Network SouthEast was one of the three passenger sectors of British Rail created in 1982. NSE principally operated commuter trains in the London area and inter-urban services in densely populated South East England, before 1986, the sector was known as London & South Eastern. In the privatisation of British Rail on 1 April 1994 it was broken into a number of franchises. The aim was to introduce greater budgetary efficiency and managerial accountability by building a more market-focused and responsive business and it was expected that the London and South East sector would cover most of its operating costs from revenues, in contrast to heavily subsidised rural services. Day-to-day operation and timetabling continued to be delivered by the Regions -, on 10 June 1986, L&SE was relaunched as Network SouthEast, along with a new red and blue livery. This approach was brought about by a new director, Chris Green. Although NSE did not originally own or maintain infrastructure, it exercised control over almost all carrier core functions, NSE set its own goals and service standards in consultation with BR, and created its own management structure and oversight.
BR allowed NSE to decide about scheduling, infrastructure enhancements, Network SouthEast, like each other sector, was given primary responsibility for various assets, and control resided with the primary user. Other sectors could negotiate access rights and rent facilities, using their own resources, NSE was able to exert much greater control and accountability over both its operating budget and service quality than BR could under its Regions. Relations were generally good between NSE and other sectors, although operating pressures sometimes forced staff to use equipment and assets belonging to other sectors to meet immediate needs. On 1 April 1994, Network SouthEast was officially disbanded as train services passed to various train operating units ready for privatisation through a franchising process, NSE was broken down into various sub-divisions. Soon after conception, Network SouthEast started to modernise parts of the network, the most extreme example was the Chiltern Lines. The Chiltern Line ran on two lines from London Marylebone to Aylesbury and Banbury.
These lines were former GWR and GCR intercity lines to Wolverhampton, after the Beeching Axe in the 1960s, these lines became seriously run down with a lack of investment and a reduction of services. NSE realised that something needed to be done to these lines quickly, numerous plans for the lines were proposed. One serious plan was to close the line between Marylebone and South Ruislip/Harrow-on-the-Hill, and convert Marylebone into a coach station, metropolitan line trains would be extended to Aylesbury and BR services from Aylesbury would be routed to London Paddington via High Wycombe. Also the line north of Princes Risborough would close, this did not happen as Baker Street and London Paddington would not have been able to cope with the extra trains and passengers. What did happen was total route modernisation and this was an ambitious plan to bring the lines into the modern era of rail travel
Ashford International railway station
Ashford International railway station is on the South Eastern Main Line in England, serving the town of Ashford, Kent. It is 56 miles 9 chains down-line from London Charing Cross and is situated between Pluckley and Westenhanger stations on the main line, domestic trains that call at Ashford are operated by Southeastern and Southern, and international services by Eurostar. Eurostar trains use platforms 3 and 4, while domestic trains use the original platforms 1 and 2, while all tracks are electrified with 750 V DC third rail, platforms 3 to 6 are electrified with 25 kV50 Hz AC overhead lines. The local bus stops are located at the entrance to the domestic terminal, the international terminal is connected to a multi-storey car park via a footbridge and to the nearby Ashford Designer Outlet by a signposted footpath. The present station was opened by the South Eastern Railway on 1 December 1842, the station passed on to the Southern Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948. Another station was opened by the London and Dover Railway on 1 July 1884 for services via Maidstone East to London and this only lasted 15 years until 1 January 1899 when passenger services were diverted to the former South Eastern Railway station.
Remarkably the complete station survived for handling freight and engineering trains until it was closed and demolished around 1999 for construction of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. When sectorisation was introduced in the 1980s by British Rail, the present station was served by Network SouthEast until the privatisation of British Rail, Ashford station has been rebuilt on two occasions in recent history. The station layout up until the early 1960s consisted of two tracks, two through platform loops and two bay platforms accessible from the east for terminating services. The supporting columns of these canopies were stamped with the date 1908, the station was rebuilt as Ashford International during the early 1990s for international services from mainland Europe, this included the addition of two platforms to the north of station. The majority of the overbridge and platform buildings from the early 1960s rebuild were destroyed during the rebuild of the early 1990s, a small section of the 1960s overbridge does remain however, as an emergency exit between the up island platform and the up side car park.
