Walton-on-Thames /ˈwɔːltən ɒn ˈtɛmz/ is a town on the River Thames in the Elmbridge borough of Surrey. An outlying suburb of London, the town is centred 15.3 miles south west of Charing Cross and is between the towns of Weybridge and Molesey and its waterside has the Thames Path National Trail between Sunbury Lock and Shepperton Lock. Its own localities include Ashley Park and Field Common and its station on the South West Main Line has proven important to its development – its services run with a minimum of one stop before London Waterloo station. The town is divided into four wards and is a hub in terms of retail. The name Walton is Anglo-Saxon in origin and is cognate with the phonetic combination meaning Briton settlement. Before the Romans and the Saxons were present, a Celtic settlement was here, the most common Old English word for the Celtic inhabitants was the Wealas originally meaning foreigners or strangers. Elmbridge Museum requires definitive evidence of these stakes, the evidence at present limited to pre 20th-century secondary sources that conflict as to detail, Walton lay within the Anglo-Saxon quasi-administrative district, Elmbridge hundred in the shire of Surrey. Walton appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Waletona, the settlement was held jointly as overlords in the feudal system by Edward de Sarisber and Richard de Tonbrige. Its Domesday assets were,6 hides,1 church,2 mills worth £1 5s 0d,1 fishery worth 5s,14 ploughs,40 acres of meadow, supporting 50 hogs. On a smaller scale, the majority of Oatlands village which is to the south-west was in the parish until its independence, St. Marys Parish Church has some Saxon material and an architectural structure of the 12th century, with later additions. The square flint tower, supported by a 19th-century brick buttress has a ring of eight bells. Also in the aisle a brass to John Selwyn keeper of Oatlands Park, with figures of himself, his wife. An unusual relic kept in the church is a copy of a scolds bridle presented to the parish in the seventeenth century, the royal palace of Oatlands, built by Henry VIII in 1538, was a mile upstream to the west. John Bradshaw lived in the Tudor manor house in the 17th century and he presided at Charles Is trial. An Inclosure Act 1800 enabled to be enclosed 3,117 acres of the Walton manors which included holdings at Chertsey and 475 acres of common fields. A School Board was formed in 1878, a previously existing school was enlarged in 1881. The infant school was built in 1884, the Methodist Church with a spire taller than the tower of the Anglican Church was built in 1887. The Baptist Church was built in 1901, a now demolished Public Hall, in High Street, was built by Mrs. Sassoon in 1879 who was seated at Ashley Park House at the time
Anthony Peter Tony Gale is an English former professional footballer who is now a regular pundit on Soccer Saturday and Sky Sports News HQ. He is also the chairman of non-league club Walton Casuals, as a player, he made 636 appearances as a defender from 1977 until 1998, winning the Premier League with Blackburn Rovers in 1995. He also played for Fulham, West Ham United, Crystal Palace, after progressing through the youth ranks of Fulham, Gale was promoted to the first team ahead of the 1977-78 season. Recording 38 league appearances and eight goals in his inaugural season, suffering relegation to the Third Division after a 20th placed finish during the 1979-80 season, Gale bounced back to the Second Division two years later. Gale narrowly missed out on promotion to the First Division during the 1982-83 season, with Fulham finishing in fourth place, after a mid-table finish the following season, Gale opted for a move away from Craven Cottage in order to play in the First Division. In July 1984, Gale completed a £200,000 transfer to West Ham United, finishing 16th in his first season with the club, Gale was part of the side to finish third in the First Division in 1986 while forming a notable partnership with Alvin Martin. He spent all but one season in mid-table before West Hams relegation to the Second Division following the 1988-89 season and it took the Hammers another 15 years before reaching the final once again. In 1993, West Ham returned to the top tier of English football, now rebranded as the Premier League, after his release from West Ham in 1994, Gale trained with Barnet before receiving a call from Blackburn Rovers manager Kenny Dalglish. Joining on 11 August, he made his three days later in the 1994 Charity Shield, suffering a 2-0 defeat to Manchester United after goals from Eric Cantona. Spending a single season at Ewood Park, Gale made 15 appearances in the clubs 1994-95 Premier League winning campaign, despite being asked by newly appointed manager Ray Harford to remain with the club for a second season, Gale opted against a coaching role while playing for the Reserves. He later admitted it was a decision he regretted, after his season playing outside of the London area. Aged 35, Gale returned to the Second Division to join Crystal Palace, however, his time at Selhurst Park was plagued with injuries and he managed just two league appearances for the club in January and February 1996. Gale then joined Maidenhead United in 1996, for the 16/17 season he is part of the commentary team for Premier League games aired in the US on NBC. Gale has also contributed a column for West Hams official website, WHUFC. com. During his time at West Ham, Gale was nicknamed Reggie by his team mates, the name came from the comparison to Reggie Kray for his wicked sense of humour. He was also described by teammate Mark Ward as having the touch, Gale is the chairman of Isthmian Division One South side Walton Casuals, having joined the club as Director of Football in 2003. He became chairman in 2011 and enjoyed two spells as caretaker manager. First taking over in March 2013 for eight games to see out the 2012-13 season and his son, Anthony, made over 200 appearances for the club and took over as manager in July 2015 after working alongside his father as caretaker manager in late 2014
