Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a sub-provincial city, comprising 7 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities. According to the 2010 census of China, Changchun had a total population of 7,674,439 under its jurisdiction; the city's urbanized area, comprising 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010 as the Shuangyang and Jiutai districts are not urbanized yet. It is the biggest city in Northeast China, as well as the 9th biggest city in China; the name of the city means "long spring" in Chinese. Between 1932 and 1945, Changchun was renamed Hsinking by the Japanese as it became the capital of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, occupying modern Northeast China. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changchun was established as the provincial capital of Jilin in 1954. Known locally as China's "City of Automobiles", Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector.
Because of its key role in the domestic automobile industry, Changchun was sometimes referred to as the "Detroit of China." Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun is one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P. R. China in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate. Changchun was established on imperial decree as a small trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor in the Qing dynasty. Trading activities involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, the Jiaqing Emperor selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting". At the end of 18th century peasants from overpopulated provinces such as Shandong and Hebei began to settle in the region. In 1889, the village was promoted into a city known as "Changchun Fu". In May 1898, Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin to Lüshun, constructed by the Russian Empire.
After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, the Kuancheng station became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station just a short distance to the south—the new "Japanese" Changchun station—became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge. A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" would continue from Changchun Station to Kuancheng Station. An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911, it was the worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague, spread through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli. This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria and Mongolia which claimed 60,000 victims.
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 and saw the transfer and assignment to Japan in 1906 the railway between Changchun and Port Arthur, all the branches. Having realized the strategic importance of Changchun's location with respect to Japan and Russia, the Japanese Government sent a group of planners and engineers to Changchun to determine the best site for a new railway station. Without the consent of the Chinese Government, Japan purchased and seized land from local farmers on which the Changchun Railway Station was to be constructed as the centre of the South Manchuria Railway Affiliated Areas. In order to turn Changchun into the centre for extracting the agricultural and mineral resources of Manchuria, Japan developed a blueprint for Changchun and invested in the construction of the city; as the prelude and preparation of invasion and long-lasting occupation of China, Japan initiated at the beginning of 1907 the planning programme of the SMRAA which embodied distinctive colonial characteristics.
The guiding ideology of the overall design was to build a high standard colonial city with sophisticated facilities, multiple functions and large scale. The comprehensive plan was to meet the needs of: Comfort demand of Japanese employees at Manchurian Railways Assurances of Changchun to be a base for Japanese control of the whole Manchuria Effective counterweight of Russia in this part of China. Accordingly, nearly 7 million Yen on average was allocated on a year-to-year basis for urban planning and construction during the period of 1907–31. Railway nexus status was underlined in the planning and construction, the main design concepts of which read as follows: under conventional grid pattern terms, two geoplagiotropic boulevards were newly carved eastward and westward from the grand square of the new railway station; the two helped forming two intersections with the gridded prototypes, which led to two circles of South and West. The two sub-civic centres served as axis on which eight radial roads were blazed that took the shape of a sectoral structure.
These kind of radial circles and the design concept of urban roads were at that time quite advanced and scientific. It activated to great extend the serious urban landscapes as well as a identification of the traditional gridded pattern. With the new Chang
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Wang Liqin is a retired Chinese table tennis player. As of January, 2014, he is ranked 12th in the International Table Tennis Federation, he began playing at the age of 6 and was picked for the Chinese men's national squad in 1993 when he was only 15 years old. He holds three majors, he has been ranked #1 by ITTF for 25 consecutive months, from September 2000 to September 2002, the second longest period for being consecutive #1 of the world as of January 2011. At the end of 2013, Wang Liqin retired from the national team. Wang is the type, he has used more than 10 different model of rackets, some of them for a longer period of time, e.g. The Butterfly Timo Boll Spirit, Stiga Clipper CR, Offensive CR, Rosewood V, DHS Hurricane King II, III, some Nittaku's models, his main forehand rubber is DHS Hurricane II, III, TG III. It is said that he had used Nittaku Hammond, the Tenergy series, many other rubbers for his backhand. Wang Liqin uses the shakehand grip, he plays. His above average height allows him additional leverage for acceleration and momentum, creating more powerful shots.
Many describe him as possessing one of the most unusual and powerful forehand shots. Wang won the gold medal in doubles at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney and the bronze medal in singles at the 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens, Greece, as well as at the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing, China. At the 2008 Summer Olympics Wang won gold medal in team competition with Wang Hao. For most of 2004–6, he ranked as the world's best table tennis player. Wang Liqin won his first World Championship in Osaka, Japan in 2001. In 2003, Wang made it to the quarter-finals of the World Table Tennis Championships, he has since won two more World Championships – 48th WTTC 2005 in Shanghai, China and 49th WTTC 2007 in Zagreb, Croatia. Wang Liqin is ranked #12 in the world for Men's Singles, based on the ITTF World Ranking page as of January 2014. Pro Tour winner: Lebabon Open, Swedish Open, USA Open, China Open, Japan Open, Denmark Open, China Open, England Open, Sweden Open, China Open. Germany Open, Swedish Open, China Open, Korean Open, Singapore Open, Qatar Open, China Open, China Open, Qatar Open, Japan Open, Qatar Open Runner-up: Qatar Open, Japan Open, France Open, China Open, China Open, China Open, China Open, China Open, China Open Men's Doubles Pro Tour winner: France Open, Yugoslavian Open, Japan Open, Qatar Open, China Open, China Open.
Sweden Open, China Open, Denmark Open, Qatar Open, Japan Open, China Open, Qatar Open, China Open, China Open, Hungarian Open, Japan Open, German Open, Korea Open, England Open, Sweden Open, Qatar Open, China Open Runner-up Sweden Open, Japan Open, Austrian Open, Brazil Open, Malaysia Open, China Open, Australia Open, USA Open, Denmark Open, Brazil Open, China Open, Japan Open, Japan Open, Singapore Open, China Open, Qatar Open, China Open, Kuwait Open, Qatar Open, UAE Open He is included in ITTF hall of fame. He is serving as a coach of his Shanghai team at Chinese super league. Table tennis List of table tennis players List of World Table Tennis Champions Sports in China Career profile of Wang Liqin Table Tennis Master Biography at CCTV.com
Ma Long (table tennis)
Ma Long is a Chinese table tennis player. The current Olympic and World Champion, he is ranked number 11 in the world by the International Table Tennis Federation, he has held the ranking of number 1 for a total of 64 months, the most by any male player in the history of table tennis. Ma was born in Anshan, China, he won a record total of 5 straight ITTF World Tour tournaments in a row, including a streak of 35 sets. He is the current captain of the Chinese National Table Tennis Team. After a clean sweep victory in the Men's Singles at the 2016 Rio Olympics, Ma Long became the fifth player to complete a career Grand Slam, joining Sweden's Jan-Ove Waldner and China's Liu Guoliang, Kong Linghui, Zhang Jike. Additionally, he became the first male player in the world to have won every singles title in table tennis; these records have led many to consider him to be one of the greatest players of all time. Arguably the best two-winged looper in table tennis history, Ma's playing style is that of the modern strategy of close-range third ball play.
At the beginning of his career, his play strategy was forehand-oriented, dominating play with powerful forehand loops, only using his backhand for controlled returns to set up the forehand. He still plays a forehand-oriented style, but his backhand has become more consistent and powerful as his career has progressed. Compared to when he was younger, he is much more confident using his backhand to defend. Ma is the most unpredictable player on the Chinese National Team. Fellow Chinese teammates have remarked that he is a tactical player and is always searching for a solution, his serves appear to be traditional pendulum serves, but are some of the most visually deceptive in the world, with subtle differences in spin and service motion. He is quick on his feet, which makes it difficult to get him out of position and allows him to track down balls and recover from situations that most other players couldn't. Ma is the most prominent employer of the chop block on the Chinese National Team, which he uses to cross up his opponents.
Used when he was out of position or to counter slow loops with heavy side spin, he now uses it as a tactic in games, adding another weapon he can confuse opponents with. After winning both the Asian and World Junior Championships, Ma became the youngest world champion at 17 years old after he participated in the 2006 Bremen World Team Championship. Ma developed his foundations under the tutelage of Wang Hao and former Chinese National Team coach Ma Kai Xuan before studying under Qin Zhi Jian. Before turning 22, he had great success in singles, reaching the finals of 11 ITTF World Tour tournaments, he won the Asian Cup and World Tour Grand Finals twice, made it to the final round of the Asian Championships two times. In addition, he played in the finals of the China National Games and All China Championships, losing both matches to Wang. Despite being the #1 player in the world for much of 2010–2012 stretch he was not chosen to represent China at the 2012 Olympics due to his temporary dip in ratings that happened after a 560-day win streak on the ITTF World Tour.
In the first place, he suffered career setback by Japan's Koki Niwa in six games at the Asian Olympic Qualification Tournament and subsequently lost to Lee Sang-su at the 2012 Korea Open, 4–1. Players were selected based on the ITTF World Rankings; as a result, he was not given an opportunity to win an Olympic medal in singles at the time when he was accepted as the best table tennis player in the world. Chinese National Team coach Liu Guoliang remarked that Ma had all the tools necessary to be the best, yet at major tournaments, he had so far lacked sufficient mental toughness to play to his full ability when under pressure; this was evident in his losses to Timo Boll and Vladimir Samsonov in the 2008 and 2009 World Cup semifinals as well as his defeats to Wang Hao in the semifinals of three consecutive World Championships. Although he performed well on the ITTF World Tour and in domestic competitions, Ma never made it to the final of the World Championships in his first four attempts; this led to many believing he was inferior to compatriot Zhang Jike, who completed his Grand Slam in just over a year.
After his third defeat to Wang Hao at the WTTC in 2013, Ma had a successful year. He won the China Open at two different locations, the Asian Championships, the China National Games in a full-stretch match against Fan Zhendong. However, Xu defeated him 4–3 at the end of the year at the ITTF World Tour Grand Finals. In March 2014, he won the Asian Cup for the fourth time. At the 2014 WTTC, he didn't lose a single set. In the final against Germany, he played a pivotal role, beating Timo Boll in the opening match and defeating Dimitrij Ovtcharov for the win. For his efforts, he was awarded the Victor Barna Award as the tournament's best player, he won the China Open for the fifth time, which tied him with Wang Liqin for the most ever. Ma's first encounter with Zhang Jike at a Grand Slam competition came in October 2014, at the World Cup in Düsseldorf. Although he was leading 3–2 in sets, Ma lost the match, saving two match points in the deciding game but still losing 10–12; this led to further criticism of his inability to come through on the biggest stages at the toughest moments.
In November, he reached the final of the Chinese Nati
2013 World Table Tennis Championships
The 2013 World Table Tennis Championships were held at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy in Paris, France from May 13 to May 20, 2013. The Championships were the 52nd edition of the World Table Tennis Championships; these were the first Championships since 2003 in which China did not win all five competitions and the first since 1993 in which they won fewer than four gold medals. China's ten-Championships long streak of men's doubles titles came to an end as Chuang Chih-yuan and Chen Chien-an of Chinese Taipei beat a Chinese duo for their nation's first-ever gold medal. China's eleven-Championships long streak of mixed doubles titles came to an end as Kim Hyok-Bong and Kim Jong of North Korea beat a South Korean team in the finals. However, China did have the top four finishers in both the men's and women's singles and won 14 of 20 medals overall. Zhang Jike took the men's title, marking his fourth consecutive World or Olympic first-place finish, while Li Xiaoxia won her first World title in the women's singles.
Li teamed up with Guo Yue to win the women's doubles title for China. Doha, one of the only two candidate cities, withdrew its bid after the Qatar Table Tennis Association was made aware that Paris wanted to mark the 10-year anniversary of the 2003 World Table Tennis Championships; as a result, Paris was selected as the host city. The decision was announced by ITTF in May 2010; the tournament was held at the 12,000 seat Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy. Five different events were contested at the Championships. Qualification rounds were held from May 13 to 14. Entering the 2013 World Table Tennis Championship, China had not lost a single event since 2003 when Werner Schlager of Austria won the men's singles. Both men's semi-finals featured a matchup of two ranked Chinese players. In the first, the fourth-seed Zhang Jike dominated the world number-one Xu Xin in a victory of four sets to none. In the other semi-final, the third-seed Wang Hao triumphed four sets to two over the second-ranked Ma Long.
In the men's singles final, Zhang Jike beat his countryman Wang Hao 4–2 to claim his fourth straight major title. Zhang won the first set 11–7 and the second 11–8. Wang bounced back to take the third set 11–6, he continued his surge in the fourth set, taking an early lead and going up 10-7. However, Zhang maintained his composure, saving 4 setpoints, took the hard fought set 14–12. Wang took the fifth set 11–5 to stay alive in the best of seven match, before Zhang finished the match with an 11–7 fifth set, winning six points in a row at the end; the victorious Zhang threw his shirt into the crowd and run into the stands to celebrate with his parents who had never attended a world competition event before. "My parents had always wanted to watch me play during major world competitions. This time I asked them to come here", he explained. Zhang had won the 2011 World Cup and 2012 Olympic Games, both over Wang, as well as the 2011 World Championships, he has never lost to Wang in international competition.
After the match, Wang announced it was his last World Championships, as he plans to retire in the near future. In men's doubles, Chuang Chih-yuan and Chen Chien-an captured Chinese Taipei's first gold medal; the duo topped Hao Shuai of China four sets to two. Ma and Hao won the first set 11 -- 9, before dropping three in a row to Chen. After Ma and Hao won the fifth set 11–9, Chuang and Chen finished off the match with an 11–8 sixth set; the secretary general of the Chinese Taipei Table Tennis Association called the victory "an important milestone in our table tennis history," and the Taipei government awarded Chaung and Chen NT$900,000 each for their accomplishment. Taiwanese president Ma Ying-jeou remarked "It’s a hard-won achievement that highlights the Taiwan spirit of perseverance and fortitude." Chinese Taipei had been competing in world championships since 1985. The country's previous best finish was second place in women's single by Chen Jing twenty years prior. China had won the men's doubles in the last ten World Championships.
In women's singles, Li Xiaoxia of China claimed her first World Championships with a four set to two victory over compatriot Liu Shiwen. Li won the first set 11–8, but Liu bounced back with an easy 11–4 second set victory. Li captured the third set 11–7 and fourth 12–10. Liu stayed alive with an 11–6 fifth set and fended off two match point in the sixth before falling 13–11. Li had finished second at the World Championships in 2011 and 2007, her victory allowed her to complete a career glad slam. For Liu, it was her first World Championship Final appearance. Ding Ning and rising star Zhu Yuling, both from China, took the bronze medals; the day after Li won the single's title, she joined with Guo Yue to add the women's double gold to her medal haul. Ding Ning and Liu Shiwen from China, took the first set 11–5, but it was all Li and Guo from there. Li and Guo, who are close friends, won the second set 11–5, the next three sets 11–7, 11–5, 11–7, for a four set to one victory. Singapore's Feng Tianwei and Yu Mengyu took one of bronzes, with the other going to Chen Meng and Zhu Yuling if China.
Entering the World Championships, China had won eleven straight mixed doubles titles. However, no Chinese team made the finals in 2013. Instead, Kim Hyok-Bong and Kim Jong of North Korea beat Lee Sang-Su and Park Young-Sook of South Korea 4–2; the North Korean team won the first three sets, before dropping two straight. They won the match in the sixth set, it was the first-ever mixed doubles title for the nation and th
2001 National Games of China
The 9th National Games of China was a multi-sport event, held in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China from 11–25 November 2001. The main stadium for the games was the Guangdong Olympic Stadium. A total of 345 events were contested in 30 sports – 27 were summer sports and the remaining three were skating winter sports; the games featured 8608 athletes from 45 delegations, including the various Chinese provinces and regions as well as occupational divisions. The President of China Jiang Zemin opened the games at the opening ceremony; the ninth national games were hosted soon after Beijing had been successful in its host bid for the 2008 Summer Olympics. As a result, many prominent international guests were invited to the games in Guangzhou, including IOC president Jacques Rogge; the international dimension of the games was increased in comparison to previous years as many of the delegations had appointed foreign-born coaches and foreign referees were invited to the event to improve impartiality judge-based sports.
High performances levels were achieved in a number of sports: seven women's weightlifting world records were broken, six Asian records were beaten in swimming and athletics, a total of 37 Chinese national records were set during the 15-day competition. There were a total of 30 sports at the 9th National Games. Medal table广东代表团成为新霸主--第九届全国运动会最终奖牌榜. Sohu Sports. Retrieved on 2013-03-27. Results第9届全国运动会各项比赛前三名. Jx918. Retrieved on 2013-03-27. Official website 9th National Games results Moments at the Games from People Daily Academic study of impact of Games on physical culture in China
2010 World Team Table Tennis Championships
The 2010 Liebherr World Team Table Tennis Championships was held at the Olympic Indoor Arena in Moscow, Russia from May 23 to May 30, 2010. This decision was announced in May 2007, it was the 50th edition to be contested. ITTF website Movies from competition