The name Kaiserkrone means imperial crown and is derived from its appearance. Mankind has involved in the formation and/or destruction of the plateau which is 350.8 m above NN. At the southern end of the rocks, two lions have been carved by unknown artists, at the beginning of the 19th century the Kaiserkrone was known by other names like the Kahlstein, Zahnstein or Kronenberg. Even older designations are Galitzstein and Gollstein
Two Men Contemplating the Moon
Two Men Contemplating the Moon is one of the best known paintings by Caspar David Friedrich. Friedrich painted several versions, and a variant in which the two figures are a man and a woman, the 1819/20 version in the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden is thought to be the original. Samuel Beckett said that the work inspired his play Waiting for Godot, the painting depicts a foreground scene of two men on a mountain path, which leads up from the centre bottom of the picture to the left. The man on the right is wearing a cape and the black beret of the altdeutsche Tracht and has a stick in his right hand. They are both looking at the sickle of the moon and the evening star. The moons night side is lit by earthshine, in the background the landscape falls away, the tops of pine trees suggest a forest. In the immediate foreground are a stump and a large dry branch lying on the ground. The painting is almost monochromatic in shades of brown and grey, the German art historian Werner Busch sees the geometric layout as signalling the transcendent message of the two figures experience of nature.
The composition places these in a harmonious relationship and it has been described as a defining image of German Romanticism. According to Johan Christian Dahl, the first owner of the earliest version, Friedrich painted a number of copies. Several versions are extant today, but their dating and authorship has not been positively determined, apart from Dahls copy there is a version in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, dated 1825-1830. In addition to the adherence to the golden section, the Dresden version is truer to Friedrichs preparatory sketches from nature. Paintings of the variant image of a man and woman observing the moon, the painting in the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden was included in 1830 in Johan Christian Dahls collection under the title Mondscheinlandschaft. Zwei männliche Figuren betrachten den aufgehenden Halbmond, he sold it to the Royal Art Gallery in Dresden in 1840 for 80 talers, Dahl had obtained the painting from Friedrich in exchange for a work of his own. The painting in Berlin of a man and a woman was at the Salomon art dealership in Dresden in 1922, with its softly melancholy mood, the painting epitomises the Romantic view of nature.
The two meditative figures, seen almost entirely from the rear, serve as representatives of the observer, the oak has traditionally represented history and transience, the evergreen fir-tree, the constantly renewing power of nature. The altdeutsche Tracht worn by men was banned under the Carlsbad decrees of 1819, coinciding with the creation of the work. The two men depicted may be Friedrich himself, on the right, and his pupil August Heinrich on the left, Friedrichs friend Wilhelm Wegener gave this interpretation
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
The Monk by the Sea
The Monk by the Sea is an oil painting by the German Romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich. It was painted between 1808 and 1810 in Dresden and was first shown together with the painting The Abbey in the Oakwood in the Berlin Academy exhibition of 1810, on Friedrichs request The Monk by the Sea was hung above The Abbey in the Oakwood. After the exhibition both pictures were bought by king Frederick Wilhelm III for his collection, today the paintings hang side by side in the Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. For its lack of concern with creating the illusion of depth—which had been an aspect of landscape painting—The Monk by the Sea was Friedrichs most radical composition. The broad expanses of sea and sky emphasize the meager figure of the monk, standing before the vastness of nature, a single figure, dressed in a long garment and with his chin on one hand, stands on a low dune sprinkled with grass. The figure, usually identified as a monk, has turned almost completely away from the viewer and surveys a rough sea and it is unclear whether he is standing on a high rock or only on a gentle slope to the sea.
The dune forms a triangle in the composition, at the farthest point of which is the figure. Contrasting with the ocean there are several whitecaps of waves sometimes mistaken for seagulls. The composition of The Monk by the Sea shows evidence of this reductive process, recent scientific investigations have revealed that he had initially painted two small sailing ships on the horizon, which he removed. Friedrich continued to modify the details of the right up to its exhibition—to the skys grey was added blue, with stars. The Monk by the Sea furthered his success and drew much attention, Friedrich probably began the painting in Dresden,1808. In a letter of February 1809, he described the image for the first time, the stages in its conception were documented by guests to his studio. The painting was exhibited in its current form at the Berlin Academy in October 1810, to much controversy, the composition notably lacks a repoussoir—a framing device that leads the viewers gaze into the image. Rather, the emptiness of the foreground is overwhelming and it is commonly argued that a viewer of this painting has difficulty relating himself to the pictures space.
