The Kaiserkrone is a abraded and jagged remains of a table hill that, together with the Zirkelstein, rises above the level plain of Schöna on the outskirts of the village in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains in the German state of Saxony. The name "Kaiserkrone" is derived from its appearance; the three points of the crown, each of which may be climbed, are part of the large sandstone step known as "c3", from the Upper Turonian stage, were left behind as the wide rock crevices between them were formed. Mankind has been involved in the formation and/or destruction of the plateau, 350.8 m above NN. At the southern end of the rocks, two lions have been carved by unknown artists. At the beginning of the 19th century the Kaiserkrone was known by other names like the Kahlstein, Zahnstein or Kronenberg. Older designations are Galitzstein and Gollstein. At the southern foot of the Kaiserkrone there are several sandstone rocks of unusual shape that were rediscovered in the sketch book of Caspar David Friedrich, which he drew during a visit to the Kaiserkrone and used as the undercoat for his painting Der Wanderer über dem Nebelmeer.
Photographs of the Kaiserkrone
The Monk by the Sea
The Monk by the Sea is an oil painting by the German Romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich. It was painted between 1808 and 1810 in Dresden and was first shown together with the painting The Abbey in the Oakwood in the Berlin Academy exhibition of 1810. On Friedrich's request The Monk by the Sea was hung above The Abbey in the Oakwood. After the exhibition both pictures were bought by king Frederick Wilhelm III for his collection. Today the paintings hang side by side in the Alte Berlin. For its lack of concern with creating the illusion of depth, The Monk by the Sea was Friedrich's most radical composition; the broad expanses of sea and sky emphasize the meager figure of the monk, standing before the vastness of nature and the presence of God. A single figure, dressed in a long garment, stands on a low dune sprinkled with grass; the figure identified as a monk, has turned completely away from the viewer and surveys a rough sea and a gray, blank sky that takes up about three quarters of the picture.
It is unclear. The dune forms an inexpressive triangle in the composition, at the farthest point of, the figure. Contrasting with the dark ocean there are several whitecaps of waves sometimes mistaken for seagulls. Although Friedrich's paintings are landscapes, he designed and painted them in his studio, using drawn plein air sketches, from which he chose the most evocative elements to integrate into an expressive composition; the composition of The Monk by the Sea shows evidence of this reductive process, as Friedrich removed elements from the canvas after they were painted. Recent scientific investigations have revealed that he had painted two small sailing ships on the horizon, which he removed. Friedrich continued to modify the details of the painting right up to its exhibition—to the sky's grey was added blue, with stars and a moon—but the basic composition always stayed the same; the picture appeared at a time when Friedrich had his first public success and critical acknowledgment with his controversial Tetschener Altar, a work that explicitly fused the landscape format with a religious theme.
The Monk by the Sea drew much attention. Friedrich began the painting in Dresden, 1808. In a letter of February 1809, he described the image for the first time; the stages in its conception were documented by guests to his studio. In June 1809, the wife of painter Gerhard von Kügelgen, an acquaintance of Friedrich, visited him and criticized the painting in a letter. Art historian Albert Boime believed that the figure of the monk was Friedrich, walking on the cliffs at Rügen, which would place the subject near the site where a Protestant mystic built a chapel for poor fishermen who were far from home and wished to profess their faith; the identification of the monk as a self-portrait has been accepted by other scholars, both for physical resemblances to Friedrich, for the fact that, in keeping with the perception of artists as belonging to a "higher priesthood", Friedrich painted himself in a monk's clothing. The painting was exhibited in its current form at the Berlin Academy in October 1810, to much controversy and criticism.
The composition notably lacks a repoussoir—a framing device that leads the viewer's gaze into the image. Rather, the emptiness of the foreground is overwhelming, it is argued that a viewer of this painting has difficulty relating himself to the picture's space. One cannot mentally "penetrate" the image: Friedrich has created an unbridgeable gap between the monk and the viewer; the monk is cut off from us spatially and existentially, there are no traditional landscape elements that might soften the effect—only a cold sky and a flat foreground, void of greenery, a dark sea, reduced to a narrow band on which no vessels sail. Friedrich has compressed space in a manner anticipating abstract art. In the month of the exhibition, German Romantic author Clemens Brentano submitted an article on the painting to the Berliner Abendblätter, a new daily journal edited by his friend Heinrich von Kleist; the piece, titled "Different Feelings about a Seascape by Friedrich on, a Capuchin Monk", was critical of the work, but Kleist revised Brentano's text to produce an article sympathetic to Friedrich's painting.