Southern Football League
Together with the Isthmian League and the Northern Premier League it forms levels seven and eight of the English football league system. The structure of the Southern League has changed several times since its formation in 1894, the Premier Division is at step 3 of the National League System, and is a feeder division, mainly to the National League South but also to the National League North. Feeding the Premier Division are two divisions, Division One South & West and Division One Central, which are at step 4 of the NLS. These divisions are in turn fed by various regional leagues, professional football developed more slowly in Southern England than in Northern England. Additionally, a league, the Southern Alliance was founded in 1892, with seven clubs from the region. Nonetheless, another attempt was made to form the Southern League, a competition for both professional and amateur clubs was founded in 1894 under the initiative of Millwall Athletic. Initially only one division was envisaged, but such was the enthusiasm, the sixteen founder members were, 2nd Scots Guards withdrew before the first season started and were replaced by Southampton St Marys. Woolwich Arsenal attempted to add their reserve side to the second division, the Southern League soon became the dominant competition below The Football League in Southern and Central England. By the turn of the century a few of the Southern League sides began to rival the Football League in the FA Cup, Two Southern League clubs, Southampton and Tottenham Hotspur reached the final of the FA Cup around the turn of the century. Tottenham Hotspur are the club from below the 2nd level of English football to have won the FA Cup. The champions of the two leagues during this period met in the annual Charity Shield, in 1907, it accepted Bradford Park Avenue, a northern club, as a member, reflecting its senior position at the time. In 1920, virtually the top division of the Southern League was absorbed by the Football League to become that leagues new Third Division. A year later the Third Division was expanded and regionalised, the Third Division clubs from the previous season became the Third Division South, with the addition of the Third Division North. Of the original members, six – Gillingham, Luton Town, Millwall, Reading. For the next six decades, the Football League and Southern League would exchange a number of clubs as a result of the older leagues re-election process. From 1920 onward, the Southern Leagues status as a league was firmly established. In turn, the APL would eventually succeed in becoming a feeder to the Football League, the league lost more of its top clubs in 2004 when the Conference added two regional divisions below the existing National League, the Conference South and Conference North. The first sponsor of the Southern League was Beazer Homes who sponsored the league from 1987–96, the sponsors after Beazer Homes to the present day are, Dr Martens, British Gas, Zamaretto, Evo-Stik, Calor Gas, and Evo-Stik
The Isthmian League is a regional mens football league covering London, East and South East England featuring mostly semi-professional clubs. It is sponsored by Ryman, and therefore known as the Ryman League. It was founded in 1905 by amateur clubs in the London area and it now consists of 72 teams in three divisions, the Premier Division above its two feeder divisions, Division One North and Division One South. Together with the Southern League and the Northern Premier League, it forms the seventh and eighth levels of the English football league system and it has various regional feeder leagues and the league as a whole is a feeder league mainly to the National League South. Before the Isthmian League was formed, there were no leagues in which amateur clubs could compete, therefore, a meeting took place between representatives of Casuals, Civil Service, Clapton, Ealing Association, Ilford and London Caledonians to discuss the creation of a strong amateur league. All the clubs supported the idea and the Isthmian League was born on 8 March 1905, membership to the league was through invitation only. The league was strongly dedicated to amateurism, the champions did not even receive a trophy or medals, teams less able to compete financially thus gravitated to it rather than the Southern League, while those with ambition and money would move in the opposite direction. By 1922 the league had fourteen clubs and over the five decades, only a few new members were admitted. Most new Isthmian League members joined from the Athenian League, which was dedicated to amateurism. The league began to admit professionalism in the 1970s, a second division of sixteen clubs was formed in 1973 and a third division followed in 1977. The reward of promotion into the Conference means that, since 1985, the Athenian League disbanded in 1984 when the Isthmian League Second Division split into North and South Divisions. These were restructured again to Second and Third Divisions in 1991, in 2002, the league was restructured again, with the First and Second Divisions merging to become Division One North and Division One South, and the Third Division being renamed as Division Two. In 2004, The Football Association pushed through a restructuring of the non-league National League System. The Isthmian League was reduced back down to three divisions, and its boundaries were changed to remove the overlap with the Southern League, in 2006, further reorganisation saw a reversion to two regional Division Ones and the disbandment of Division Two. This current plan calls for clubs based on the edges of the Isthmian Leagues territory to transfer to, One team, Clapton, had been ever-present in the Isthmian League since its foundation, but they moved to the Essex Senior League for the 2006–07 season. Dulwich Hamlet, who joined the league in 1907, are currently its longest serving member, for the 1973–74 season, the Second Division was added. For the 1977–78 season, the Premier Division was added, for the 1984–85 season, the Second Division was reorganised into North and South regions. For the 1991–92 season, the regional Second Divisions were merged, at the end of the 1994–95 season, Enfield were denied promotion to the Conference