There are ticket office windows in the booking hall, as well as ticket vending machines. There is a ticket office window in the Eurostar station. The international ticket counter in the Eurostar station is manned for part of the day. International services started on 8 January 1996, before the completion of High Speed 1 in November 2007, twelve Eurostar trains a day called, heading to Paris or Brussels. However this number was reduced because of the opening of Ebbsfleet International station to 3 trains to Paris, a direct train for Brussels was reinstated in 2009. From May 2015 a new service to Marseille runs up to five times a week. Seasonal Ski trains run in the months to Bourg-Saint-Maurice in the French Alps
Brighton railway station
Brighton railway station is the southern terminus of the Brighton Main Line in England, and the principal station serving the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex. It is 50 miles 49 chains down-line from London Victoria, the station is Preston Park. The station is managed by Southern, which operates many of the trains. Thameslink and Great Western Railway operate trains from Brighton. In 1846, the became the London Brighton and South Coast Railway following mergers with other railways with lines between Portsmouth and Hastings. With almost 16.1 million passenger entries and exits in 2011/12, the London and Brighton Railway built a passenger station, goods station, locomotive depot and railway works on a difficult site on the northern edge of Brighton. This site was 0.5 miles from, and 70 feet above the sea shore, the passenger station was a three-storey building in an Italianate style, designed by David Mocatta in 1839–40 which incorporated the head office of the railway company. The station is said to have similarities to the Nine Elms railway station of the London and Southampton Railway designed by Sir William Tite.
Baker & Son were paid £9766 15s for the building between May and August 1841. The platform accommodation was built by John Urpeth Rastrick and consisted of four pitched roofs each 250 ft long and it opened for trains to Shoreham on 11 May 1840, and in September 1841 for trains to London. The station site was extended for the opening of the Brighton Lewes, in July 1846, the L&BR merged with other railways to form the London and South Coast Railway. Further extensions to the station occurred during the century but only a limited number of additional platforms could be added because of the awkward sloping site. The station currently has a large double-spanned curved glass and iron roof covering the platforms, at the front of the station is a taxi rank and a bus station. The cab run was covered when the station above was extended over it on cast iron columns, the cab run remains in situ but has been sealed at the station end. The site of the yard has since been redeveloped. Thereafter Isetta cars were built in a part of the works.
The space created was used to accommodate a new much enlarged motive power depot in 1861, during the early 1930s, following the electrification of the lines the steam motive power depot was rebuilt and reduced in size. It was closed 15 June 1961, but remained in use for stabling steam locomotives until 1964, Brighton station was listed at Grade II* on 30 April 1973
London, Chatham and Dover Railway
The London and Dover Railway was a railway company in south-eastern England created 1 August 1859, when the East Kent Railway was given Parliamentary approval to change its name. Its lines ran through London and northern and eastern Kent to form a significant part of the Greater London commuter network. The company existed until 31 December 1922 when its assets were merged with those of companies to form the Southern Railway as a result of the grouping determined by the Railways Act 1921. The railway was always in a financial situation and went bankrupt in 1867. Many of the difficulties were caused by the competition and duplication of services with the South Eastern Railway. However, in 1898 the LCDR agreed with the SER to share the operation of the two railways, work them as a system and pool receipts, but it was not a full amalgamation. The SER and LCDR remained separate companies with separate shareholders until both becoming constituents of the Southern Railway on 1 January 1923, as a result, it had an excellent safety record.
In return the SER agreed not to any future application for an extension of the line to Dover. On 29 March 1858 a second section from Strood to Chatham, around July 1858 a station opened at New Brompton. Rochester station opened after the rival SER opened Chatham Central station, on 3 March 1858 the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway opened the extension of their line from Norwood to Beckenham Junction and Shortlands. On 22 November 1858 the Mid-Kent Railway constructed a line from New Beckenham to Beckenham Junction station, from there the Crays Company was building a line on to Bromley South and Bickley. The Mid Kent line connected with the WELCPR that provided the access to London. In 1859 the EKR changed its name to the LCDR though Dover had not been reached,1860 openings,9 July 1860, Faversham – Canterbury – Whitstable 19 July 1860, Sittingbourne & Sheerness Railway, which became part of LCDR from 1866), including Queenborough. Sheerness-on-Sea railway station dates from 1883, the terminus became the freight depot.