Kleist's commentary has become a central element of Friedrich. Kleist wrote, for example: How wonderful it is to sit alone by the sea under an overcast sky, gazing out over the endless expanse of water, it is essential that one has come there just for this reason, that one has to return. That one can not. No situation in the world could be more sad and eerie than this—as the only spark of life in the wide realm of death, a lonely center in a lonely circle... This definitively marks a new departure in Friedrich's art... More famously, Kleist wrote, "since in its monotony and boundlessness it has no foreground except the frame, when viewing it, it is as if one's eyelids had been cut away."The painti
Two Men by the Sea
Two Men by the Sea is a painting by Caspar David Friedrich, first exhibited at the exhibition held by the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts in 1817, from which it was acquired a representative of mother superior Maria Richter of Berlin. It first appears in the inventories of the Nationalgalerie in 1936 as number A II 884, it was displayed at the Schloss Charlottenburg until 1967 and from 1986 to 2001 it was hung in the Schloss' Knobelsdorff wing. Since 2001 it has been displayed in the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin
Cairn in Snow
Cairn in Snow known as Dolmen in the snow, is a landscape painting by the German painter Caspar David Friedrich. Friedrich is noted for his landscapes depicting features such as trees or Gothic ruins, silhouetted against the sky or in morning mists; the painting depicts leafless trees in the winter snow, with the tops of two of the trees broken off and the third bent by the prevailing wind, giving the work a haunted, spectral air. It is a Romantic allegorical landscape, depicting a stone cairn or dolmen set amid three oak trees on a hilltop, with a contemplative melancholy mood, it was painted around 1807, making it among Friedrich's first oil paintings. It measures 61 by 80 centimetres and has been held by the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden since 1905; the main elements of the painting are taken from different locations in eastern Germany. The cairn is thought to be based on the Neolithic burial site at Großsteingrab Gützkow, near the town Gützkow in West Pomerania. Friedrich sketched the trees at Neubrandenburg, most an 1807 sepia sketch Hünengrab am Meer.
Similar oak trees reappear in several works by Friedrich, including Monk in the Snow, The Abbey in the Oakwood, Monastery graveyard under snow and Oak tree in snow. The hill is located near Wustrow; the painting includes four ravens, two above the cairn, one to the right, a fourth high in the tree to the right. The painting alludes to pagan symbolism. Trees and forests were seen as symbols of life endurance and immortality. Sacred groves a group of trees in ancient times, were associated with secrecy and initiation rites, they were regarded as untouchable; the main trees depicted in this painting by Friedrich appear to have had most of their old branches chopped off. The three trees around the cairn recalls the three wooden crosses on Golgotha at the crucifixion of Jesus, the stone chamber where Christ's body was entombed; the painting alludes to the permanence of the ancient stone landmark, the strength of the oak tree to withstand the storm broken and bowed but not defeated, the continuity of life in the middle of winter.
Art critics have interpreted the painting as a meditation on life and death, on the political situation in Germany following the defeats of Prussia by Napoleon's French army at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806. Around the same times, Friedrich was working on his 1807 Tetschen Altar; the painting was first owned by the Greifswald University professor Karl Schildener. It painting is described in 1828 in the Greifswald academical journal; the work was sold at auction in Leipzig in 1845 and acquired by Friedrich's friend and fellow painter Johan Christian Dahl. Dahl imitated the work in Megalithic Tomb in Winter, it was sold from the estate of Dahl's only surviving son, Johann Siegwald Dahl, acquired by the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden in 1905. Caspar David Friedrich and the Age of German Romanticism, Linda Siegel, p. 81-82 Political Symbolism in Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of George L. Mosse, edited by George Lachmann Mosse, Seymour Drescher, David Warren Sabean, Allan Sharlin, p. 221 The Megaliths of Northern Europe, Magdalena Midgley, p.xiii Kosegarten's Cultural Legacy: Aesthetics, Literature and Music, Lewis Holmes, p. 123-124 Friedrich, Caspar David, by Theodor Pyl Aschenbeck/Dehnel/Stock, Auf den Spuren von Caspar David Friedrich, Verlag Fischerhude, 1993, ISBN 3-88 132 111-X
Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space and causation are mere sensibilities. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features, he drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy the fields of epistemology, political theory, post-modern aesthetics. In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason, he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists which philosophy had led to, is held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought. Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation, he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith. Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history; these include the Universal Natural History, the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Judgment, which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Kant's father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city. Kant believed. While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish and it is more that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen and were of Curonian origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia. Baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew, he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant maintained Christian ideals for some time, but struggled to reconcile the faith with his belief in science.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible. However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of theism and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic. Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, it is held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works, he had a circle of friends with whom he met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
A common myth is. In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Groß-Arnsdorf. Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age, he first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, he studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist, familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind", he dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th cent
Cross in the Mountains
Cross in the Mountains known as the Tetschen Altar, is an oil painting by the German artist Caspar David Friedrich designed as an altarpiece. Among Friedrich's first major works, the 1808 painting marked an important break with the conventions of landscape painting by including Christian iconography. In the hierarchy of genres, religious painting was considered the highest genre of art; the canvas depicts a golden cross with the crucified Jesus silhouetted in profile on a rock atop a mountain, surrounded by fir trees below. The cross, facing toward the sun, reaches the highest point in the picture but is presented obliquely and from a distance; the pictorial space is two-dimensional, by lacking any foreground element, the scene feels distant from the viewer and at a great height. The light from behind the cross darkens the part of the mountain; the low sun may be setting. Ivy grows at the base of the cross. According to Siegel, the design of the altarpiece is the "logical climax of many earlier drawings of which depicted a cross in nature's world".