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams also have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season. The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns, Vikings and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, the number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Such variations will almost inevitably cause an effect through the lower divisions. Even in the absence of such circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European football league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. The system is said to be the characteristic of the European form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions and they also maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian teams final games serve little purpose, although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated, some leagues offer parachute payments to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. If these are not satisfied, a team may be promoted in their place. While the primary purpose of the system is to maintain competitive balance. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have involved in match-fixing. This occurred most recently in 2006, when the initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B. An exception is the proposed UEFA Nations League, which will feature promotion and relegation across four levels, in tennis, the Davis Cup has promotion and relegation where each group uses a knockout tournament format in which first-round losers play off to avoid relegation. In the United States, Canada, and Australia, teams are not promoted or relegated. The USL set up two leagues, now known as the United Soccer League and the Premier Development League, although the system is now in place, it is not compulsory and is rarely used
Combined Counties Football League
It has two non-reserve divisions and its top division sits at Step 5 of the National League System. The league was formed on 18 June 1978 when the Surrey Senior League underwent a metamorphosis in order to try to attract clubs from outside the county. The new league was called the Home Counties League but there was an objection to the title from the Home Counties Conference so, in 1979. Between 1982 and 2003 the league was half of its present size so a league existed below. Replicating football league terminology nationally, the teams in 2003 became an upper division. Division One is fed by the leagues at Step 7 of the National League System such as the Surrey Elite Intermediate League, the Middlesex County League, the Premier Challenge Cup is competed for by the teams in both divisions. The current holders are Farnham Town, the Division One cup is held by Worcester Park. The League organises the Grant McLellan Youth Cup for current and ex-member clubs who have teams playing in the under 18 age group in other leagues, the current holders are Bedfont Sports Under 18s. The league has had a succession of title sponsors, currently Cherry Red Records are the League and Premier Challenge Cup sponsors. Their RPM Records offshoot sponsors the Division One Challenge Cup, for the 1978–79 season the league was known as the Home Counties League. For the 1981–82 season the league expanded to two divisions, for the 1982–83 season the league reverted to a single division. For the 2003–04 season Division One was added formed mainly of clubs from the Surrey County Senior League, notes on location where name is not one town References Official site League Mitoo pages The FA – Full Time – League Page
Walton & Hersham F.C.
Walton & Hersham Football Club is an English football club located in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, currently playing in the Combined Counties League Premier Division. They play in a red and white kit at Stompond Lane. Walton F. C. was formed in 1895, and in 1945, following World War II, at first, they played in the Corinthian League, winning it three consecutive times from 1947 to 1949. After the dissolution of the Corinthian League, they joined the Athenian League and their biggest highlight is winning the FA Amateur Cup in 1973. For a detailed list of standings, see List of Walton & Hersham F. C. seasons. In 1945, after World War II, Walton F. C. amalgamated with Hersham F. C. to form Walton & Hersham, the club joined the Corinthian League, winning it first in the 1946–47 season and then again the following two seasons. They won the Surrey Senior Cup in the 1947–48 season and they were elected to the Athenian League for the 1950–51 season and won the Surrey Senior Cup again. Walton & Hersham reached the FA Amateur Cup semi-finals in 1951–52 and they achieved their all-time record crowd when ten thousand spectators turned up to watch an FA Amateur Cup tie with Crook Town. The team included defender C. R. Jack Neale who represented Great Britain at the Olympics, Walton & Hersham reached the FA Cup first round proper for the first time in 1957–58. They won the Surrey Senior Cup for a time in 1960–61. The Athenian League expanded in 1963 and Walton & Hersham were placed in the Premier Division, a period of mid-table football followed until the 1967 appointment of Allen Batsford as manager heralded a new era of success. In 1968–69 he won the Athenian League and this was followed by two successive visits to the FA Cup first round proper and the Surrey Senior Cup was won again in 1970–71. Walton & Hersham were elected to the Isthmian League in 1971, the 1972–73 season is statistically their greatest ever. They set a record by winning the competition without conceding a goal. Players including Dave Bassett, Willie Smith and Roger Connell became regulars in the England amateur international team, in 1973–74, the club reached the FA Cup second round proper again, having beaten Brian Cloughs Brighton & Hove Albion at Goldstone Ground 4–0. In 1974, Batsford left to manage Wimbledon and took players with him, Walton & Hersham were relegated in 1975 and, although they reached the FA Cup first round proper again in the 1975–76 season, they went close to extinction in the late 70s. They inspired the name of punk band Sham 69, as they derived it from a piece of graffiti which read Walton & Hersham 69, despite briefly having Sir Stanley Matthews as President, the club endured a lean period throughout the 1980s. Walton & Hersham were promoted to the Isthmian top flight in 1994 and they were promoted again the following year but relegation followed again in 2000
Molesey Football Club is an English football club based in West Molesey, Surrey. The club are members of the Isthmian League Division 1 South. Molesey F. C. was officially formed in 1953 when Molesey St Pauls merged with another club and they won the Surrey Senior League in 1958, just five years after their formation. They later joined the Spartan League before joining Division Two of the Athenian League in 1973 and they joined the Isthmian League Division Two in 1977 and have remained there ever since. In 1990 they gained promotion to Division One of the Isthmian League, followed in 1993 by promotion to the Premier Division, relegation to Division One in 1996 was followed by a further drop into Division Two in 1999. They remained at level, although due to league reorganisations they found themselves in Division One South until being relegated to the Combined Counties League in 2008. In 2015, Molesey won the Combined Counties League Premier Division and were promoted to the Isthmian League Division 1 South and they made it a double by winning the Southern Combination Cup, beating Bedfont & Feltham F. C. in the final. Ross Teague is the groundskeeper for the clubs pitch, future West Bromwich Albion star Cyrille Regis turned out for Molesey at the start of his career. Current Crawley Town midfielder Sergio Torres played for the team for two months before signing for Basingstoke Town, Molesey play their home games at 412 Walton Road West, Molesey, Surrey, KT8 0JG. The stadium has a 2, 000-capacity, with seating for 160, the grounds record attendance is 1,255 for a Surrey Senior Cup semi-final against Sutton United in 1966. The stadium was used for the filming of some of the scenes in the 2002 film Bend it Like Beckham, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players that have played/Managed in the league or any foreign equivalent to this level. Players that hold a record or have captained the club
World War II
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Addlestone & Weybridge Town F.C.
Addlestone & Weybridge Town F. C. was a football club in Addlestone, England which extended its name from Addlestone F. C. in 1980. The clubs senior team reached the quarter-finals of the FA Vase twice and the first round of the FA Cup once, in 1985, the club ceased due to lack of money and the greater success of rival clubs. The last match took place against Waterlooville at home on 27 April 1985, the team played in an all red kit. Addlestone F. C. was formed in April 1885 by Thomas Weeding and Frederick Darling, local football enthusiasts, in early 1892 the club was suspended by the Surrey FA for spectator hooliganism. In season 1892–93 the club won the Surrey Village Competition, in 1895 the club had grown large enough to enter the North West Surrey League and with it entry into the Surrey Senior Cup where they were outclassed 9–0 by shorter-lived Weybridge F. C. The best finish for the club in this league was third in season 1904–05, the year 1906 saw a mass walkout of the committee and an acute financial crisis almost ending the club — it disbanded for a short period of time. It reformed for season 1908–09 and joined Division Two of the Surrey Junior League, after the First World War the club joined the Surrey Intermediate League. In 1922 the club finished runners up to Chertsey Town and appeared in the Surrey Senior Cup final the year after and that success encouraged the club to move into the Surrey Senior League for the 1924–25 season. For the first time the club entered the FA Amateur Cup, losing to local rivals Egham Town, a bottom-of-the-table finish in 1931 forced the club to rejoin the Surrey Intermediate League. Shortly after the end of World War II the club rejoined the Surrey Senior League. In the early 1950s the club was offered, freehold, an orchard in Liberty Lane, completed with the help of a loan from the FA, in 1954–55 the club entered the Parthenon League achieving a mid-table finish. Added travelling proved too much for many players so the club went back to the Surrey Senior League two seasons later, in 1959–60 the team finished runners-up to Chertsey Town. The season after, the won the title, this time with one point more than Croydon Amateurs. In 1964–65 the club joined the larger Spartan League with a respectable showing, in the next season re-election was narrowly avoided and the club lost 0–9 to Woking in the FA Cup. The club were 1969–70 runners-up to Hampton but won the cup against them at Egham. The wide Athenian League admitted the club in 1971 and divisional promotion was won three years later, the same season saw Addlestone beat Woking in the final of the Southern Combination Cup. The club finished third in the first season in the higher division, the club reached the quarter finals of the FA Vase for the second season in a row, a feat never to be repeated. In 1977 the club was refused entry into the enlarging Isthmian League, seasons of mid-season poor results saw, in 1980–81, a new management team and a change of name to Addlestone & Weybridge Town FC
Sutton United F.C.
Sutton United Football Club is a football club in Sutton, South London, England, who play in the National League, the fifth tier of English football. They play home games at Gander Green Lane, close to West Sutton Station, the club is an FA Charter Standard Community Club affiliated to the Surrey County Football Association. Sutton started out playing in junior, local leagues, but progressed into the Athenian League in 1921, the Isthmian League in 1964, the team fell back into the Isthmian League in 1991. They appeared in the Conference for one season in 1999–2000. Sutton won the National League South in 2015–16, and thus are competing in the National League in 2016–17, the team has had several cup successes, including playing at Wembley in the FA Amateur Cup final twice and in the FA Trophy final in 1981. Sutton won the Anglo-Italian Cup in 1979, but the club is most famous for its FA Cup giant killing exploits, most notably in the 1988–89 season, the Coventry team was composed mostly of star international players and had won the competition in 1987. In the 2016–17 season, Sutton reached the 5th Round of the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating three Football League teams before losing 2–0 at home to Arsenal. The club was formed on 5 March 1898 when Sutton Guild Rovers F. C. the club gained a reputation locally in junior leagues and in 1910 decided to become a senior side. They joined the Southern Suburban League and won it on their first attempt, during this period the team moved between several grounds, including what was then known as the Sutton Adult School Ground. After the First World War, the team moved in for good and have not left the stadium since, Sutton gained election into the Athenian League in 1921. The team did not challenge at the top of the table and in 1926 finished last, only one seasons later, in 1928, the team won its first Athenian League Championship. The thirties were a time for Sutton, who twice reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup. During the Second World War, Sutton kept playing football but on a smaller scale. The Athenian League had been suspended and so organised competitions were rare and sporadic and this put them in good stead for winning the league again when the war came to an end. With the help of 42 goals from Charlie Vaughan, Sutton ran away with the 1945–46 season and this was also the first time the club won the Surrey Senior Cup and got through to the FA Cup first round. The 1950s brought little success for Sutton, though the team is said to have progressed off the field, assets were transferred to a limited company, something which was unusual for the time. In addition, the stand was constructed, which today holds over 700 spectators. It was not until George Smith became manager that success returned, the Athenian League title was won for the time in 1958
Croydon Football Club is an English semi-professional football club based in Croydon, London. They play at Croydon Sports Arena in South Norwood, the club was founded in 1953 as Croydon Amateurs. The club was founded in 1953 as Croydon Amateurs FC and its players came from some of the stronger clubs playing in local football. The club spent their first ten years in the Surrey Senior League but whilst failing to win the championship, in 1963–64, they joined the Spartan League, winning the league title at the first attempt in their only season in the competition. Roses departure to Dulwich Hamlet saw a player exodus and a season of struggle ensued. 1973 saw the suffix Amateurs dropped due to the changes to the status of players. A further relegation followed in 1994, but following Ken Jarvie taking over as Chairman / Manager and internal reorganisation, the clubs first Isthmian League title – champions of Division One followed in 2000, before relegation two years later. 2008–09 culminated with success in the Kent League Cup after a penalty win over Erith Town. That turned out to be the clubs final Kent League fixture as they shuffled sideways into the Combined Counties League for the 2009–10 season. This is effectively back where they spent their first ten years, for the 2014–15 season, the club was switched to the Southern Counties East League. In their first season the Sunday side were promoted and won the Leonard Vase Cup Recent players to have graduated from the programme include Danny Mills. Croydon play at Croydon Sports Arena, Albert Road, South Norwood, players that have played/managed in the Football League or any foreign equivalent to this level. Players that hold a club record
Holmesdale F. C. is an English football club founded in South Norwood, London, but are currently based in Bromley. The club is affiliated to the Kent County Football Association, the club plays in the Southern Counties East League Division One. The new club inherited the original clubs Post Office savings account of £7 which had risen to £12 after 33 years worth of interest. The new club started life in Division Six of the Thornton and District League, the word Baptist was dropped from the clubs name the following year. The club then worked their way through the Thornton and District league, at the end of the 1986–87 season the club won the Premier Division and gained promotion to the then named Surrey Intermediate League. After six more seasons the club won the First Division championship, the following years saw the club progress off the field as they developed the clubs home in Oaks Road, Shirley, into a senior status venue. However, the club were not permitted to install floodlights or a bar area due to the ground being under the ownership of the local council. The decision was made at the turn of the millennium to move to Oakley Road, Bromley, with the first, the club joined Division 1 of the Kent County League. Holmesdale play their games at Oakley Road, Bromley, Kent. Since moving to Oakley Road the club has developed the facilities to boast a floodlit training area, a fully enclosed senior pitch and a licensed bar with function room
Chobham Football Club was a football club based in Chobham 3 miles north-east of Woking in Surrey, England. The club was first formed in 1905 and had played at the village Recreation Ground for the last 85 years and they joined the Combined Counties League Western Division in 1981 and had reached the 2nd round of the FA Vase twice in their history. They resigned from the Combined Counties League Division One at the end of 2010–11, Surrey FA Saturday Premier Cup, Runners-up 1992–93 Surrey Junior Cup, Winners, 1951–52 Official site
Colliers Wood United F.C.