There are branch lines to Queenborough Pier and Sheerness Dockyard,22 July 1861, extension from Canterbury East to Dover, with Bekesbourne, Shepherds Well and Dover Priory stations opening with the line. 31 July 1861, Whitstable to Herne Bay,1 November 1861, Route to Victoria station opened, LCDR first access to London. 1862 openings,2 June 1862, the Sevenoaks Railway opened from Sevenoaks Junction to Sevenoaks, worked by LCDR, with stations at Eynsford, Shoreham and Sevenoaks Bat & Ball. Knights Hill, now West Dulwich was opened,1863 openings, Wandsworth Road station 5 October 1863, Herne Bay to Ramsgate
Parliamentary trains in the UK were passenger services required by an Act of Parliament passed in 1844 to allow inexpensive and basic railway travel for less affluent passengers. The legislation required that at least one service per day be run on every railway route in the United Kingdom. Such services are often called ghost trains. Political pressure caused the Board of Trade to investigate, and Sir Robert Peels Conservative government enacted the Railway Regulation Act, the legislation no longer applies and parliamentary trains in this sense no longer run. The basic comfort and slow progress of Victorian parliamentary trains led to a reference in Gilbert. In 1963 the nationalised British Railways produced a report, The Reshaping of British Railways, the chairman of British Railways was Richard Beeching, and the report became known as the Beeching Report. It proposed very substantial cuts to the network and to train services, the Transport Act 1962 included a formal closure process allowing for objections to closures on the basis of hardship to passengers if their service was closed.
As the objections gained momentum, this became increasingly difficult to implement. In certain cases there was exceptionally low usage the train service was reduced to a bare minimum. In some cases the service was reduced to one train a week, this terminology has no official standing. So-called Parliamentary services are typically run at inconvenient times, often very early in the morning, very late at night. In extreme instances, rail services have actually been temporarily withdrawn and replaced by bus services. When the closures brought about by the Beeching Report had reached equilibrium it was recognised that some services or station reopenings were desirable. However, if a service was started and proved unsuccessful, it could not be closed again without going through the formal process and it was recognised that this discouraged possible desirable developments, and the Transport Act 1962 Act 1981 permitted the immediate closure of such experimental reopenings. The Bill that led to the Act of 1981 was sponsored by a pro-railways Member of Parliament, Antony Speller, the process is still in effect, although the legislation has been subsumed into other enactments.
The Stockport to Stalybridge Line has one train per week operated by Arriva Rail North. Lancaster to Windermere, via Morecambe, using the Morecambe–Hest Bank line, the same line is used by the 1605 Lancaster-Leeds via Morecambe train on Mondays to Fridays and the 1429 Lancaster-Morecambe-Leeds on Sundays. Sheffield to York via Pontefract Baghill on the Dearne Valley Line has two journeys per day each way and these are from Sheffield at 0929 and 1329,0931 and 1330 and at 1636 and 1857
World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography and navigation including GPS. It comprises a standard system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface for raw altitude data. The latest revision is WGS84, established in 1984 and last revised in 2004, earlier schemes included WGS72, WGS66, and WGS60. WGS84 is the coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System. The coordinate origin of WGS84 is meant to be located at the Earths center of mass, the error is believed to be less than 2 cm. The WGS84 meridian of longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian,5.31 arc seconds or 102.5 metres east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. The WGS84 datum surface is a spheroid with major radius a =6378137 m at the equator. The polar semi-minor axis b equals a times, or 6356752.3142 m, currently, WGS84 uses the EGM96 geoid, revised in 2004. This geoid defines the sea level surface by means of a spherical harmonics series of degree 360. The deviations of the EGM96 geoid from the WGS84 reference ellipsoid range from about −105 m to about +85 m, EGM96 differs from the original WGS84 geoid, referred to as EGM84.
