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WarGames is a 1983 American Cold War science fiction film written by Lawrence Lasker and Walter F. Parkes and directed by John Badham; the film stars Matthew Broderick, Dabney Coleman, John Wood, Ally Sheedy. The film follows David Lightman, a young hacker who unwittingly accesses War Operation Plan Response, a United States military supercomputer programmed to predict possible outcomes of nuclear war. Lightman gets WOPR to run a nuclear war simulation; the computer, now tied into the nuclear weapons control system and unable to tell the difference between simulation and reality, attempts to start World War III. The film was a box-office success, costing $12 million and grossing $79 million, after five months, in the United States and Canada; the film was nominated for three Academy Awards. A sequel, WarGames: The Dead Code, was released direct-to-video in 2008. During a surprise drill of a nuclear attack, many United States Air Force Strategic Missile Wing controllers prove unwilling to turn the key required to launch a missile strike.

Such refusals convince John McKittrick and other systems engineers at NORAD that missile launch control centers must be automated, without human intervention. Control is given to a NORAD supercomputer, WOPR, programmed to continuously run war simulations and learn over time. David Lightman, a bright but unmotivated Seattle high school student and hacker, uses his IMSAI 8080 computer to break into the school district's computer system and change his grades, he does the same for classmate Jennifer Mack. While war dialing numbers in Sunnyvale, California, to find a computer game company, he connects with a system that does not identify itself. Asking for games, he finds a list that starts with chess, checkers and poker, as well as titles such as "Theaterwide Biotoxic and Chemical Warfare" and "Global Thermonuclear War", but cannot proceed further. Two hacker friends explain the concept of a backdoor password and suggest tracking down the Falken referenced in "Falken's Maze", the first game listed.

David discovers that Stephen Falken was an early artificial-intelligence researcher, guesses that his dead son's name, Joshua, is the password. David does not know that the Sunnyvale phone number connects to WOPR at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, he starts a game of Global Thermonuclear War, playing as the Soviet Union and starts targeting cities. The computer starts a simulation that convinces the military personnel at NORAD that actual Soviet nuclear missiles are inbound. While they defuse the situation, WOPR nonetheless continues the simulation to trigger the scenario and win the game, as it does not understand the difference between reality and simulation, it continuously feeds false data such as Soviet bomber incursions and submarine deployments to NORAD, pushing them into increasing the DEFCON level and toward a retaliation that will start World War III. David learns the true nature of his actions from a news broadcast, FBI agents arrest him and take him to NORAD, he realizes that WOPR is behind the NORAD alerts, but because he fails to convince McKittrick, he faces espionage charges.

David escapes NORAD by joining a tourist group, with Jennifer's help, travels to the Oregon island where Falken lives. David and Jennifer find that Falken has become despondent and believes that nuclear war is inevitable, that it is as futile as a game of tic-tac-toe between two experienced players; the teenagers convince Falken that he should return to NORAD to stop WOPR. The computer stages a massive Soviet first strike with hundreds of missiles and bombers. Believing the attack to be genuine, NORAD prepares to retaliate. Falken and Jennifer convince military officials to cancel the second strike and ride out the attack. WOPR tries to launch the missiles itself using a brute-force attack to obtain the launch code. Without humans in the control centers as a safeguard, the computer will trigger a mass launch. All attempts to order WOPR to cancel the countdown fail. Disconnecting the computer is discussed and dismissed, as a failsafe will launch all weapons if the computer is disabled. Falken and David direct the computer to play tic-tac-toe against itself.

This results in a long string of draws, forcing the computer to learn the concept of futility and no-win scenarios. WOPR obtains the missile code, but before launching, it cycles through all the nuclear war scenarios it has devised, finding they, all result in stalemates. Having discovered the concept of mutual assured destruction, the computer tells Falken that it has concluded that nuclear war is "a strange game" in which "the only winning move is not to play." WOPR relinquishes control of NORAD and the missiles and offers to play "a nice game of chess." Development on WarGames began in 1979, when writers Walter F. Parkes and Lawrence Lasker developed an idea for a script called The Genius, about "a dying scientist and the only person in the world who understands him – a rebellious kid who's too smart for his own good." Lasker was inspired by a television special presented by Peter Ustinov on several geniuses including Stephen Hawking. Lasker said, "I found the predicament Hawking was in fascinating – that he might one day figure out the unified field theory and not be able to tell anyone, because of his progressive ALS.

So there was this idea. And who would that be? Maybe this kid, a juvenile delinquent whose problem was that nobody realized he was too smart for his environment." The concept of computers and hacking as part of the film was not yet present. The Genius began its transformation into WarGames when Parkes and Lasker met Peter Schwartz from the Stanford Research Institute. "There was a new subcult

Thiocarboxylic acid

Thiocarboxylic acids are organosulfur compounds related to carboxylic acids by replacement of one of the oxygen atoms with a sulfur atom. Two tautomers are possible: a thione form and a thiol form; these are sometimes referred to as "carbothioic O-acid" and "carbothioic S-acid" respectively. Of these the thiol form is most common. A occurring thiocarboxylic acid is 2,6-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, a siderophore. Thiocarboxylic acids are prepared by salt metathesis from the acid chloride, as in the following conversion of benzoyl chloride to thiobenzoic acid using potassium hydrosulfide according to the following idealized equation: C6H5CCl + KSH → C6H5CSH + KCl Thiocarboxylic acids are about 100 times more acidic than the analogous carboxylic acids, thus at neutral pH, the acids are ionized. Salts of their conjugate bases, serve as reagents for installing thiol groups via the displacement of alkyl halides to give the thioester, which in turn are susceptible to hydrolysis. For PhCSH pKa = 2.48. For thioacetic acid the pKa is near 3.4.

Thiocarboxylic acids react with various nitrogen functional groups, such as organic azide and isocyanate compounds, to give amides under mild conditions. This method avoids needing a nucleophilic aniline or other amine to initiate an amide-forming acyl substitution, but requires synthesis and handling of the unstable thiocarboxylic acid. Unlike the Schmidt reaction or other nucleophilic-attack pathways, the reaction with an aryl or alkyl azide begins with a cycloaddition. Dithiocarboxylic acids, with the formula RCS2H, are less common than the monothio derivatives, they are about 3x more acidic than the monothiocarboxylic acids. Thus, for dithiobenzoic acid pKa = 1.92. Such compounds are prepared by the reaction of carbon disulfide with a Grignard reagent: RMgX + CS2 → RCS2MgX RCS2MgX + HCl → RCS2H + MgXClThis reaction is comparable to the formation of carboxylic acids using a Grignard reagent and carbon dioxide. Dithiocarboxylate salts S-alkylate to give dithiocarboxylate esters: RCS2Na + R'Cl → RCS2R' + NaClAryldithiocarboxylic acids, e.g. dithiobenzoic acid, chlorinate to give the thioacyl chlorides.

Thioester Thiocarbamate Thiocarbonic acid

Torrents of Steel

Torrents of Steel is a 1967 Soviet war drama film directed by Efim Dzigan based on the eponymous story by Alexander Serafimovich. The plot is based on a heavy campaign by the Taman Army through the areas occupied by the White Army; the film is set during the beginning of the Russian Civil War. Nikolay Alekseev - Kozhukh, commander of the Taman army Lev Fritschinsky - Artemov, regiment Vladimir Ivashov - Alexei Prikhodko Nikolay Dupak - Volosatov, regiment Nikolay Denisenko - The Barefooted Anatoly Degtyar - Opanasov Yakov Gladkikh - Smirnyuk G. Zaslawiec - Golovan Irina Murzaeva - Gorpina Nina Alisova - Claudia Leonid Gallis - General Anton Denikin Vladimir Sedov - General Viktor Pokrovsky Nikolay Zaseev-Rudenko - adjutant of General Pokrovsky Nikolay Trofimov - soldier Chirik Boris Bityukov - Red Commander Valentin Golubenko - Smolokurov Arkady Shcherbakov Akaki Kvantaliani - dukhan Ksenia Kozmina - Stepanida Valery Skorobogatov - Bratkin Sergey Maximov - soldier Yuri Volkov - Colonel Leon Kukulian Galina Samokhina Maria Saharchuk Mikhail Semenikhin Georgios Sovcis Torrents of Steel on IMDb

Sidney Cotton

Frederick Sidney Cotton OBE was an Australian inventor and aviation and photography pioneer, responsible for developing and promoting an early colour film process, responsible for the development of photographic reconnaissance before and during the Second World War. He numbered among his close friends Ian Fleming and Winston Churchill. Frederick Sidney Cotton was born on 17 June 1894 on a cattle station at Goorganga, near Proserpine, Queensland, he was the third child of Annie Cotton, who were involved in pastoralism. Cotton was educated at The Southport School in Queensland and in 1910, he and his family went to England where he attended Cheltenham College. Cotton worked as a jackeroo, training to work with livestock at stations in New South Wales up until the outbreak of war. Cotton went back to England to join the Royal Naval Air Service in November 1915. After only five hours solo flying, he qualified as a combat pilot, flew Channel patrols. Cotton went on to participate in night bombing sorties over France and Germany with Nos 3 and 5 Wings.

