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Wandering Jew

The Wandering Jew is a mythical immortal man whose legend began to spread in Europe in the 13th century. The original legend concerns a Jew who taunted Jesus on the way to the Crucifixion and was cursed to walk the earth until the Second Coming; the exact nature of the wanderer's indiscretion varies in different versions of the tale, as do aspects of his character. The earliest extant manuscript with the legend is the Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover, where it appears in the part for the year 1228, under the title Of the Jew Joseph, still alive awaiting the last coming of Christ. At least from the 17th century the name Ahasver has been given to the Wandering Jew adapted from Ahasuerus'Xerxes,' the Persian king in the Book of Esther, not a Jew, whose name among medieval Jews was an exemplum of a fool; this name may have been chosen because the Book of Esther describes the Jews as a persecuted people, scattered across every province of Ahasuerus' vast empire, similar to the Jewish diaspora in countries whose state and/or majority religions were forms of Christianity.

A variety of names have since been given to the Wandering Jew, including Matathias, Paul Marrane, Isaac Laquedem, a name for him in France and the Low Countries, in popular legend as well as in a novel by Dumas. Where German or Russian are spoken, the emphasis has been on the perpetual character of his punishment, thus he is known there as Ewiger Jude and vechny zhid, the "Eternal Jew". In French and other Latin languages, the usage has been to refer to the wanderings, as in French "le Juif errant", in Spanish "el judío errante" or in Italian "l'ebreo errante" and this has been followed in English from the Middle Ages, as the Wandering Jew. In Finnish he is known as Jerusalemin suutari; the origins of the legend are uncertain. According to Jehoshua Gilboa, many commentators have pointed to Hosea 9:17 as a statement of the notion of the "eternal/wandering Jew". According to some sources, the legend stems from Jesus' words given in Matthew 16:28: Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰσίν τινες ὧδε ἑστῶτες, οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ.

I tell you, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom. Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom. A belief that the disciple whom Jesus loved would not die was popular enough in the early Christian world to be denounced in the Gospel of John: And Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple following whom Jesus loved, who had leaned on His breast at the supper, had said, he who betrayeth Thee? When, Peter saw him, he said to Jesus and what shall he do? Jesus saith to him, If I will that he remain till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou Me; this saying went forth among the brethren, that that disciple would not die. Another passage in the Gospel of John speaks about a guard of the high priest. Earlier, the Gospel of John talks about Simon Peter striking the ear from Malchus, a servant of the high priest. Although this servant is not the same guard who struck Jesus, Malchus is nonetheless one of the many names given to the wandering Jew in legend.

Extant manuscripts have shown that as early as the time of Tertullian, some Christian proponents were likening the Jewish people to a "new Cain", asserting that they would be "fugitives and wanderers the earth". Aurelius Prudentius Clemens writes in his Apotheosis: "From place to place the homeless Jew wanders in ever-shifting exile, since the time when he was torn from the abode of his fathers and has been suffering the penalty for murder, having stained his hands with the blood of Christ whom he denied, paying the price of sin." Some scholars have identified components of the legend of the Eternal Jew in Teutonic legends of the Eternal Hunter, some features of which are derived from Odin mythology."In some areas the farmers arranged the rows in their fields in such a way that on Sundays the Eternal Jew might find a resting place. Elsewhere they assumed that he could rest only upon a plough or that he had to be on the go all year and was allowed a respite only on Christmas."A variant of the Wandering Jew legend is recorded in the Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover around the year 1228.

An Armenian archbishop visiting England, was asked by the monks of St Albans Abbey about the celebrated Joseph of Arimathea, who had spoken to Jesus, was reported to be still alive. The archbishop answered that he had himself seen such a man in Armenia, that his name was Cartaphilus, a Jewish shoemaker, when Jesus stopped for a second to rest while carrying his cross, hit him, told him "Go on quicker, Jesus! Go on quicker! Why dost Thou loiter?", to which Jesus, "with a stern countenance", is said to have replied: "I shall stand and rest, but thou shalt go on till the last day." The Armenian bishop reported that Cartaphilus had since converted to Christianity and spent his wandering days proselytizing and leading a hermit's life. Matthew Paris included this

President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service

Established by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 27 June 1957 by Executive Order 10717, the President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service was created to allow the President to recognize civilian officers or employees of the federal government who have made contributions "so outstanding that the officer or employee is deserving of greater public recognition than that which can be accorded by the head of the department or agency in which he is employed." President John F. Kennedy in Executive Order 10979 directed that potential recipients of the award are recommended to the President by the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board, who had responsibility for recommending people to be awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Executive Order 12014, by Jimmy Carter abolished the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board and turned over the responsibility for recommending recipients to the Chairman of the United States Civil Service Commission; this executive order was subsequently modified again by Jimmy Carter in Executive Order 12107 which named the Director of the Office of Personnel Management as the person responsible for making recommendations to the President.

The President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service is the highest honorary award that the Federal Government can grant a career civilian employee. President Kennedy limited the award to only five people per year. Awards and decorations of the United States government

Quadrille (patience)

Quadrille called Captive Queens, La Française or Partner is a card game of the Patience or Solitaire type using a pack of 52 playing cards. The name Quadrille is derived from the layout of the four Queens. Alluding to the name, Parlett describes it as "a pleasant little pictorial which may be said to represent the dance of the cardboard court."There are two variants: The Queens are laid in the middle of the table and the Fives and Sixes laid down in a radial pattern around them as shown to form the foundations. The Queens and Sixes are shuffled as part of the deck and laid out as they appear, in no set order. Either way, the role of the Queens plays no functional role in the game; the aim is to build the Sixes upwards in the same suit as far as the Jacks, the Fives downwards as far as the Kings. The following chart clarifies which cards are placed on the foundations: To play, cards are turned from the stock and built if possible or discarded if not possible into a wastepile, face up. Once the stock runs out, the cards are gathered from the wastepile and become the new stock from which cards are to be dealt.

Three redeals are permitted. The game is won when all the cards are in the foundations with the court cards at the top of each foundation, as shown on the right. Parlett, David; the Penguin Book of Patience. Penguin, London. ISBN 0 7139 1193 X