Efforts to supplement the national surveying systems began in the 19th century with F. R. Helmerts famous book Mathematische und Physikalische Theorien der Physikalischen Geodäsie. Austria and Germany founded the Zentralbüro für die Internationale Erdmessung, a unified geodetic system for the whole world became essential in the 1950s for several reasons, International space science and the beginning of astronautics. The lack of inter-continental geodetic information, efforts of the U. S. Army and Air Force were combined leading to the DoD World Geodetic System 1960. Heritage surveying methods found elevation differences from a local horizontal determined by the level, plumb line. As a result, the elevations in the data are referenced to the geoid, the latter observational method is more suitable for global mapping. The sole contribution of data to the development of WGS60 was a value for the ellipsoid flattening which was obtained from the nodal motion of a satellite. Prior to WGS60, the U. S.
Army, the Army performed an adjustment to minimize the difference between astro-geodetic and gravimetric geoids. By matching the relative astro-geodetic geoids of the selected datums with an earth-centered gravimetric geoid, since the Army and Air Force systems agreed remarkably well for the NAD, ED and TD areas, they were consolidated and became WGS60
London, Brighton and South Coast Railway
The London and South Coast Railway was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1922. Its territory formed a triangle, with London at its apex, practically the whole coastline of Sussex as its base. It was bounded on its side by the London and South Western Railway. It served the inland towns/cities of Chichester, East Grinstead and Lewes, at the London end was a complicated suburban and outer-suburban network of lines emanating from London Bridge and Victoria, and shared interests in two cross-London lines. The London and Brighton Railway, created in 1837 and opened in 1841, the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway, created in February 1844, opened in June 1846. The Croydon and Epsom Railway, created in July 1844, under construction at the time of amalgamation, at the time of its creation the LB&SCR had around 170 route miles in existence or under construction, consisting of three main routes and a number of branches. The main line to Brighton from London Bridge opened in 1841, the sections between Corbetts Lane and London Bridge and between Croydon and Redhill were shared with the South Eastern Railway.
There were two lines under construction at the time of the amalgamation, the Sutton & Mole Valley Lines from Croydon to Epsom. The West Sussex coast line originated with a line from Brighton to Shoreham. This was extended to Chichester by the time of the amalgamation, a connecting spur from the Brighton main line at Keymer Junction near Haywards Heath to the Brighton-Lewes line was under construction at the time of amalgamation. A short line from New Cross to Deptford Wharf, proposed by the L&CR, was approved in July 1846, shortly before amalgamation, a short branch from this line to the nearby Surrey Commercial Docks in Rotherhithe opened in July 1855. The main London terminus was the L&CR station at London Bridge, built by the London and Greenwich Railway in 1836, and exchanged for the original L&CR station in 1842. For the first few years of its existence, LB&SCR trains used the L&GR lines from Corbett’s Lane into London, the LB&SCR inherited from the L&CR running powers to the smaller SER passenger terminus at Bricklayers Arms.
Poorly sited for passengers, it closed in 1852 and was converted into a goods station, the LB&SCR owned two stations at Croydon, East Croydon and West Croydon. The L&CR had been operated by the atmospheric principle between Croydon and Forest Hill, as the first phase of a scheme to use this mode of operation between London and Epsom. However, following a number of problems, the LB&SCR abandoned atmospheric operation in May 1847. This enabled it to build its own lines into London Bridge, the history of the LB&SCR can be studied in five distinct periods. However, the LB&SCR had one important playing card not available to the L&BR – control of the SER main line between New Cross and Croydon, under this agreement the LB&SCR would have free access to London Bridge, Bricklayers Arms station and goods yard, and Hastings
London Victoria station
Victoria station is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Victoria, in the City of Westminster. It is near to Victoria Street, which along with the area and it is in Travelcard Zone 1. From the main lines, trains can connect to the Catford Loop Line, Dartford Loop Line, Southern operates the majority of commuter and regional services to south London and parts of east Surrey, while Southeastern operates trains to south east London and Kent. Gatwick Express trains run direct from Victoria to Gatwick Airport, the Underground station is on the Circle and District lines between Sloane Square and St. Jamess Park, and the Victoria line between Pimlico and Green Park. With over 81 million passenger entries and exits in 2015/16, Victoria is the second-busiest station in London after Waterloo, combined with the Underground Station and interchanges in the national rail station, London Victoria handled about 170 million passengers in the 2015/2016 period. It is one of 19 stations managed by Network Rail, the area around the station is an important interchange for other forms of transport, a local bus station is in the forecourt and Victoria Coach Station is nearby.
