorem" known as the Third law of thermodynamics, he showed that as the temperature approached absolute zero, the entropy approaches zero — while the free energy remains above zero. This is the work for which he is best remembered, as it enabled chemists to determine free energies of chemical reactions from heat measurements.

Theodore Richards claimed that Nernst had stolen his idea, but Nernst is universally credited with the discovery. Nernst became friendly with Kaiser Wilhelm, whom he persuaded to found the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft for the Advancement of the Sciences with an initial capital of eleven million marks. Nernst's laboratory discovered that at low temperatures specific heats fell markedly and would disappear at absolute zero; this fall was predicted for liquids and solids in a 1909 paper of Einstein's on the quantum mechanics of specific heats at cryogenic temperatures. Nernst was so impressed that he traveled all the way to Zurich to visit Einstein, unknown in Zurich in 1909, so people said: "Einstein must be a clever fellow if the great Nernst comes all the way from Berlin to Zurich to talk to him." Nernst and Planck lobbied to establish a special professorship in Berlin and Nernst donated to its endowment. In 1913 they traveled to Switzerland to persuade Einstein to accept it. In 1911, Nernst and Max Planck organized the first Solvay Conference in Brussels.

In the following year, the impressionist painter Max Liebermann painted his portrait. In 1914

Sumanene

Sumanene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and of scientific interest because the molecule can be considered a fragment of buckminsterfullerene. Suman means "sunflower" in both Sanskrit; the core of the arene is a benzene ring and the periphery consists of alternating benzene rings and cyclopentadiene rings. Unlike fullerene, sumanene has benzyl positions; the structure of Sumanene can be inferred from oxidation of 1,5,9-trimethyltriphenylene but the first practical synthesis starts from norbornadiene. Norbornadiene is converted into a stannane by action of n-butyllithium and tributyltinchloride. A Ullmann reaction of this stannane with CuTC affords the benzene core; the methylene bridges created in this conversion migrate in a tandem ring-opening metathesis and ring-closing metathesis by the Grubbs' catalyst. The final structure is obtained by oxidation by DDQ. Sumanene is a bowl-shaped molecule with a bowl depth of 118 picometers; the 6 hub carbon atoms are pyramidalized by 9° and the molecule displays considerable bond alternation.

Sumanene experiences bowl-to-bowl inversion with an inversion barrier of 19.6 kcal/mol at 140 °C, much higher than that found for its corannulene cousin. Like any benzylic proton, the sumanene protons can be abstracted by a strong base such as t-butyl lithium to form the sumanene mono carbanion; this strong nucleophile can react with an electrophile such as trimethylsilyl chloride to the trimethylsilyl derivative. The trianion has been reported. Electron transport properties have been investigated as well as carbon NMR Sumanene derivatives such as naphtosumanene and trisialsumanene have been described. Chiral sumanenes are of some interest with respect to inherent chirality, examples are chiral trimethylsumanene and a chiral sumanene cyclopentadienyl iron complex

List of places in East Sussex

Map of places in East Sussex compiled from this list See the list of places in England for places in other counties. This is a list of cities and villages in the county of East Sussex, England. Alciston, Arlington Barcombe, Barcombe Cross, Barcombe Mills, Beachy Head, Beckley Furnace, Bells Yew Green, Berwick, Bexhill-on-Sea, Birling Gap, Blackness, Boars Head, Brede, Broadland Row, Broad Oak Brede, Broad Oak Heathfield, Burwash, Buxted Cackle Street, Chitcombe, Clive Vale, Cock Marling, Cripp's Corner, Crowlink, ChiddinglyChailey, Cooksbridge Denton, Downside Eastbourne, East Dean, East End, East Guldeford, Eridge Green, Exceat Fairwarp, Filching, Five Ash Down, Forest Row, Four Oaks, Friday Street Goatham, Groombridge Hadlow Down, Halton, Hampden Park, Hankham, Hastings, Herstmonceux, High Wickham, Hirle Icklesham, Isfield Jenkins' Green, Jevington Kingston near Lewes Langney, Langney Village, Lower Dicker, Lower Willingdon Litlington Maresfield, Meads, Mill Hill, Milton Street, Mount Pleasant Newhaven, Northiam, Nutley Old Town Old Town Old Town Ore Valley Peacehaven, Peacehaven Heights, Pevensey Bay, Playden, Portslade Ringmer, Rodmell, Rottingdean, Rye Harbour Saltdean, Sedlescombe, Silver Hill, South Heighton, Stone-Cum-Ebony, Sutton, St Anthony's Hill, Stone Cross, Swaile's Green, Southease Telscombe, Telscombe Cliffs, Tarring Neville, Three Cups Corner Uckfield, Upperton Wadhurst, Westham, West Hill, Wilmington Green, Withyham Yiddlington

