The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in triple time, performed in closed position. There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, including the representations of the printmaker Hans Sebald Beham; the French philosopher Michel de Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, "Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner." "The vigorous peasant dancer, following an instinctive knowledge of the weight of fall, uses his surplus energy to press all his strength into the proper beat of the bar, thus intensifying his personal enjoyment in dancing." The peasants of Bavaria and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler known as the Schleifer, a country dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia and Bavaria, spread from the countryside to the suburbs of the city. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuets, bored noblemen slipped away to the balls of their servants.

In the 1771 German novel Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim by Sophie von La Roche, a high-minded character complains about the newly introduced waltz among aristocrats thus: "But when he put his arm around her, pressed her to his breast, cavorted with her in the shameless, indecent whirling-dance of the Germans and engaged in a familiarity that broke all the bounds of good breeding—then my silent misery turned into burning rage."Describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, "The people were dancing mad... The ladies of Vienna are celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire." There is a waltz in the second act finale of the 1786 opera Una Cosa Rara by Martin y Soler. Soler's waltz was marked andante con moto, or "at a walking pace with motion", but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer, the Galloppwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a dance known as Langaus, became a sliding step, gliding rotation replaced stamping rotation.

In the 19th century, the word indicated that the dance was a turning one. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each bar, making it sound as if the third is late and creating a certain buoyancy; the younger Strauss would sometimes break up the one-two-three of the melody with a one-two pattern in the accompaniment along with other rhythms, maintaining the 34 time while causing the dancers to dance a two-step waltz. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, spreading to many other countries in the years to follow. According to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the King's German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill, Sussex from 1804, it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador.

Diarist Thomas Raikes recounted that "No event produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813." In the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of instruction manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Almack's, the most exclusive club in London, permitted the waltz, though the entry in the Oxford English Dictionary shows that it was considered "riotous and indecent" as late as 1825. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, by Anne Brontë, in a scene set in 1827, the local vicar Reverend Milward tolerates quadrilles and country dances but intervenes decisively when a waltz is called for, declaring "No, no, I don't allow that! Come, it's time to be going home."The waltz its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including several ballroom dances.

In the 19th and early 20th century, numerous different waltz forms existed, including versions performed in 34, 38 or 68, 54 time. In the 1910s, a form called the "Hesitation Waltz" was introduced by Irene Castle, it was danced to fast music. A hesitation is a halt on the standing foot during the full waltz bar, with the moving foot suspended in the air or dragged. Similar figures are incorporated in the International Standard Waltz Syllabus; the Country Western Waltz is progressive, moving counter clock wise around the dance floor. Both the posture and frame are relaxed, with posture bordering on a slouch; the exaggerated hand and arm gestures of some ballroom styles are not part of this style. Couples may dance in the promenade position, depending on local preferences. Within Country Western waltz, there is the more modern Pursuit Waltz. At one time it was considered ill treatment for a man to make the woman walk backwards in some locations. In California the waltz was banned by Mission priests until after

Andrea Higgins

Andrea Higgins is an American painter. She grew up in Kansas City, received a Bachelor of Arts from Dartmouth College, received a Master of Fine Arts from the San Francisco Art Institute, her paintings include geometric patterns that resemble textiles, based on her experience at Britex Fabrics in San Francisco. The brushstrokes in her oil paintings mimic stitches in fabric. On a visit to Indonesia in 1995 she was inspired by the Hindu women's woven sarongs, she connected these women's fashion to the way that American first ladies dress, inspiring her show "The President's Wives." Her exhibitions have been inspired by characters in literature, including Babbitt and The Picture of Dorian Gray, American politics, including Nancy Reagan. She received an Artadia Award in 2000 and the SECA Art Award in 2002 from the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; the Presidents' Wives, San Francisco Appearance, San Francisco Double Take, San Francisco


HP SPaM is an internal consulting group that supports HP businesses on mission-critical strategic and operation decisions. SPaM's mission is to drive innovation and data-driven decisions in HP through assisting with analytics and operations management; as evidenced by its publications and awards, SPaM has been a prominent example of the deployment and practice of OR/MS in large companies. Together with HP Labs, SPaM represents HP at the INFORMS Roundtable, a group of organizations whose purpose is to promote OR/MS excellence in practice. SPaM leads innovation in supply chain and procurement practices, they created dramatic improvements in manufacturing, procurement, product design, forecasting and inventory control efficiencies. Notable contributions include: Popularizing and helping to drive the adoption of postponement in high-tech products, as a gain in efficiency in building responsive supply chains that support a high variety of product versions and configurationsDeveloping and popularizing the concept of using a single metric to measure the full end-to-end costs associated with carrying inventory, to support better supply chain decisions.

The use of simple, practical spreadsheet tools to deploy the power of advanced statistical inventory target setting to a broad range of businesses. Popularizing the concept of product design for supply chain; the team was established in 1989 by Corey Billington who had joined HP and was working with Sara Beckman. Billington asked HP CEO Lew Platt for $100K to start a team focusing on efficiency and inventory within HP. Soon after, Corey added Tom Davis, Paul Gibson, Steve Rockhold, Rob Hall, Marguerita Sasser, Ed Feitzinger to the team and began a fruitful collaboration with Hau Lee and M. Eric Johnson; the name SPaM came from HP internal location code assigned to the group during the days of limited identification fields. SPM and SM were two initial possibilities but the group settled with the more pronounceable SPaM; this was the day before internet era where spam was not yet synonymous with unsolicited or undesired bulk electronic message. Corey Billington Rob Hall Gianpaolo Callioni Scott Ellis Thomas Olavson Brian Cargille Ray Ernenwein Barrett Crane The triangles in SPaM logo represent inventory – the largest asset on the balance sheets of most consumer electronics manufacturers and the largest asset of HP.

The blue bell shape represents uncertainty. The combination of the shapes is meant to represent SPaM's intention of using analytics to enable decision making under uncertainty to improve asset management performance. SPaM supports HP businesses from multiple strategic locations, embedded with HP's various businesses. SPaM's home office is in HP Inc.'s headquarters. Key practice areas include: Supply Chain Strategy and Design Operations Tools and Processes Pricing Analytics SPaM members are Analytical Business Consultants who share strong interests in addressing business decisions from analytical and data-driven perspective. Typical members possess domain expertise as well as consulting and project management experiences from management consulting firms, or companies in their own industries. Most have earned MBA, Master’s, and/or Doctoral degrees in technical fields such as economics, management science, operations research and statistics; some individuals who are members of SPaM are recognized both in the academic community and/or across various industries.

In 2000, Wal-Mart named HP as its Supplier of the Year. HP's innovative supply-chain-management models developed by SPaM helped reduce the retailer's inventory-related stock outs. In 2002, INFORMS gave HP an award for effective integration of Operations Research/Management Science into organizational decision making, attributed to partnership between SPaM and HP business divisions. In 2004, HP received Purchasing Magazine’s Company Medal of Professional Excellence. Product design for supply chain and procurement risk management -- two innovations developed by SPaM -- were mentioned as contributions that led to the receipt of this award. In 2005, design for supply chain and procurement risk management -- innovations developed by SPaM -- were honored by the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals as two of the Top 10 Supply Chain Innovations of the Year. In 2009, HP won the INFORMS Franz Edelman Award, which recognizes outstanding examples of operations research-based projects that transform companies, entire industries, people’s lives, for its successful product variety management initiatives.

The innovations being honored were a result of a collaborative effort between HP Labs and SPaM, whi