The canvas departs from a naturalistic landscape in a number of ways. The handling of light is not realistic; the viewer's location is unclear at a great height, wherever it is, the detail of the landscape would not be as visible as Friedrich makes it. An exhibition book noted the formal innovations of Friedrich's landscapes: an "unwillingness to construct a continuous space from interconnected layers the absence of a unifying tonality in his use of color"; the landscape shows great attention to detail in the modeling of nature. Friedrich made a number of studies of rocks that can be located in this painting. Friedrich's contemporary critic Ramdohr admitted the influence of Albrecht Dürer and other masters in the precision of the depiction: "every little twig, every needle on the firs, every spot on the cliff is expressed... the outer silhouette is exact"—but this was a criticism, given the viewer's distant location: "in order to see the mountain with the sky in this relation, would have had to stand several thousand paces away, on the same level with the mountain and in such a way that the line of the horizon parallels the mountain.
From such a distance he would not have been able to see any detail."The gilded frame, designed by Friedrich and formed by the sculptor Christian Gottlieb Kühn, includes other Christian iconography. At the base, the Eye of God is within a vine, symbols of the Eucharist. Travelling up the frame, Gothic columns support palm branches from which five angels emerge, with a star above the central one; the design, in recalling sacred art of much earlier periods, solidified the painting's function as an altarpiece and gave contemporary viewers "an allegorical directive for reading the painting scene thus enclosed", although any allegorical reading would have been debatable given the unique combination of genres. The genesis of Friedrich's altarpiece is not straightforward. For decades, art historians accepted the account of Friedrich's close friend, August Otto Rühle von Lilienstern, until new evidence arose. By Lilienstern's account, the altar was commissioned by the Countess Theresia von Thun-Hohenstein for her Catholic family's chapel in Tetschen, Bohemia.
She was enamored of it. The painter was at first resistant to accepting the commission, tending to paint only when the muse struck him, but he agreed when he found a design for an overall altarpiece that he thought would be in harmony with the chapel setting. Research in 1977, found that Friedrich had conceived the painting before the commission, that he intended to dedicate it to King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden; the Thun-Hohensteins became aware of these details by August 1808. The countess's mother objected to both the price and the format of the artwork, stating that it would never be used in the family's chapel or elsewhere in the castle, they did purchase it, but it was hung in the bedroom of the countess. Friedrich wanted to visit the family to see his altarpiece in situ, not being aware of its actual location, his patrons discouraged him by lying about their plans for the painting's location or its current whereabouts. The Tetschen Castle was home to the altarpiece from 1809 to 1921. Friedrich's desire to dedicate the painting to Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden complicates not only the story of the commission, but the painting's interpretation.
Friedrich was from the town of Greifswald, an area that at times had been under Swedish rule since the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, ending with Napoleon's invasion in 1806. For an anti-French, German patriot like Friedrich, Napoleon's invasion stoked feelings of German and Romantic nationalism. Gustav IV Adolf confirmed his recognition of Germany in declaring, "May I yet see the day when I behold Germany, as my second fatherland, restored to the standing to which its estimable nation and the fame of centuries give it undeniable right"; the king was a pious man influenced by the Moravian Church, a Protestant denomination that sought a "radically inward devotion... faith was'not in thoughts nor in the head, but in the heart, a light illuminated in the heart'". Friedrich's pa
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew