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A waqf known as hubous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets. The donated assets may be held by a charitable trust; the person making such dedication is known as a donor. In Ottoman Turkish law, under the British Mandate of Palestine, the waqf was defined as usufruct State land of which the State revenues are assured to pious foundations. Although based on several hadiths and presenting elements similar to practices from pre-Islamic cultures, it seems that the specific full-fledged Islamic legal form of endowment called waqf dates from the 9th century AD. In Sunni jurisprudence, waqf spelled wakf is synonymous with ḥabs. Habs and similar terms are used by Maliki jurists. In Twelver Shiism, ḥabs is a particular type of waqf, in which the founder reserves the right to dispose of the waqf property; the person making the grant is called al-waqif.

In older English-language law-related works in the late 19th/early 20th centuries, the word used for waqf was vakouf. The term waqf means "confinement and prohibition" or causing a thing to stop or stand still. Bahaeddin Yediyıldız defines the waqf as a system which comprises three elements: hayrat and waqf. Hayrat, the plural form of hayr, means “goodnesses” and refers to the motivational factor behind vakıf organization. There is no direct injunction of the Qur'an regarding Waqf, derived from a number of hadiths. One says, "Ibn Umar reported, Umar Ibn Al-Khattab got land in Khaybar, so he came to the prophet Muhammad and asked him to advise him about it; the Prophet said,'If you like, make the property inalienable and give the profit from it to charity.'" It goes on to say that Umar gave it away as alms, that the land itself would not be sold, inherited or donated. He gave it away for the relatives, the slaves, the jihad, the travelers and the guests, and it will not be held against him who administers it if he consumes some of its yield in an appropriate manner or feeds a friend who does not enrich himself by means of it.

In another hadith, Muhammad said, "When a man dies, only three deeds will survive him: continuing alms, profitable knowledge and a child praying for him." Islamic law puts several legal conditions on the process of establishing a waqf. A waqf is a contract, therefore the founder must be of the capacity to enter into a contract. For this the founder must: be an adult be sound of mind capable of handling financial affairs not under interdiction for bankruptcyAlthough waqf is an Islamic institution, being a Muslim is not required to establish a waqf, dhimmis may establish a waqf. If a person is fatally ill, the waqf is subject to the same restrictions as a will in Islam. A unknown fact about the demographic of founders of Ottoman waqfs is that many of them were women. Out of 30,000 waqf certificates documented by the GDPFA, over 2,300 of them were registered to institutions that belonged to women, and of the 491 public fountains in Istanbul that were constructed during the Ottoman period and survived until the 1930s, nearly 30% of them were registered under waqfs that belonged to women.

The property used to found. The objects should not themselves be haram; these objects should not be in the public domain: public property cannot be used to establish a waqf. The founder cannot have pledged the property to someone else; these conditions are true for contracts in Islam. The property dedicated to waqf is immovable, such as estate. All movable goods can form waqf, according to most Islamic jurists; the Hanafis, however allow most movable goods to be dedicated to a waqf with some restrictions. Some jurists have argued that gold and silver can be designated as waqf; the beneficiaries of the waqf can be public utilities. The founder can specify. Public utilities such as mosques, bridges and drinking fountains can be the beneficiaries of a waqf. Modern legislation divides the waqf as "charitable causes", in which the beneficiaries are the public or the poor) and "family" waqf, in which the founder makes the beneficiaries his relatives. There can be multiple beneficiaries. For example, the founder may stipulate that half the proceeds go to his family, while the other half go to the poor.

Valid beneficiaries must satisfy the following conditions: They must be identifiable. At least some of the beneficiaries must exist at the time of the founding o


Atambua is the regency seat of Belu Regency, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The town stretches as far as 8.5 km from North to South and 5 km from East to West, is located in the north of the western half of Timor Island. The town is located at an altitude of about 350 m above sea level with temperatures ranging between 23-35 degrees Celsius making this area feel quite warm. An influx of citizens fleeing from East Timor in 1999 made Atambua a big town, it is now the second largest city in West Timor behind Kupang the fourth largest city in East Nusa Tenggara behind Kupang and Maumere. Most of its citizens speak Dawan. Atambua is a multi-ethnic town with most of its citizens from Timor, Rote and Flores with some emigrants from East Timor and China, but in spite of diversity, the citizens could still live in harmony. The town's religion is made up of over 90% of Roman Catholic, 5% of Protestant and a few more of Muslim and Buddha; the town is home to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Atambua. The Diocese's population is over 95% Catholic, among the highest percentages of Catholics in all of Indonesia.

Atambua was founded by the Dutch on October 1916, having moved from Atapupu, a port village in Kakuluk Mesak. Atambua was occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army from 1942-1943, they planted lots of trees. After Independence, Indonesia's first president, Sukarno went to Atambua and planted more trees in the place now called Lapangan Umum; the most notable tree planted. In September 1999, more than 250,000 refugees arrived here from East Timor, after their vote for independence and the following violence; as late as 2002, there was an estimated 60,000 refugees left in camps. As like Belu Regency, the television in this city is limited, which are: TVRI Belu TV In this city, there are many radios, which are: *) SCBT means Saluran Citra Budaya Timor **) The radio is turned off The town's transport system relies on minibuses called bemo or mikrolet, "motorcycle taxi" provide an alternative. There are only four routes in the town served by the Mikrolets that connects the inner city of Atambua; the ojeks do not have a fixed route.

Inter-city buses connect Atambua with other towns in West Timor. The city and towns that can be connected are Kupang and Kefamenanu. Atambua is a major gateway to East Timor by land. To go to East Timor, the vehicles used by road to Indonesia-East Timor Immigration checks in Mota'ain near Batugade are with Bus and Car, such as SUVs and MPVs and Motorcycles; the distance between Atambua and Mota'ain is 36 km. There is an airport in about 5 kilometers from the town centre; the airport's runway can therefore be used by a quite big aircraft. Daily flights to the airport is used by Wings Air plane and Trans Nusa plane. All these flights are on the Atambua - Kupang route. Atambua has two sea ports, Atapupu for cargo and oil, Teluk Gurita for passengers. Ferry routes are Atambua-Kalabahi, once a week

WearEver Cookware

WearEver Cookware can trace its origins back to 1888 when Charles Martin Hall, a young inventor from Oberlin, Ohio discovered an inexpensive way to smelt aluminum by perfecting the electrochemical reduction process that extracted aluminum from bauxite ore. Seeking to fund his continued exploration of this new process Hall partnered with Alfred E. Hunt, a metallurgist in charge of the Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory, raising $20,000 with the help of investors and forming the Pittsburgh Reduction Company which would come to be known as the Aluminum Company of America; these new processes introduced two new challenges to ALCOA. WearEver cookware was the method. WearEver Cookware helped aluminum consumption by introducing one of the first accepted and available aluminum based consumer products of their time; this cookware was sold door-to-door by college students and would be purchased in large quantities by organizations. In 1912, the United States Marine Corps who would adopt WearEver aluminum utensils as their standard issue utensils.

Groupe SEB acquired Mirro WearEver, a subsidiary of Global Home Products, for $36.5 million in 2006. The acquisition included all inventories, trade receivables and equipment in Nuevo Laredo and trademarks. Williams, Charles E. "Along the Allegheny River: The Southern Watershed" The Marshall Johnson Collection of Trade Literature and Ephemera at Hagley Museum and Library consists of materials collected by Johnson during his time with Wear-Ever/Proctor-Silex, including product catalogs, news clippings, advertisements, with a small amount of manuscript materials. The Marshall Johnson Collection of Cookware and Appliance Design Drawings at Hagley Museum and Library consists of various drawings which detail the conception and design of household consumer goods produced by Wear-Ever Aluminum, Inc. a subsidiary of the Aluminum Company of America

Maastricht Academy of Music

The Maastricht Academy of Music, Dutch: Conservatorium Maastricht, located in the city of Maastricht, is one of nine music academies in the Netherlands. The academy is a faculty of the Zuyd University of Applied Sciences for the Bachelor programme and the "Zuid Nederlandse Hogeschool voor Muziek" for the Master programme, in co-operation with the Fontys Academy of Music of the Fontys University of Applied Sciences; the academy provides advanced vocational training. The music academy collaborates with the two other art faculties of the Zuyd University: the Maastricht Academy of Dramatic Arts and the Maastricht Academy of Fine Arts and with the Faculty of Arts and Culture of Maastricht University; the Maastricht Academy of Music has departments for European classical music, Musical composition, Opera. The academy proposes a two years Master's programme. From 2009, the Maastricht Academy of Music will offer a joint master's degree with the Maastricht University; the number of foreign students is ca. 65% from more than 45 different countries.

After consultation, non-Dutch speaking students can take exams in German, or English. Theses and other work can be written in one of these 3 languages. Many lessons and courses can be offered in English; the academy collaborates and has international exchange programmes with leadings music schools in Europe, such as the Hochschule für Musik Köln,. 1962: Founding of the academy. 1965: New building at Bonnenfantenstraat 15, Maastricht. 2001: The academy becomes a faculty of the Zuyd University. 200?: Creation of the Zuid Nederlandse Hogeschool voor Muziek for the Postgraduate programme in co-operation with the Fontys Conservatorium. 2009: Start of a joint master's degree with the Maastricht University. Since 1990, the Conservatorium organizes an annual festival. Themes were: 2005: Korea 2006: Shostakovich and Lutyens 2007: Schubert | WebernSince 2001, the conservatorium organizes the Music Awards Maastricht, an annual competition, in collaboration with the Rotary International. Boris Belkin: Violin Mya Besselink: Singer Mirel Iancovici: Cello Michael Kugel: Viola Arno Piters: Clarinet Robert HP Platz: Composition Carlo Marchione: Guitar Will Sanders: Horn Avi Schönfeld: Piano Robert Szreder: Violin Marcin Dylla: Guitarist Margriet Ehlen: Composer and conductor Turid Karlsen: soprano Goran Krivokapić: Guitarist André Rieu: Violinist and conductor Will Sanders: Horn player Glenn Corneille: Jazz pianist Carmen Monarcha: Singer David Satian: Composer, Jazz Pianist Carla Maffioletti: Singer Maastricht Academy of Music website European Association of Conservatoires Overview of Professional Music Training System in The Netherlands.

European Association of Conservatoires. Opleidingsprofiel, Netwerk Muziek, oktober 2002, PDF Conservatories in Transition, October 2004; the Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatie Organisatie HBO-raad

Marconi (crater)

Marconi is a lunar impact crater, located on the Moon's far side. It lies to the northwest of the large walled plain Gagarin, to the southwest of the prominent crater Chaplygin. To the west-northwest of Marconi is the larger Dellinger; this is a well-formed crater with only some modest impact erosion. The outer rim is marked only by a few tiny craterlets and some terrace structures can still be seen along the inner walls. There is a pair of small craterlets along the inner wall to the east. Near the midpoint of the level interior floor is a low central rise composed of several small hills; the floor is otherwise marked by a number of tiny craterlets. Known as 295, it was named in 1970 for Guglielmo Marconi. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Marconi. 1332 Marconia, asteroid Digital Lunar Orbiter Photo Number I-115-H2

An account of Nepenthes in New Guinea

"An account of Nepenthes in New Guinea" is a monograph by Matthew Jebb on the tropical pitcher plants of New Guinea. It was published in the March 1991 issue of Science in New Guinea, a journal of the University of Papua New Guinea, it remains the only major monograph devoted to the tropical pitcher plants of the island. The monograph was the result of work carried out by Jebb during an extended stay at the Christensen Research Institute in Papua New Guinea, it was preceded by a brief account of New Guinea Nepenthes published in the 1989 book The Carnivorous Plants. Jebb provided a species key and descriptions of 11 taxa: N. ampullaria, N. insignis, N. klossii, N. maxima, N. mirabilis, N. neoguineensis, N. paniculata, N. papuana, N. treubiana, N. vieillardii, one undescribed species. In addition to its species descriptions, "An account of Nepenthes in New Guinea" includes a survey of the prey assemblage found in 52 pitchers of N. mirabilis. Data is tabulated to compare the prey caught by lower and upper pitchers and to show the relationship between pitcher height and prey type.

Botanist Martin Cheek reviewed the monograph in the December 1992 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter. He praised the line drawings and noted that "with this account an outstanding gap has been filled". Cheek continued: No other regional monograph of Nepenthes is as scientific in approach or as illustrated. Jebb excels in elaborating the predatory pattern of Nepenthes; as far as I am aware, he is the first to link the onset of'upper' pitcher production with the initiation of flowering. Little detracts from this account. Few typo's came to light. Discussing the section on prey assemblage, Cheek wrote that "or the first time the hard facts are provided on predatory patterns in Nepenthes". Cheek concludes by writing: "Anyone interested in any aspect of Nepenthes is urged to get and read this work."