Colliers Wood United Football Club is an English semi-professional football club based in West Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton. The club is affiliated to the Surrey County Football Association, the club are currently members of the Combined Counties League Premier Division and play at the Wibbandune Sports Ground. The club, one of the oldest in the country, collliers Wood United FC was founded way back in 1874 and the early years of their existence were spent in the Wimbledon and Sutton leagues before moving on to the Surrey Intermediate League. During the late sixties and early seventies, the club were members of the Surrey Senior League for a short time, the reserves won their division in 1970/71 going undefeated. Over the years, “The Wood” have reached a number of Surrey FA Cup Finals, in 1988/89 they lost 1-2 to Bradbank Sports in the Intermediate Cup Final. In 1991/92 they beat Woking & Horsell 4-0 in the final of the same competition, the reserves reached the final of the 1988/89 and 1989/90 Lower Junior Cup but were beaten on both occasions. The local recreation ground prevented the progress of the due to the limited facilities. Adequate facilities were found at Wibbandune Sports Ground in 1991 and the ground has steadily improved since then, 2001/2 saw the club enter the Surrey County Senior League where they finished a creditable 5th. The following season, they finished as runners up, in 2004/5, they finished 14th of the 24 clubs. The following season, they finished fourth and had a fine FA Vase run, beating Chichester City United, Raynes Park Vale and Greenwich Borough, in 2006/7 they entered the FA Cup for the first time, defeating Chipstead after a replay before succumbing to Worthing 0-3. After a brief ground share at Croydon FC, the club moved back to Wibbandune where ground improvements included the addition of excellent flood-lighting, a new covered terrace and a 120-seat stand. Following a second renovation of the pitch in April, the returned to Wibbandune in July 2013. In 2014/15, Wood reached the FA Vase 4th round and the Surrey Senior Cup quarter finals for the first time in their history. They reached the final of the League Cup once again in 2014/15 but, once again, they lost in extra time, on March 8,2016, the club were awarded the FA Charter Standard accreditation by the Football Association. The club won the CCL Sportsmanship Award for 2015/16 having received just 32 cautions throughout the season, colliers Wood United play their home games at Wibbandune Sports Ground, A3 Southbound, Opposite 199–213 Robin Hood Way, Wimbledon, SW20 0AA. The ground has a 102-seater covered stand
Farnborough Football Club is a football club based in Farnborough, Hampshire, England. Founded in 1967 as Farnborough Town, they are members of the Southern League Division One Central. The club was established as Farnborough Town in 1967 and joined the Surrey Senior League in 1968 and their first league match saw them beat Surbiton Byron 7–6. In 1971 they reached the top division of the Surrey Senior League and they went on to win three consecutive league titles, losing only one league match during each of the 1973–74 and 1974–75 seasons. When the league merged with the Metropolitan–London League to form the London Spartan League in 1975, the club were placed in Division One, following their move to Cherrywood Road, Farnborough moved up to Division Two of the Athenian League in 1976. They won the division at the first attempt, and were accepted into Division Two of the Isthmian League. During their domination of the Spartan and Athenian league divisions, the club went 87 matches unbeaten at home between 1973 and 1977, in 1978–79 they won Division Two of the Isthmian League, earning promotion to Division One. The 1980–81 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, another first round appearance in 1983–84 ended with a 2–1 defeat at Barking. They reached the first round again the season and faced Football League opposition for the first time. The season also saw them win the Division One title, resulting in promotion to the Premier Division, Farnborough were relegated at the end of their first season in the Conference and were placed in the Premier Division of the Southern League. They won the division at the first attempt to earn promotion back to the Conference and they were drawn at home to top division West Ham. With the game switched to the Boleyn Ground, they held West Ham to a 1–1 draw before losing the replay 1–0, the season also saw them finish fifth in the Conference, but they were relegated back to the Southern League at the end of the following season. Farnborough were Southern League champions again in 1993–94, making a return to the Conference. The club spent five seasons in the Conference until being relegated at the end of the 1998–99 season and they were placed in the Premier Division of the Isthmian League, which they went on to win in 2000–01, resulting in promotion back to the Conference. They were then drawn at home to Arsenal in the fourth round, following a 5–1 defeat, manager Graham Westley left the club, also taking seven players with him as he moved to Stevenage Borough. Farnborough remained in the Conference until the end of the 2004–05 season, a third-place finish in 2005–06 saw them qualify for the promotion play-offs, but they lost 3–0 to Histon in the semi-finals. In 2006–07 Farnborough went into administration and were deducted ten points, in May 2007 the club was expelled from the Football Conference and were reformed as Farnborough Football Club. They were admitted to Division One South & West of the Southern League, in 2008–09 they were Premier Division runners-up, qualifying for the promotion play-offs