Baku White City

The master plan of Baku White City refers to the re-development of a portion of Black City, 221-hectare land area, conceptualized to be part of the 2021 strategic plan for Baku. The project has been designed by Foster and Partners. Around 75 per cent of the project will be residential units, creating a new community of 19,700 households for about 50,000 people as well as commercial and leisure units that will provide up to 48,000 jobs; the project is set to be completed in 2020. In 2014, the Lycée français de Bakou located in White City was inaugurated by President Ilham Aliyev. In 2015, the eastern part of the Baku Boulevard, the city's seaside promenade, was extended by two kilometres to cover the coastal part of White City, which became the site of the newly-built Boulevard Hotel Baku; the opening ceremony of Baku White City took place in 24 December 2011. President Ilham Aliyev and his wife Mehriban Aliyeva have attended an opening ceremony of Baku White City project. In 26 December 2016 The head of state and Vice Presidenthis viewed first settlements of Green Island residential complex.

They laid the foundation stone of Fountains Square park, a pedestrian passage and a public parking complex. In 2015, the Baku White City Office Building became the first property in Azerbaijan to be awarded BREEAM certification on international ecological standard with the rating of Good. Official website Map of BWC

Bob Delgado

Robert Allan Delgado is a Welsh former footballer who made 281 league appearances in a ten-year career in the Football League. He was a versatile player with power both in the tackle, he moved from non-league Barry Town to Luton Town in 1970, before joining Carlisle United the following year. Following a loan spell with Workington in 1973, he moved on to Rotherham United, he helped the "Millers" to win promotion out of the Fourth Division in 1974–75, before joining Chester in October 1975 for £6,000. He was sold on to Port Vale for £30,000 in December 1978, before leaving the English game for American club Miami Americans in 1980, he had spells with English club Oswestry Town, Welsh club Colwyn Bay, Hong Kong side Bulova SA. Delgado signed for Luton Town from Barry Town in February 1970, after Harry Haslam spotted him playing for the Southern League side. However, he never took to the field at Kenilworth Road, was moved on to Carlisle United in 1971; the "Cumbrians" finished tenth in the Second Division in 1971–72 under Ian MacFarlane.

Failing to nail down a first team place at Brunton Park under new boss Alan Ashman in 1972–73, Delgado was loaned out to Workington of the Fourth Division. A move to Rotherham United followed, who had just been demoted to the basement division of the Football League. Jimmy McGuigan guided the "Millers" to 15th in 1973–74, before the Millmoor outfit returned to the Third Division with a third-place finish in 1974–75, he moved to league rivals Chester with manager Ken Roberts paying out a £ 6,000 fee. He became a favourite with the fans thanks to his'hard man' approach; the "Seals" finished in the lower half of the table in 1975–76 and 1976–77, as new boss Alan Oakes began to build his own team. Chester missed out on promotion in 1977 -- 78 by two points. Delgado left Sealand Road in December 1978, when Port Vale manager Dennis Butler splashed out £30,000 to secure Delgado's services, he made his debut on Boxing Day in a 6–2 defeat to Barnsley at Oakwell. He played 24 games in 1978–79 and 19 games in 1979–80, as the "Valiants" had some of their poorest seasons in the Fourth Division.

Delgado never showed his best form at Vale Park, the low point in his spell coming when he scored an own goal in a 7–1 defeat to Huddersfield Town at Leeds Road. His contract was cancelled in May 1980 by new manager John McGrath, following three months on the sidelines, he subsequently joined up with short-lived American Soccer League side Miami Americans, who only competed for the 1980 season. He joined Welsh club Oswestry Town, he joined Hong Kong based Bulova SA for the 1983–84 season, helped the club to secure second place in the First Division League. He returned to Britain and played for Colwyn Bay. Delgado managed Upton AA in the West Cheshire League and played for veterans side Chester Nomads, while working as a sales manager for a travel company. Source: Rotherham UnitedFootball League Fourth Division third-place promotion: 1974–75Bulova SAHong Kong First Division League runner-up: 1983–84

55 East Erie Street

55 East Erie is an all-residential skyscraper in Chicago. It is at 647 feet. Designed by Fujikawa Johnson & Associates and Searl & Associates Architects, the 56 story building was completed in 2004 and is the fourth-tallest all-residential building in the United States after Trump World Tower in New York City, One Museum Park in Chicago, the nearby 340 on the Park completed in 2007 in Chicago; the design called for flying buttresses around the mechanical penthouse, which were dropped. Early on, the building was envisioned as much taller in order to house a Mandarin Oriental hotel, but a deal was never struck. 55 East Erie has 194 residential units, including seven floors of split story penthouse homes. The building features four “Skyhomes,” each a unique four story townhome with its own elevator. Amenities for residents include a swimming pool, fitness center, men's and women's locker rooms each with their own steam room, a hospitality room. List of skyscrapers List of tallest buildings in the United States List of tallest buildings in Chicago World's tallest structures Emporis listing 55 East Erie Condominium Association Website Sudler Property Management Website