Victoria Station came about in a fashion to help address this problem for the London Brighton and South Coast Railway. It consisted of two adjacent main line railway stations which, from the viewpoint of passengers, were unconnected, the London and Brighton Railway terminus at London Bridge provided reasonable access to the City of London but was most inconvenient for travellers to and from Westminster. As early as 1842 John Urpeth Rastrick had proposed that the railway should build a branch to serve the West End, but his proposal came to nothing. During the summer of 1857 a scheme for an independent Grosvenor Basin Terminus in the West End of London, the station was originally referred to as the Grosvenor Terminus but renamed Victoria as it was sited at the end of Victoria Street. Three other railway companies were seeking a terminus in Westminster, the Great Western, the London & North Western. The first two already had access to Battersea through their joint ownership of the West London Line with the LB&SCR.
The new line followed part of the route of the Grosvenor Canal with Victoria station on the canal basin. It required the construction of a new bridge over the Thames, originally known as Victoria Bridge and it was of mixed gauge to cater for GWR trains. The LB&SCR had hoped to amalgamate with the VS&PR, and introduced a Parliamentary Bill to allow it to do so in 1860 and this was opposed by the GWR and LC&DR and rejected. By way of compromise the LB&SCR was permitted to lease Victoria station from the VS&PR, Victoria station proved to be unexpectedly popular for both the main companies, and by 1862 there were frequent delays due to congestion at Stewarts Lane Junction. In March 1863 the LB&SCR and the LC&DR jointly funded a new route into Victoria, avoiding Stewarts Lane. The work was completed during 1867/8, the LB&SCR side of Victoria station opened on 1 October 1860, the temporary terminus in Battersea having closed the day before
Southern (Govia Thameslink Railway)
Southern is the brand name used by the Govia Thameslink Railway train operating company on the Southern routes of the Thameslink and Great Northern franchise. In July 2015, the franchisee was subsumed into GTR, but the existing Southern and Gatwick Express brand identities were retained alongside those of Thameslink and it provides services between Milton Keynes and Croydon via the West London Line. It operates services from Brighton to Ashford, Brighton to Seaford, Brighton to Southampton, following the end of British Rail, Connex South Central was awarded the Network SouthCentral franchise by the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising. Operations began on 26 May 1996, in March 2000, the Shadow Strategic Rail Authority announced its intention to relet the franchise from May 2003 with Connex and Govia the shortlisted bidders. In October 2000 the SSRA announced that Govia had been awarded the franchise, Govia negotiated a deal with Connex to buy out the remainder of its franchise, this was completed in August 2001.
Govia trading as SouthCentral took over operations on 26 August 2001, in May 2004 the franchise was rebranded as Southern in a recall of the pre-nationalisation Southern Railway, using a green roundel logo with Southern in yellow in a green bar. In April 2007 the Department for Transport announced that the Gatwick Express franchise was to be incorporated into the main South Central franchise. This was part of a plan to increase capacity on the Brighton Main Line, involving the extension of services from Gatwick to Brighton. This doubled the number of London to Brighton express trains during those periods, in December 2008, Southern took over the services on the Redhill to Tonbridge Line from Southeastern. However, such a transfer never took place and the DfT put out the franchise for tender. In August 2008 the DfT shortlisted Govia, National Express, NedRail, in June 2009 the DfT announced that Govia had retained the franchise, to start on 20 September 2009. In March 2012 the Department for Transport announced that Abellio, FirstGroup, Govia, MTR and Stagecoach had been shortlisted for the new Thameslink, the Invitation to Tender was to be issued in October 2012, with the successful bidder announced in spring 2013.
However, in the wake of the collapse of the InterCity West Coast refranchising process, in December 2012, Southerns London Victoria to London Bridge via Denmark Hill service ceased, being partially replaced by London Overgrounds new Clapham Junction to Dalston Junction service. However the Southern brand was retained, Southern was criticised for major changes to its timetables in December 2007 and December 2008. In December 2007, Southern changed the arrangement for the splitting of services to and from London Victoria on the Arun Valley Line, in December 2008 further timetable changes included the introduction of the extended Gatwick Express services. However and timekeeping on some of the new services were considered poor, on 22 January 2009, Southern responded to some of these criticisms. During 2009 these services have recorded improved timekeeping and criticisms have since subsided, the new timetable led to unhappiness due to the difference in speed and frequency of service between East Coastway services and those on the Brighton Main Line.
Further changes to the timetable were made in December 2010, the first timetable change to many of the requirements of the new franchise
A chain is a unit of length. It measures 66 feet, or 22 yards, or 100 links, there are 10 chains in a furlong, and 80 chains in one statute mile. An acre is the area of 10 square chains, the chain has been used for several centuries in Britain and in some other countries influenced by British practice. By extension, chainage is the distance along a curved or straight line from a fixed commencing point. The chain was used with the mile to indicate land distances. Starting in the 19th century, the chain was used as a subdivision with the mile to show distances between stations and bridges. The locally used units were often inconsistent from place to place, a rectangle of land one furlong in length and one chain in width has an area of one acre. His chain had 100 links, and the link is used as a subdivision of the chain as a unit of length, american surveyors sometimes used a longer chain of 100 feet, of 100 links, known as the engineers chain or Ramsdens chain. The first such was constructed by Jesse Ramsden for the measurement of the Hounslow baseline at the start of the Anglo-French Survey.
The term chain in this usually refers to the measuring instrument rather than a unit of length. Also in North America a modern variant of the chain as a tool is used in forestry for traverse surveys and this modern chain is a static cord,50 metres long, marked with a small tag at each metre, and marked in the first metre every decimetre. When working in dense bush, an axe or hatchet is commonly tied to the end of the chain. Another version used extensively in forestry and surveying is the hip-chain, a hip-chain is a small box containing a string meter, worn on the hip. The user simply ties the spooled string off to a stake or tree and these instruments are available in both feet and meters. In Britain, the chain is no used for practical survey work. However it survives on the railways of the United Kingdom as a location identifier, since railways are entirely linear in topology, the mileage or chainage is sufficient to identify a place uniquely on any given route. Thus a certain bridge may be said to be at 112 mi 63 ch, in the case of the photograph the bridge is near Keynsham, that distance from London Paddington station.
On new railway built in the United Kingdom such as High Speed 1
The London Overground is a suburban rail network in the United Kingdom. Established in 2007, it serves a large part of Greater London and parts of Hertfordshire, the network forms part of the National Rail network, but under the franchise control and branding of Transport for London. Operation has been franchised to Arriva Rail London since 13 November 2016, the Overground has been assigned the colour orange as a mode specific colour by Transport for London. This colour is used in the Overground version of the TfL roundel, for the representation of Overground routes on the map, in train interiors. Rail services in Great Britain are mostly run under franchises operated by train operating companies. The concept of developing a network of services around London goes back to the independently produced Ringrail proposals in the early 1970s. The proposal from Barren was for several overlapping services mainly using the North London Line and this was given the marketing name Cross Town Link-Line, and operated with basic 2-car diesel units.
The next initiative came from the GLC in 1984, when the government supported the Broadgate development that would entail the demolition of Broad Street Station. The closure process was convoluted because of problems in making arrangements for the North London Line. These would eventually run to and from Liverpool Street via a new section of track and this used a name once associated with a semicircular service that operated from Broad Street to Mansion House, but ceased during World War 1. The pamphlets and briefings, first issued in 1997, initially suggested a route from Clapham Junction to the Greenwich Peninsula, intended to improve access from south London to the Millennium Dome. However, this was thwarted by architect Richard Rogers who considered a railway route on an elevated viaduct could cause community severance, nothing further happened to develop this network until after the new GLA was set up in 2000. But the lobbying discreetly continued with a series of short briefings published by one RDS member based in North London, mayoral and GLA candidates were approached to discuss the viability of the Outer Circle concept.
The principle was widely supported and was adopted into the first Mayors Transport Plan, meanwhile, a pilot scheme was launched in 2003 to bring several National Rail local services, mainly in South London and operated by multiple companies, under the ON – Overground Network brand. TfL introduced consistent information displays, station signage and maps on the routes in South London. The pilot scheme was dropped, in January 2004 the Department for Transport announced a review of the rail industry in Great Britain. As part of review, proposals were put forward by TfL for a London Regional Rail Authority to give TfL regulatory powers over rail services in. A result of consultation was agreement by the Secretary of State for Transport, Alistair Darling