One cannot mentally penetrate the image, Friedrich has created a gap between the monk and the viewer. Friedrich has compressed space in a manner anticipating abstract art, The Monk by the Sea has been described as perhaps the first abstract painting in a modern sense. Kleist wrote, for example, How wonderful it is to sit completely alone by the sea under an overcast sky and it is essential that one has come there just for this reason, and that one has to return. No situation in the world could be more sad and eerie than this—as the only spark of life in the realm of death
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is considered a central figure in modern philosophy. Kant took himself to have effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy and his beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics, ethics, political theory, and aesthetics. Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that peace could be secured through universal democracy. He believed that this will be the outcome of universal history. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause, Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment, Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia.
His mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. His father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, Immanuel Kant believed that his paternal grandfather Hans Kant was of Scottish origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children, baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew. Young Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student and he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, and a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, and focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics, despite his religious upbringing and maintaining a belief in God, Kant was skeptical of religion in life, various commentators have labelled him agnostic. Common myths about Kants personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwaits introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. It is often held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life.
He never married, but seemed to have a social life — he was a popular teacher. He had a circle of friends whom he met, among them Joseph Green. A common myth is that Kant never traveled more than 16 kilometres from Königsberg his whole life, in fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Judtschen and in Groß-Arnsdorf
The Zirkelstein is the smallest table hill of Saxon Switzerland. It is a wooded, cone-shaped hill with a striking 40 metre high summit block of sandstone rock, the Zirkelstein is located five kilometres southeast of Bad Schandau in the part of Saxon Switzerland that lies left of the River Elbe. Immediately at the foot of the Zirkelstein is a former Friends of Nature house with a restaurant, the land of the Zirkelstein has been in private hands since 2008. In 1841 the owner of the hill, Johann Gottlob Füssel, in 1842 facilities were built to enable the summit to be made accessible to visitors. The inn was run by the family until 1913 and the business was leased, on 3 September 1926 the inn was set on fire by lightning during a heavy thunderstorm and was razed to the ground. Currently the hill, which has an area of 7 hectares, is owned by the ZirkelsteinResort gGmbH, the best-known painting of the Zirkelsteins is by Caspar David Friedrich. In the background of his 1818 painting, Der Wanderer über dem Nebelmeer, the Zirkelstein gets its name from its characteristic shape that, from a distance, resembles a circle.
In 1592 the hill was first mentioned, as the Circkelstein, the Zirkelstein is best approached from Schöna along at yellow signed hiking trail. The summit itself may be gained using the steps and railings provided. Due to its isolated situation the summit offers a comprehensive all-round view over the forests and crags of Saxon and Bohemian Switzerland, the Friends of Nature facility on the Zirkelstein
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUPs chief executive, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a printer of Bibles, prayer books. OUP took on the project became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, by contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year. OUP was first exempted from United States corporation tax in 1972, as a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products.
The OUP today transfers 30% of its surplus to the rest of the university. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 6,000 new books every year, the Oxford University Press Museum is located on Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. Visits must be booked in advance and are led by a member of the archive staff, displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, and the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary. The first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood, the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinuss Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer. Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as 1468, thus apparently pre-dating Caxton, roods printing included John Ankywylls Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century, the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxfords case.
Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, Oxfords chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the universitys printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute, Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers Company and the Kings Printer and these were brought together in Oxfords Great Charter in 1636, which gave the university the right to print all manner of books. Laud obtained the privilege from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford and this privilege created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance. The Stationers Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes
The Abbey in the Oakwood
The Abbey in the Oakwood is an oil painting by Caspar David Friedrich. It was painted between 1809 and 1810 in Dresden and was first shown together with the painting The Monk by the Sea in the Prussian Academy of Arts exhibition of 1810, on Friedrichs request The Abbey in the Oakwood was hung beneath The Monk by the Sea. This painting is one of two dozen of Friedrichs works that include cemeteries or graves. After the exhibition both pictures were bought by king Frederick Wilhelm III for his collection, today the paintings hang side by side in the Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. A procession of monks, some of whom bear a coffin, only two candles light their way. A newly dug grave yawns out of the snow in the foreground and this lower third of the picture lies in darkness—only the highest part of the ruins and the tips of the leafless oaks are lit by the setting sun. The waxing crescent moon appears in the sky, the picture appeared at a time when Friedrich had his first public success and critical acknowledgment with the controversial Tetschener Altar.