His experience with high level and low-temperature flying led Cotton in 1917 to develop the revolutionary new "Sidcot" suit, a flying suit which solved the problem pilots had in keeping warm in the cockpit. This flying suit was used by the RAF until the 1950s. Cotton continued with No. 8 Squadron RNAS in 1917 where he was promoted to Flight Sub-Lieutenant in June 1917. Soon after, he came into conflict with senior officers, resigned his commission in October 1917. After leaving military service, Cotton married in London a 17-year-old actress, Regmor Agnes Maclean, in October 1917, with whom he had a son. After the war he spent time in Tasmania returned to England where he continued his passion for flying. In 1920, he embarked on an unsuccessful attempt to fly from England to South Africa, made a lucky escape from a crash at the Aerial Derby. Cotton spent three years working in Newfoundland flying various assignments. Following the divorce from his first wife the previous year, in 1926, Cotton married 18-year-old Millicent Joan Henry whom he had met in Canada.

From this time up until the outbreak of the Second World War, Cotton led a colourful and eventful life. Shortly before the Second World War, Cotton was recruited by Fred Winterbotham to take clandestine aerial photographs of the German military buildup. Using his status as a wealthy and prominent private aviator promoting his film business, a series of flights provided valuable information about German naval activity and troop buildups, he equipped the civilian Lockheed 12A business aircraft, G-AFTL, with three F24 cameras concealed behind panels which could be slid aside and operated by pressing a button under the pilot's seat, a Leica behind a similar panel in the wings. Warm cabin air was diverted to prevent condensation on optical surfaces. Cotton took his secretary Patricia Martin along, she too took photographs in flight. Although his flight plans were dictated by the German government, he managed to get away with flying off-track over military installations. Cotton had a persuasive manner, exploited any advantage he could.

In 1939, Cotton took aerial photos during a flight over parts of the Middle North Africa. On the eve of war, he managed to engineer a "joy-ride" over German military airfields on one occasion, accompanied by senior Luftwaffe officer Albert Kesselring. With Kesselring at the controls, Cotton reached under his seat, operated the cameras, captured the airfield on film. Cotton offered to fly Hermann Göring to London for talks a week before outbreak of hostilities, claimed that his was the last civilian aircraft to leave Berlin before the outbreak of hostilities. One biography is titled Sidney Cotton: The Last Plane Out of Berlin commemorating this escapade. Appointed as a Squadron Leader and honorary Wing Commander on 22 September 1939, in the same period, Cotton was recruited to head up the fledgling RAF 1 Photographic Development Unit at Heston Aerodrome; this unit provided important intelligence leading to successful air raids on key enemy installations. With his experience and knowledge gained over Germany and other overflights, Cotton improved the RAF's photo reconnaissance capabilities.

The PDU was equipped with Bristol Blenheims, but Cotton considered these quite unsuitable, being far too slow, he "wheedled" a couple of Supermarine Spitfires. These Spitfires augmented by de Havilland Mosquitos, were adapted to fly higher and faster, with a polished surface, a special blue – "PRU Blue" – camouflage scheme developed by Cotton himself, a series of modifications to the engines to produce more power at high altitudes. In 1940, Cotton personally made another important reconnaissance flight with his Lockheed 12A over Azerbaijan via Iraq as part of Operation Pike. Under his leadership, the 1 PDU acquired the nicknames, "Cotton's Club" or the less flattering "Cotton's Crooks". Cotton revelled in his reputation as unorthodox, had a special badge struck bearing the initials "CC-11" that signified the 11th commandment – "Thou shalt not be found out."Cotton's aerial photographs were far ahead of their time. Together with other members of the 1 PDU, he pion

Health Care for America NOW!

Health Care for America Now is a progressive political coalition of more than 1,000 organizations that joined together in 2008 in a successful effort to promote legislation to reform the United States health care system and extend medical benefits to most of the population, uninsured. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, HCAN was credited with being a "major contributor" to its passage. After enactment of the law, HCAN shifted its activities to defending the law from opposition attacks and advocating for the law before Congress and federal and state regulatory agencies. HCAN is directed by a steering committee that consists of a wide range of tax-exempt public charities, advocacy organizations, labor unions and civil rights groups. HCAN is a 501 issue advocacy organization that runs national and state-based legislative and regulatory campaigns through grassroots action, public education, aggressive media outreach and policy analysis.

It works in cooperation with its 501 partner, Health Care for America Education Fund, a project of the Tides Center, a public charity. The "national organizations" that are members of the umbrella group is composed of the following organizations: 9 to 5, National Association of Working Women Abundant Children and Family Services Adventists Community Services AFL-CIO AIDS in Action Alliance for a Just Society Alliance for Retired Americans American Academy of Family Physicians American Academy of Nursing American Academy of Pediatrics American Family Voices American Federation of State and Municipal Employees American Federation of Teachers American Federation of Television and Radio Artists American Medical Student Association American Nurses Association Americans for Democratic Action Americans United for Change Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum Association for Better Insulation Black Women’s Health Imperative Brave New Films Bus Federation Campaign for America's Future Campaign for Community Change Campus Progress Action CareTALK Center for American Progress Action Fund Center for Rural Affairs Center for Science in the Public Interest Center for Social and Economic Justice Child Advocate Network Children’s Defense Fund Communications Workers of America Committee of Interns and Residents/SEIU Healthcare Commonwealth Institute Communications Workers of America Community Action Partnership Community Service Society Clergy Strategic Alliances, LLC CREDO Mobile Democracy for America Democracia Ahora Direct Care Alliance Eagle Medical Services Human Rights Campaign Leadership Center for the Common Good Leadership Conference on Civil Rights League of United Latin American Citizens National Abortion Federation National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Council of Jewish Women National Council of La Raza National Congress of American Indians National Education Association National Women's Law Center Planned Parenthood Federation of America Progressive Future Rock the Vote Service Employees International Union UAW United Food and Commercial Workers USAction Women's Voices.

Women Vote Working America Funding for HCAN's operations has come from its member organizations, individual contributions and progressive foundations, including the Atlantic Philanthropies. HCAN received $5 million from billionaire George Soros. In its $50 million campaign for passage of the ACA, Health Care for America Now mounted a multi-faceted field program that included television advertising and thousands of actions, events and advocacy meetings with government officials across the country. HCAN assembled a network of state-based advocacy groups to carry the message from the ground up to members of Congress—an effort credited with strengthening progressive organizations. HCAN published numerous research reports and conducted extensive media outreach during the legislative campaign. An outside evaluation praised HCAN's "effective and disciplined strategic planning, decision-making and implementation. HCAN's two largest public demonstrations occurred on June 25, 2009, when thousands of people from around the nation converged on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.

C. for a rally in support of health reform, on March 9, 2010, when more than 5,000 people rallied on the street outside a health insurance industry conference at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Washington, D. C. HCAN led grassroots online activists, conducted news conferences and published reports on health insurance industry profits, executive compensation, concentration of market power, mistreatment of consumers and health care providers. HCAN did not achieve one of its central goals, the creation of a so-called public option, a government-run health plan that would introduce greater competition into local health insurance markets, nearly all of which are dominated by one or two large companies. Republicans joined with conservative Democrats to block the public option and a proposal to allow Americans over 55 years old to pay unsubsidized premiums to the government to purchase Medicare benefits, which now are provided to the elderly and disabled through a single-payer system that picks up the vast majority of patients' costs.

Despite those losses, HCAN supports the Affordable Care Act and declares that the ACA's impact will be extensive in the policy and political arenas. In 2010, as a result of political and legal challenges to the ACA, in 2010 HCAN

Hells Gate Airtram

The Hells Gate Airtram is an aerial tramway that crosses Fraser Canyon above Hells Gate. It starts at a parking lot off the Trans-Canada Highway and descends to its lower terminal on the opposite side of the canyon where there is an observation deck, a restaurant, a gift shop and other tourist attractions, it was built in 1970 by the Swiss manufacturer Habegger Engineering Works and opened on 21 July 1971. Before its construction, the only way to thee observation deck was to hike down the canyon to the pedestrian suspension bridge that bridges the canyon; the aerial tramway contains two cabins that can carry the cabin attendant. Each cabin travels up and down along its own track rope at a maximum speed of 5 m/s over an inclined length of 341 m; the horizontal distance between the terminals is 303 m and their difference in altitude is 157 m. The mean inclination between the terminals is 51%; the track ropes have a diameter of 40mm, the haul rope connecting the two cabins via the drive bull wheel in the upper terminal has a diameter of 19mm and its counter rope 15mm.

The track ropes are anchored in the upper terminal and are tensioned by two concrete blocks of 42 tons each suspended inside the lower terminal where the blocks have a leeway of 7.9m to move up and down. The haul rope and its counter rope are tensioned by a counterweight of 3.5 tons in the lower terminal. The max output of the motor is 140 HP; the total carrying capacity of the aerial tramway is 530 passengers per hour. List of crossings of the Fraser River Grouse Mountain Skyride