Cove Football Club is a football club based in Cove near Farnborough in Hampshire, England. Affiliated to the Hampshire Football Association, the club are members of the Combined Counties League Division One. The club was established in 1897 and joined the Aldershot Senior League and they won the Division Four Cup in 1930–31, before going on to win Division Two in 1932–33. The club moved up to the Surrey Intermediate League, winning league titles in 1949–50 and 1950–51. They went on to win the Premier Cup in 1959–60 and the Challenge Cup in 1960–61 and 1961–62, after winning the Premier Cup again in 1964–65, the club won a sixth Surrey Intermediate League title in 1967–68. In 1972 Cove joined Division Four of the Hampshire League and they won the division at the first attempt, earning promotion to Division Three. In 1976–77 the club were Division Three champions and were promoted to Division Two, at the end of the 1980–81 season the club transferred to the Western Division of the expanded Combined Counties League. The following season saw the league back to a single division. After finishing third in the league in 1989–90, the club were promoted to Division Two South of the Isthmian League, the 2000–01 season saw Cove win the Combined Counties League and the leagues Premier Challenge Cup. When the league gained a second division in 2003, Cove were placed in the Premier Division, despite finishing bottom of the division in 2003–04 season, they were not relegated to Division One. In 2008–09 they won the Southern Combination Challenge Cup, beating Chessington & Hook United 4–1 in the final, the following season saw them win the Premier Challenge Cup for a second time with a 2–0 win against. After finishing bottom of the Premier Division in 2015–16, Cove were relegated to Division One, the club initially played on a pitch behind a pub, before moving to Cove Green. In 1973 they moved to Oak Farm, floodlights and a 100-seat stand were installed in 1989. It currently has a capacity of 2,500, of which 110 is seated and 100 covered. C
West Ham United F.C.
West Ham United Football Club is a professional football club based in Stratford, East London, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, in 2016 the club re-located to the London Stadium. The club was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks and reformed in 1900 as West Ham United and they moved to the Boleyn Ground in 1904, which remained their home ground for more than a century. The team initially competed in the Southern League and Western League before joining the Football League in 1919 and they were promoted to the top flight in 1923, when they also losing finalists in the first FA Cup Final held at Wembley. In 1940, the won the inaugural Football League War Cup. West Ham have been winners of the FA Cup three times, in 1964,1975, and 1980, and have also been runners-up twice, in 1923, and 2006. The club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1965 and finishing runners up in the competition in 1976. West Ham also won the Intertoto Cup in 1999 and they are one of eight clubs never to have fallen below the second tier of English football, spending 59 of 91 league seasons in the top flight, up to and including the 2016–17 season. The clubs highest league position to date came in 1985–86 when they achieved third place in the then First Division, three West Ham players were members of the 1966 World Cup final-winning England team, captain Bobby Moore and goalscorers Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters. The club, Thames Ironworks were the first ever winners of the West Ham Charity Cup in 1895 contested by clubs in the West Ham locality and they turned professional in 1898 upon entering the Southern League Second Division, and were promoted to the First Division at the first attempt. The following year they came second from bottom, but had established themselves as a fully fledged competitive team and they comfortably fended off the challenge of local rivals Fulham in a relegation play-off, 5–1 in late April 1900 and retained their First Division status. In 1899, they acquired their now-traditional home kit combination of claret shirts and sky blue sleeves in a wager involving Aston Villa players, because of the original works team roots and links, they are still known as the Irons or the Hammers amongst fans and the media. West Ham Utd joined the Western League for the 1901 season while continuing to play in the Southern Division 1. In 1907, West Ham were crowned the Western League Division 1B Champions, the reborn club continued to play their games at the Memorial Grounds in Plaistow but moved to a pitch in the Upton Park area in the guise of the Boleyn Ground stadium in 1904. The Cup Final match itself ended 2–0 to Bolton, the team enjoyed mixed success in Division 1 but retained their status for ten years and reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1933. In 1932, the club was relegated to Division Two and long term custodian Syd King was sacked after serving the club in the role of manager for 32 years, following relegation, King had mental health problems. He appeared drunk at a meeting and soon after committed suicide. The club spent most of the next 30 years in division, first under Paynter
Director of football
Director of football is a term describing a senior management figure at a football club, most commonly used in Europe. The exact nature of the role is unclear and extremely variable. The director may help to stabilise the club – many examples exist of director stepping in as a caretaker manager on the departure of the manager. The director – often an experienced football figure – may also positively advise a less experienced manager or the board of a well developed club. This had led to many well publicised and often, highly damaging disputes within clubs, in general, directors of football are not shareholders in the club, or hold a nominal stake. This is opposed to members of the board with whom the director of football will sit. The level of power and influence in the day-to-day and transfer operations of the held by a director of football may vary considerably. Often, the position in case is filled by a former famous player. Bobby Charlton at Manchester United is such an example, in such a case, the role of the director of football is more one of club promotion and marketing than that of actual control over footballing operations. Employing a well-known football personality in such a position may also be used to enhance the prestige of the club. Other well known managers have been promoted to director of football or similar roles, including Ron Greenwood at West Ham United in 1974, however, Greenwood returned to frontline management three years later with the England national football team. In March 2002, Harry Redknapp stepped down as director of football at Portsmouth after a year in the role to succeed Graham Rix as manager, appointments in this case are often long-term, likely due to the negative reaction of fans to the removal of a former club legend. Others remain in the role until their health restricts their activities and this may be the case where the manager is inexperienced or perceived as naive in a particular aspect, allowing the director to advise against potentially costly errors. Such an example is that of Giovanni Trapattoni at Red Bull Salzburg or Sven-Göran Eriksson at Notts County, appointments in this case are often short term – for between 1/2 seasons – with the director imparting their advice and departing to another club. In other cases, the role of the director of football may include control over transfer dealings and targets and aspects outside coaching and squad selection, the director may oversee all levels of the club – youth to first team – with the manager dedicated to first team affairs. Often, a director in this case is a manager or experienced former coach. A notable recent example of such tension is that of manager Kevin Keegan, an example of the description of the role in this case as from the perspective of the manager is given by Dave Bassett as. The director of football is answerable to the board but there to assist the manager, hes experienced in football and there to help the board members who dont have that experience
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Staines Town F.C.
Staines Town Football Club is an English football club based in Staines-upon-Thames. They will contest the 2015/16 season in the Isthmian League Premier Division, the teams nickname is The Swans. Staines Towns rivals include Ashford Town, Egham Town and Hampton & Richmond Borough. Staines Town FC was founded in 1892 and was known under names including Staines F. C. Staines Albany F. C. Staines Lagonda F. C. However prior to World War II the club re-formed as Staines Vale, in 1953 Staines Town were founder members of the Hellenic League, where they finished runners-up in 1956. In 1958 they joined the Spartan League and won the two years later. After finishing second in 1971, Staines Town advanced to the Athenian League, the club were elected to the new Isthmian League Division One in 1973. In their second season, the club finished top and were promoted to the Premier Division, in a nine-year stay, the clubs best finish was fourth. However, a ground grading ruling meant that the club were demoted in 1984, the club bounced back five years later only for its Premier Division status to be lost again in 1993 when the club were relegated for the first time in 63 years. Again the club were promoted in 1996 and again it was quickly lost, having lobbied Spelthorne Council on and off for 20 years, planning permission for a £6. 5m Conference and health facility was granted in April 2000 and finalised a year later. During construction, Staines groundshared with Walton & Hersham and Egham Town before the return to Wheatsheaf Lane on 22 February 2003, the Swans spent five seasons in this division before winning promotion to the Conference South in 2009. They had finished second in the league and therefore gained promotion through the play-offs, louis Wells saved a Carshalton penalty in the 85th minute with Scott Taylor scoring the winning goal in extra time. The 2009–10 campaign marked the Swans first ever appearance in the Conference South and they began their journey brightly, defeating Weston-Super-Mare 0–1 and Dorchester Town 3–0. A home defeat, 1–2, to Havant & Waterlooville was then followed by five consecutive draws, Two significant victories in late October 2009 were beating first place, and at the time unbeaten, Newport County 1–0 at home followed four days later beating third place Thurrock 1–2 away. On Boxing Day 2009, Staines won 4–1 away to rivals Hampton and Richmond Borough, following this up by beating them 4–0 at the Wheatsheaf on New Years Day 2010, steve Cordery was named the Conference South manager of the month for January,2010. Despite a magnificent February and March when Staines Town were in the play-off places, the club have reached the FA Cup first round proper on six occasions, in 1879,1880,1984,2007,2009 and 2015. In 2007 Staines were drawn away against League Two outfit Stockport County, a crowd of 3,460 saw Staines go behind to a Matty McNeil header but a 76th-minute equaliser from Charles-Smith earned a replay. It was announced on 12 November that the replay would be shown on Sky Sports, Staines Town completed the improbable upset as they won the match in penalty kicks after drawing 1–1 in extra time, after having taken the lead in the eighth minute with an Adrian Toppin goal