The Abbey in the Oakwood is based upon studies of the ruins of Eldena Abbey, the same trees, in slightly altered forms, can be seen in other works. In the painting Friedrich draws a parallel between those actions and the use of Greifswald churches as barracks by occupying French soldiers, the funeral becomes a symbol of the burial of Germanys hopes for resurrection. Friedrich may have work on The Abbey in the Oakwood in June 1809 after a stay in Rügen. On 24 September 1810, shortly before the Berlin Academy exhibition, Carl Frederick Frommann described the setting sun, art in an age of Bonapartism, 1800-1815. Börsch-Supan, Helmut & Jähnig, Karl Wilhelm,1973, Caspar David Friedrich, ISBN 3-7913-0053-9 Held, Heinz-Georg Held,2003, Romantik. ISBN 3-8321-7601-2 Schulze Altcappenberg, H. Th,2006, An der Wiege der Romantik, Caspar David Friedrichs Jahreszeiten von 1803. ISBN 3-88609-561-4 Wolf, Norbert,2003, Friedrich, ISBN 3-8228-1958-1 This article is a translation of the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia as of 21 November 2008
The Hamburg Kunsthalle is the art museum of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, Germany. It is one of the largest museums in the country, the name Kunsthalle indicates the museums history as an art hall when founded in 1850. Today, the Kunsthalle houses one of the few art collections in Germany that covers seven centuries of European art, the Kunsthalle consists of three connected buildings, dating from 1869,1921 and 1997, located in the Altstadt district, between the Hauptbahnhof and the two Alster lakes. The Kunsthalle has its origins in 1849, when established and opened a year as Städtische Gallerie by the Hamburg Kunstverein, the collection grew quickly, and it soon became necessary to provide a building. The original red brick Kunsthalle was built from 1863 to 1869, designed by architects Georg Theodor Schirrmacher and Hermann von der Hude, the first director became the art historian and educator Alfred Lichtwark. In 1994, one painting of the Kunsthalle was involved in the so-called Frankfurt art theft, while on loan to the Kunsthalle Schirn in Frankfurt, the painting Nebelschwaden by Caspar David Friedrich was stolen.
After negotiations with the thieves, a lawyer bought back the painting, the cubic building sits on a monolithic base at a prominent location in close proximity to the Binnenalster. Since 2014, the Kunsthalle is under a euro 22 million renovation, in which the old entrance is being re-activated as sole entrance for the entire complex. The Kunsthalle is divided into four different sections, the Gallery of Old Masters, the Gallery of 19th-century Art, the Gallery of Classical Modernism and the Gallery of Contemporary Art. The Kunsthalle Museum is known for its contemporary art collections and exhibitions. The Hamburg Kunsthalle continuisly carries out temporary exhibitions on contemporary and historic art, yearly there are on average 20 special exhibitions. The Dawn of Romanticism 2011–2012, Max Liebermann, pioneer of Modern Art 2012–2013, Giacometti
The Lonely Tree
The Lonely Tree is an 1822 oil-on-canvas painting by German painter Caspar David Friedrich. It measures 55 ×71 centimetres, the work depicts a panoramic view of a romantic landscape of plains with mountains in the background. A solitary oak tree dominates the foreground, an ancient oak stands at the centre of the painting, clearly damaged but still standing. The trees branches, dark in silhouette, project into the largely overcast morning sky, banks of cloud seem to form a dome above the tree. The crown of the tree is dead, and the top of its trunk, a shepherd shelters under the leaf-bearing lower branches. His flock of sheep graze beside a pond in the grassy meadow around the tree. In the middle distance, villages and a town nestle among other trees and bushes, tree-clad hills pile up into blue-grey mountains in the background. It was completed before November 1822 and has held by the Berlin National Gallery since 1861. It is now in the Alte Nationalgalerie of the Staatliche Museen in Berlin, Friedrich painted the mountains several times between 1806 and 1810.
The double peak may be Jeschken, the painting has drawn a number of interpretations. Der einsame Baum, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Caspar David Friedrich, Moonwatchers, p. 38-39
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker