The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion. All parts rotate in one direction, as opposed to the common reciprocating piston engine, which has pistons and changing direction 180 degrees. In contrast to the reciprocating piston designs, the Wankel engine delivers advantages of simplicity, compactness, high revolutions per minute, a high power-to-weight ratio; the core of the Wankel engine is the rotor. It is similar in shape to a Reuleaux triangle with the sides somewhat flatter. Wankel engines deliver three power pulses per revolution of the rotor using the Otto cycle; however the output shaft, because of its toothed gearing to the rotor, turns three times faster giving one power pulse per revolution at its output. The result is; this can be seen in the animation below. The rotor in one revolution will be giving power pulses and exhausting while the four stages of the Otto cycle occur at separate times. For comparison, in a two-stroke piston engine there is one power pulse per crankshaft revolution, the same as a Wankel engine's output shaft, with one in two revolutions in a four-stroke piston engine.
The four-stage Otto cycle of intake, compression and exhaust occurs each revolution of the rotor at each of the three rotor faces moving inside the oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing, enabling the three power pulses per rotor revolution. Displacement measurement measures only one face of the rotor, since only one face is working for each output shaft revolution; the engine is referred to as a rotary engine, although this name is applied to other different designs, including both pistoned and pistonless rotary engines. The design was conceived by German engineer Felix Wankel. Wankel received his first patent for the engine in 1929, he began development in the early 1950s at NSU, completing a working prototype in 1957. NSU subsequently licensed the design to companies around the world, who have continually made improvements; the Wankel engine has the advantages of compact design and low weight over the most used internal combustion engine employing reciprocating pistons. These advantages have given rotary engine applications in a variety of vehicles and devices, including: automobiles, racing cars, aircraft, go-karts, jet skis, snowmobiles and auxiliary power units.
The power-to-weight ratio has reached over one horsepower per pound in certain engines. The engines produced are of spark ignition, with compression ignition engines having been built only in research projects. In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of an Otto cycle occur in the space between each face of a three-sided symmetric rotor and the inside of a housing; the oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing surrounds a triangular rotor with bow-shaped faces similar in appearance to a Reuleaux triangle. The theoretical shape of the rotor between the fixed apexes is the result of a minimization of the volume of the geometric combustion chamber and a maximization of the compression ratio, respectively; the symmetric curve connecting two arbitrary apexes of the rotor is maximized in the direction of the inner housing shape with the constraint that it not touch the housing at any angle of rotation. The central drive shaft, called the "eccentric shaft" or "E-shaft", passes through the center of the rotor being supported by fixed bearings.
The rotors ride on eccentrics integral to the eccentric shaft. The rotors both rotate around the eccentrics and make orbital revolutions around the eccentric shaft. Seals at the apexes of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing, dividing it into three moving combustion chambers; the rotation of each rotor on its own axis is caused and controlled by a pair of synchronizing gears A fixed gear mounted on one side of the rotor housing engages a ring gear attached to the rotor and ensures the rotor moves 1/3 turn for each turn of the eccentric shaft. The power output of the engine is not transmitted through the synchronizing gears; the rotor moves in its rotating motion guided by the gears and the eccentric shaft, not being guided by the external chamber. The force of expanded gas pressure on the rotor exerts pressure to the centre of the eccentric part of the output shaft; the easiest way to visualize the action of the engine in the animation is to look not at the rotor itself, but the cavity created between it and the housing.
The Wankel engine is a variable-volume progressing-cavity system. Thus, there are three cavities per housing. Points A and B on the rotor and E-shaft turn at different speeds—point B circles three times as as point A does, so that one full orbit of the rotor equates to three turns of the E-shaft; as the rotor rotates orbitally revolving, each side of the rotor is brought closer to and away from the wall of the housing and expanding the combustion chamber like the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating piston engine. The power vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the offset lobe. While a four-stroke piston engine completes one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two rotations of the crankshaft, each combustion chamber in the Wankel generates one combustion stroke per driveshaft rotation, i.e. one power stroke per rotor orbital revolution and three power strokes per rotor rotation. Thus, the power output o
The University of the Mediterranean Aix-Marseille II was a French university in the Academy of Aix and Marseille. It was part of the University of Aix-Marseille based across the communes of Aix-en-Provence and Marseille in southern France, it had 24,000 students. On 1 January 2012 it merged with the University of Provence and Paul Cézanne University to become Aix-Marseille University, the youngest, but the largest in terms of students and staff in France; the university is strong in sciences with faculties for science, sport sciences and economic science and management. The medical school comprises the faculties of Medicine and Dentistry. In addition, there are a number of institutes: Institut de Mécanique de Marseille École de Journalisme et de Communication Institut Universitaire de Technologie Institut Régional du Travail Centre d'océanologie de Marseille Ecole Universitaire de Maïeutique Marseille Méditerranée The Université d'Aix-en-Provence was created in 1409 by Louis II de Provence. In 1791, like every university in France, it was dissolved and the faculties were dispersed between the two cities of Aix-en-Provence and Marseille and became autonomous.
On 21 April 1881 by decree of the conseil municipal the medical school was opened at the palais du Pharo by the Vieux Port, Marseille. In 1969, two universities were established between Marseille. In 1973, the third was created. In 1994, the Université d'Aix-Marseille II took the name of Université de la Méditerranée. Xavier Laurent University of Aix-Marseille List of public universities in France by academy Official site
"I Don't Wanna Dance" is a song by Italian DJ Alex Gaudino, taken from his second studio album Doctor Love. The song was released from 3 September 2012 by Ultra Records; the song was written by Taio Cruz, Alfonso Fortunato Gaudino, Giuseppe D'Albenzio and Jamie Luis Gomez. The song features vocals from American singer and rapper Taboo; the song features samples from "Can You Feel It" by The Jackson 5. A music video to accompany the release of "I Don't Wanna Dance" was first released onto YouTube on 16 August 2012 at a total length of three minutes and nine seconds
Armenia Marriott Hotel Yerevan, is a 5-star luxury hotel at the central Kentron District of Yerevan, Armenia. It was opened in 1958 as a state-owned enterprise during the Soviet period. After the collapse of the USSR, the hotel was privatized following a major renovation; the hotel is located on 1 Amiryan Street, overlooking the Republic Square. The National Gallery and the government building are located in front of the hotel; as of 2016, with 259 guestrooms, Armenia Marriott is the 2nd-largest hotel in Armenia. The construction of the hotel was launched in 1950 and completed in 1958; the hotel was named Armenia. It was operated by the state-governed Intourist agency. At the time of its opening, Armenia was the largest hotel of the Armenian SSR; the hotel was designed by architects Mark Grigorian and Eduard Sarapyan, based on the original plan of Yerevan composed by Alexander Tamanian. The project was directed by Kostantin Altunyan; the foundation of the hotel are from basalt stone, while the hotel itself is built of pink Armenian tufa.
Following the economical crisis of Armenia during the 1990s, the hotel was acquired by the "AK Development" company in 1998. After large-scale renovation works and an investment of US$40 million, the hotel was redeveloped to meet the highest international standards, it was reopened in 1999 as the Armenia Marriott Hotel Yerevan, operated by the Marriott Hotels & Resorts category of Marriott International. The hotel consists of 3 separate buildings, located adjacent to each other; the hotel has many restaurants, including the "Crystal" bar and lounge, the "Armenia Brasserie" restaurant, the "Cucina" Italian restaurant, the "Scoop!" ice-cream parlour and the "Meeting Point" outdoor café. The hotel is home to 10 conference halls, a fitness and health centre, as well as an outdoor swimming pool; the hotel can be reached via the nearby Republic Square underground station. Armenia Marriott at marriott.com
Charles "Charl" Pietersen is a former South African darts player who competes in Professional Darts Corporation events. He qualified for the 2013 PDC World Darts Championship after winning the 2013 South African Masters, thrashing Charles Losper 8–1 in the final with a 96.9 average. In the World Championship he was beaten 1–4 in the preliminary round by Germany's Max Hopp. Pietersen entered Q School in an attempt to win a PDC Tour Card to play the full circuit in 2013 and 2014, he secured his Tour Card on the first day, beating Kevin McDine 6–5 in his final round match and hitting a nine-dart finish in the process. Pietersen represented South Africa in his first World Cup of Darts in February 2013 alongside Shawn Hogan and finished second in Group B to reach the last 16, where they faced the top seeds England, whose team consisted of the top two players in the world, Phil Taylor and Adrian Lewis; the South African duo took the match to a deciding leg, with Pietersen missing two darts for the match, before England hit double top to win 5–4.
Pietersen failed to qualify for the 2013 UK Open as he finished 115th on the Order of Merit, outside of the top 96 who claimed their places. He lost in the semi-finals of the South African qualifier for the 2014 World Championship 8–5 to Devon Petersen and a year Petersen was again the victor at the same stage, this time 8–2. Pietersen's tour status expired at the end of 2014 and he hasn't played in an event since losing to Petersen. 2013: Preliminary round Player profile on Charl Pietersen from Dartsdatabase
The Rearwin Ken-Royce was a two-seat sport/touring biplane built by Rearwin Airplanes first in Salina, Kansas Kansas City. It was the first airplane built by the company. Rae Rearwin had toured Wichita aircraft manufacturers in the summer of 1927 and resolved to start an aircraft manufacturing business. After failing to hire Herb Rawdon away from Travel Air Corporation, he hired a young engineer Rawdon had suggested. Work on the company's first airplane began in an old garage in Kansas; the airplane, the Ken-Royce, was complete in January 1929. The name was both homage to Rae Rearwin's two sons, a play on the name Rolls-Royce, implying a quality product; the aircraft was finished before a factory or financial backing had been set up. After both were found, further Ken-Royces were built in Kansas City; the Ken-Royce was a two-seat sport/touring biplane with passenger seated in tandem. Dual controls were optional, as was the choice of tail tailwheel for the landing gear. Early Ken-Royce's were built with 180 hp Curtiss Challenger engines, while Continental Motors' first engine, the 170 hp A-70 was substituted after 1930.
Production continued until 1937. The prototype Ken-Royce participated in The All-Kansas Air Tour in 1929, an event with both scored events and timed races; the Tour Chairman characterized the Ken-Royce's performance as "unsurpassed." The plane was entered in further races in Memphis and Tulsa. Ruth Nichols used the prototype in the Women's Air Derby in 1929, she was forced down outside Wichita because she was unfamiliar with the plane and had emptied the wing fuel tank: but did not realize there was a fuselage tank as well. She was again forced down west of Phoenix, she had to hike for several miles before encountering a car which carried her to a railroad station. She rode to Los Angeles where she recruited a crew to fly another Curtiss Challenger engine out to the desert on a Ford Trimotor to replace the ruined engine; the repair was completed and Nichols flew the Ken-Royce to the starting line 30 minutes before the race started. Nichols and the Ken-Royce advanced to second-place by the time the race reached Columbus.
However, on a test flight after adjusting the propeller pitch, the Ken-Royce crashed. It was shipped back to Rearwin by rail. Various Ken-Royces were further entered in the National Air Races in 1929 and 1930, the Miami Air Races, the Detroit Air Show, the Pikes Peak Air Meet. One Ken-Royce participated in the Ford National Reliability Air Tour, but took 11th of 18; the third Ken-Royce biplane was sold to the Dallas School of Aviation, delivered by an aviatrix working for the American Eagle company named Jean LaRene. A flight instructor and rated transport pilot, she flew the Ken-Royce in the 1931 and 1932 Women's Air Derby. In 1940, she purchased the plane back from a private owner. Today it is the only Ken-Royce to survive. Data from RearwinAirplanes.com Rearwin 2000/Rearwin 2000-C The initial version of the Ken-Royce, introduced in 1929. Used the 180hp Curtis Challenger engine. One prototype and 3 production built. Rearwin 2000-CO Version of the Ken-Royce using the 170hp Continental A70 engine.
One prototype and 2 production built. HondurasHonduran Air Force - Ordered one Ken-Royce in 1937. 1 Ken-Royce 2000-C is known to survive. It is owned by the Pioneer Flight Museum, Texas, is under restoration. 1 replica, 4/5th scale, was built by Cleo Robinson in Phillipsburg, Kansas and is registered N400KR. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 2 Length: 25 ft Wingspan: 35 ft Height: 9 ft 11 in Wing area: 300 sq ft Airfoil: Rhode-St. Genese Empty weight: 1,415 lb Gross weight: 2,300 lb Fuel capacity: 50 Powerplant: 1 × Curtiss Challenger 6-Cylinder Radial Engine, 180 hp 180hpPerformance Maximum speed: 130–135 mph Cruise speed: 107 mph Minimum control speed: 45 mph Range: 550 mi Service ceiling: 24,000 ft Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min