War is the third studio album by Irish rock band U2. It was produced by Steve Lillywhite, was released on 28 February 1983 on Island Records; the album is regarded as U2's first overtly political album, in part because of songs like "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "New Year's Day", as well as the title, which stems from the band's perception of the world at the time. While the central themes of U2's previous albums Boy and October were adolescence and spirituality War focused on both the physical aspects of warfare, the emotional after-effects. Musically, it is harsher than the band's previous releases; the album has been described as the record where the band "turned pacifism itself into a crusade."War was a commercial success for the band, knocking Michael Jackson's Thriller from the top of the UK charts to become the band's first number-one album there. It became the band's first gold-certified album there. While poorly received by British critics at the time of release, War has since gained critical acclaim.
In 2012, the album was ranked number 223 on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". The group supported the album with the War Tour through the end of 1983. In August 1982, Bono and Ali honeymooned in Jamaica, it has been noted that it was not a typical honeymoon, as Bono worked on the lyrics for the upcoming album. The lyrics to "New Year's Day" had its origins in a love song Bono wrote for his wife, but the song was reshaped and inspired by the Polish Solidarity movement; the band began recording the album in September 1982 at Windmill Lane Studios in Dublin with producer Steve Lillywhite, their third consecutive record at the studio with the producer. The album's opener, "Sunday Bloody Sunday", an ardent protest song, stems from a guitar riff and lyric written by the Edge in 1982. Following an argument with his girlfriend, a period of doubt in his own song-writing abilities, the Edge – "feeling depressed... channeled fear and frustration and self-loathing into a piece of music."
Early versions of the song opened with the line, "Don't talk to me about the rights of the IRA, UDA". After Bono had reworked the lyrics, the band recorded the song; the opening drum pattern soon developed into the song's hook. A local violinist, Steve Wickham, approached the Edge one morning at a bus stop and asked if U2 had any need for a violin on their next album. In the studio for only half a day, Wickham's electric violin became the final instrumental contribution to the song. During the sessions for "Sunday Bloody Sunday", Lillywhite encouraged drummer Larry Mullen, Jr. to use a click track, but Mullen was against the idea. A chance meeting with Andy Newmark – a drummer who used a click track religiously – changed Mullen's mind. Mullen used. Mullen said of the album in a 1983 interview, "I think the drumming has always been pretty simple, I don't think it needs to be flashy. For War I use a click track, something I haven't used before, it's a way of keeping time in my headphones; when I listened to the music in time with the click track I knew I had to bring it down to the real basics.
For the next LP it will be more complicated, I'll move on. I think of it as a musical progression for myself because I learned a lot recording this album, just about my own style and that's what I wanted to do. I think there is a definite style on War where there isn't on the previous albums."Three of the tracks featured backing vocals by the Coconuts, of Kid Creole and the Coconuts. In the words of Steve Lillywhite, "they just happened to be in Dublin on tour, so we hung out with them and they came in and sang on'Surrender'. So it was sort of random – this serious Irish rock band having the Coconuts on their album."The studio version of "40" was recorded during the final hours of the recording sessions in November 1982. Bassist Adam Clayton had left the studio, the three remaining band members decided they did not have a good song to end the album. Bono, the Edge, Mullen Jr. recorded the song with the Edge playing both the guitar and bass parts. Bono called the song "40" as he based the lyrics on Psalm 40.
In live versions of the song, the Edge and Clayton switch roles, as Clayton plays guitar and Edge plays the bass. The sound of War is arguably harsher than that of the band's other albums. A major reason for this is that the Edge uses far less delay and echo than in previous and subsequent works. War opens with the protest song "Sunday Bloody Sunday"; the song describes the horror felt by an observer of The Troubles in Northern Ireland Bloody Sunday. A departure from the themes of innocence and spirituality displayed on the group's first two albums, "Sunday Bloody Sunday" introduces the album with a startling, military-esque drum beat by Larry Mullen, Jr. a fuming solo by the Edge that segues into staccato bursts reminiscent of machine gun fire, pointed lyrical couplets such as: "And today the millions cry / We eat and drink while tomorrow they die." The album as a whole is more direct than the ambient October. Bono said in 1983, "Sunday Bloody Sunday" is considered to be among the greatest political protest songs, has remained a staple of U2's live concerts for 25 years."Seconds" is a song about nuclear proliferation, the possibility that Armageddon could occur by an accident.
The track contains a sample from the 1982 documentary Soldier Girls. The Edge sings the first two stanzas, making
Protection Racket was an American-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He failed to win in three starts as a two-year-old in 1980 but made relentless progress over extended distances in the following year, taking two minor races before winning the Ebor Handicap, Doncaster Cup and Irish St Leger on his last three starts, he remained in training for two more seasons, racing over shorter distances in France and the United States but never won again. He made no impact as a breeding stallion. Protection Racket was a "strong, rangy" bay horse with no white markings bred in Kentucky by Edward A Seltzer & Alvin Wagner, he raced in Seltzer's colours and was sent to Europe where he was trained by Jeremy Hindley at his Clarehaven Stables in Newmarket. His sire Graustark had a brief but promising racing career before becoming a successful breeding stallion whose progeny included Prove Out, Key To The Mint and Jim French. Protection Racket's dam Protectora was a top-class racemare in Chile before moving to the United States where she won the Nettie Handicap in 1974.
She came from a obscure branch of Thoroughbred family 10 which had produced few major winners in Europe since Petrarch. After finishing unplaced on his debut over seven furlongs Protection Racket started favourite for the Houghton Stakes at Newmarket Racecourse over the same distance and came home fifth of the fourteen runners behind Sunley Builds; that month at the same track he was moved up in distance for a minor race over one mile and finished third behind Video Tape. In their annual Racehorses of 1980 the independent Timeform organisation commented that he was somewhat lacking in pace but looked to stay longer distances; as a three-year-old Protection Racket finished second and third in his first two races and won a maiden race over fourteen furlongs at Newmarket in May. The colt was moved up in class and distance for the Queen's Vase over two miles at Royal Ascot and finished second, two and a half lengths behind the Irish-trained Ore, he won a minor handicap over fourteen furlongs at Yarmouth Racecourse that month, after which a majority share in the colt was sold to Serge Fradkoff.
There was an immediate disagreement between the new owner and the trainer: Hindley believed that the horse's future lay over extreme distances while Fradkoff wanted to race him over shorter trips. After a break of six weeks he returned at York Racecourse in August for the Ebor Handicap in which he was ridden by Mark Birch and carried a weight of 113 pounds against older and more experienced opponents. Starting at odds of 15/2 he overhauled the long-time leader Shaftesbury a furlong out and held off the late challenge of Another Sam to win by one and a half lengths. In September Protection Racket bypassed the St Leger Stakes to avoid a clash with Shergar and instead took on older horses in the Doncaster Cup over two and a quarter miles at the same meeting, his task was made easier by the late withdrawal of Ardross and with John Lowe in the saddle he was made the 8/11 favourite against three opponents including the top class hurdler Heighlin and the Chester Cup winner Donegal Prince. Protection Racket came home a length and a half ahead of Heighlin in a time of 3:52.7 which broke the course record set in 1949 by Alycidon.
On 10 October Brian Taylor took the ride when the colt was sent to the Curragh to contest the Irish St Leger and started 6/4 favourite. Taylor was the stable's preferred jockey but had been unable to ride the horse in his last two races as he had been unable to make the weight. Erins Isle and Ore appeared to be the best of his rivals while other four runners were Bedford, Sailor King and the filly Overplay. Protection Racket overtook the leader Bedford two furlongs out and never looked in any danger of defeat, winning by three lengths from Erin's Isle. In their rankings for 1981 Timeform gave Protecto Racket a rating of 122, nine pounds behind their best stayer Ardross and described him as "a splendidly tough and genuine staying colt and a great credit to his trainer". In 1982 Protection Racket was removed from Hindley's stable and sent to France where he was trained by Olivier Douieb, he was failed to win in four starts. On his French debut in April he finished second to Gap of Dunloe in the Prix d'Hedouville over 2400 metres at Longchamp Racecourse and finished sixth to Bikala in the Prix Ganay in the following month.
He was equipped with blinkers when he returned to England for the Coronation Cup at Epsom Racecourse in June and finished unplaced behind Easter Sun. On his final appearance of the year at Deauville Racecourse in August he finished fourth in the Prix de Reux, he was returned to the United Kingdom at the end of the year but was exported to race in North America. In 1983 Protection Racket was campaigned in the United States where he was trained by Gary Kempler but made little impression in three starts, he finished second in a minor race at Belmont Park in July and was off the track until November when he finished unplaced in the Knickerbocker Handicap at Aqueduct Racetrack and the Citation Handicap at Hollywood Park Racetrack. At the end of his racing career Protection was retired to become a breeding stallion in the United States, he appears to have attracted little interest and sired few foals
Ceinwen Rowlands was a Welsh concert soprano and recording artist. Rowlands was born in the daughter of William and Kate Rowlands. Kate Rowlands was a singer from Cerrigydrudion, Denbighshire. Ceinwen Rowlands took lessons from a Wrexham-based singing teacher, her reputation as a singer was made when she won first prize in two successive North Wales national eisteddfods, at Mold, Flintshire, in 1923 and Pwllheli in 1925. Rowlands continued to appear in eisteddfods throughout her career after re-locating to London, giving the premiere of a Welsh translation of Felix Mendelssohn’s Lobgesang in 1943 at Bangor, she provided one of the off-stage voices for Ninette de Valois's ballet based on Orpheus and Eurydice in 1941. and was a soloist in The Messiah at Cradley Heath in 1945. In 1946 she married Arthur Aaron Walter, who held the position of Official Receiver at the London Bankruptcy Court. Rowlands appeared in concert among others, her many recordings included Welsh works by Welsh composers such as Morfydd Llwyn Owen.
Alexander Iolas or Alexandre Iolas was a Greek gallerist and collector. He owned galleries in the United States and Europe and contributed in many private and public art collections, he was born in Egypt, on March 25, 1907, to Andreas and Persephone Coutsoudis. In 1924, he soon started studying ballet, he fled to Paris during Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s where he continued to study dance and socialized with artists such as Jean Cocteau, Giorgio de Chirico, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Man Ray, René Magritte and Max Ernst. There he bought his first work of art; as a dancer he toured extensively in Europe, the United States and Latin America with Theodora Roosevelt and with the company formed by the Marquis George de Cuevas. In 1944, he got involved with the art world. In New York, he became the director of the Hugo Gallery, founded in 1944 by Robert Rothschild, Elizabeth Arden and Maria dei Principi Ruspoli Hugo. There, Andy Warhol had his first solo exhibition Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote After working at the Hugo Gallery, he founded the Jackson-Iolas Gallery in 1955 with former dancer, Brooks Jackson and opened and operated a chain of art galleries under his own name in New York, Milan, Geneva and Athens.
Alexander Iolas represented many artists in his galleries, among them Andy Warhol, René Magritte, Roberto Matta, Ed Ruscha, Jean Tinguely, Joseph Cornell, Yves Klein, Jannis Kounellis, Victor Brauner, Jules Olitski, Niki de Saint-Phalle. In promoting work that found few to favor it, he was able to reassure potential clients with his irresistible and mischievous charm, dazzle them with his flamboyant personality and sensational mode of dress. Known for his exclusive representation of the major European Surrealists in the United States- Max Ernst and René Magritte - Alexander Iolas helped to form more than one important collection. In particular, John de Menil and Dominique de Menil, founders of the Menil Collection, retained him as one of their three art consultants, along with Father Marie-Alain Couturier and Jermayne MacAgy. In 1972, Iolas took over Carla Lavatelli's studio at 75th Street and 1st Ave. in New York for an exhibition. It was the first exhibition by a dealer at an artist's studio.
In 1976, he closed all his galleries except the one in New York after the death of Max Ernst, in order to keep a promise he had made to the artist. In 1984, Alexander Iolas commissioned Andy Warhol to create a group of works based on Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper for an exhibition space in the Palazzo Stelline in Milan, located across the street from Santa Maria delle Grazie, home of Leonardo's masterpiece. Warhol produced more than 100 variations on the theme. From early 1965, Alexander Iolas started traveling to Greece. Extending his activities there, he contributed to the opening of some galleries in Athens, like the Iolas-Zoumboulakis gallery and the Bernier Gallery, he inspired the founding of the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art in Thessaloniki to which he donated a large number of art works from his collection. He is still listed as the Museum's'great benefactor'. In 1983, he was accused by a former employee of "antiquities smuggling, drug peddling, the prostitution of young men"- but never charged, accusations that were circulated by the Greek tabloid newspaper, Avriani causing a scandal.
In 1984, he was subsequently charged. The charges were cleared only posthumously, he died of AIDS at Cornell Medical Center in New York City on Monday, June 8, 1987. 38°1′2.7″N 23°50′8.7″E From 1951 until 1972, Iolas built a 1300 square meter villa on a 7000 square meter lot in Agia Paraskevi, a suburb of Athens There he stored and exhibited his art collection with the idea that one day it would become the "Alexander Iolas Museum". When he died in 1987, his sister, Niki Stifel, his deceased brother's daughter, Eleni Koutsoudi-Iola became the heirs to his estate, his villa was sold to a real estate developer, but construction plans were held up by the Ministry of Culture that marked it as a site of Greek cultural heritage. Plans to transform his collection into the envisioned museum never were acted upon by the Greek government; as a result the collection was looted and the villa has been vandalized extensively. The present condition of the Villa Iolas has been a recurring issue in the Greek Parliament, the local Municipality and the Greek newspapers, but a subject and study-case for artistic and architectural projects.
Villa Iolas was listed in 1998 as a historic monument by the Greek Ministry of Culture, two years was designated the site for public cultural activities and the re-selling of the estate has been blocked. The Greek State has not expropriated the Villa, however. Regarding the derelict state of the Villa Iolas, questions have been raised by members of the Greek Parliament: Maria Damanaki, Stavros Benos, Fotis Kouvelis and Kyriakos Mitsotakis. Although the Greek State has agreed on the acquisition of the Villa Iolas from its current owner, this has still not occurred, most due to the current dire condition of the Greek budget. Obituary in the New York Times by John Russell - published 12 June 1987 Alexander Iolas and MMCA - Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art, Greece Alexander Iolas - The American College of Greece Art Collection Alexandre Iolas and his Greek tragedy by Gary Comenas Alexander Iolas biograph
The #1 ranked Ohio State Buckeyes defeated the #2 ranked USC Trojans, 27 to 16, before a crowd of 102,063 fans to win college football's Rose Bowl and the recognition by the NCAA as college football's national champion. North Vietnam released three American prisoners of war to a five-member U. S. Army team at a rice paddyfield near South Vietnam's border with Cambodia. A fourth had escaped captivity from the Viet Cong the day before. One of the POWs, Specialist 4 James Brigham of Ocala, died less than three weeks at a Washington hospital after surgery for a brain abscess. Born: Verne Troyer, diminutive American film actor known for portraying Mini-Me in the Austin Powers film series. Murdoch would purchase newspapers in the U. S. in the 1970s, notably the New York Post, enter television in the 1980s with the founding of the Fox Network. The government of France announced that its office of government property would start a campaign for the sale of individual lots on the Maginot Line, built during the 1930s in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent a German invasion.
China Airlines Flight 227 crashed into a mountain peak on the island of Taiwan while en route from Hualin to Kaohsiung, killing all 24 people on board. Born: Dean Francis Alfar, Philippine speculative fiction author Robby Gordon, Tommy Morrison, American heavyweight boxer who held the WBO title for four months in 1993. S. Senate swore in 15 new members and 20 re-elected ones, selected Senator Richard B. Russell of Georgia as the new president pro-tempore. Democrat Senators voted 31-26 to choose Teddy Kennedy of Massachusetts rather than incumbent Russell B. Long of Louisiana as the majority whip, while Republicans approved Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania, 23-20, over Roman L. Hruska of Nebraska; the U. S. House of Representatives re-elected John W. McCormack of Massachusetts as Speaker of the House, voted 251 to 160 to allow controversial Congressman Adam Clayton Powell to take his seat. Born: Michael Schumacher, German Formula One racecar driver and winner of seven of the 11 World Championships between 1994 and 2004.
On June 30, the last Spanish Governor-General, Jose Miguel Vega, would haul down the Spanish flag and the cession would be complete. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, opened for signature at the United Nations General Assembly on December 21, 1965, went into effect after being ratified by at least 27 nations. Two days after beginning a civil rights march from Queen's University in Belfast to the city of Derry in Northern Ireland, People's Democracy began to promote the rights of the Roman Catholic minority in the United Kingdom entity; as officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary stood by without intervening, a crowd of Protestant loyalists attacked the marchers with clubs and rocks, ending the unofficial truce between the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association and the RUC. Ariana Afghan Airlines Flight 701 crashed into a house on its approach to London's Gatwick Airport, killing 50 of the 62 people on board and two of the home's occupants.
The Soviet Union launched Venera 5 toward Venus. A course correction maneuver would be initiated on March 14 and on May 16, 1969, the Venera 5 transmitter would be landed on the surface of Venus, sending back data until the atmospheric pressure and intense heat caused its failure 18 kilometres above the surface. Born: Marilyn Manson, American rock singer known for his band of the same name; the accident came less than two weeks after the fatal crash on Christmas Eve of Allegheny Airlines Flight 736, on its way to Bradford as part of the same route, killing 20 people. Richard Nixon was elected President of the United States as Congress certified the results of the votes cast on December 16 of the electoral college members, elected by American voters on November 5; the final result was certified after both houses of Congress debated removing one of the electoral votes was 301 votes for Nixon, 191 for Democrat candidate Hubert Humphrey, 46 for Wallace. The final passenger t
A gallus was a eunuch priest of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis, whose worship was incorporated into the state religious practices of ancient Rome. The earliest references to the galli come from the Anthologia Palatina, although they do not explicitly mention emasculation. A fragment attributed to Callimachus cites the term gallai as denoting castration. Stephanus Byzantinus said. Ovid says. A connection has been made between the episode of the castration of Attis and the ritual mutilation of the galli. At Pessinus, the centre of the Cybele cult, there were two high priests during the Hellenistic period, one with the title of "Attis" and the other with the name of "Battakes". Both were eunuchs; the high priests had considerable political influence during this period, letters exist from a high priest of Attis to the kings of Pergamon, Eumenes II and Attalus II, inscribed on stone. During the Flavian period, there was a college of ten priests, not castrated, now Roman citizens, but still using the title "Attis".
The first galli arrived in Rome when the Senate adopted Cybele as a state goddess in 204 BC. Roman citizens were prohibited from becoming galli, which meant that either the galli were Asian or they were slaves. Under Claudius, this ban was lifted. In Rome, the head of the galli was known as the archigallus, at least from the period of Claudius on. A number of archaeological finds depict the archigallus wearing extravagant costumes; the archigallus was always a Roman citizen chosen by the quindecimviri sacris faciundis, whose term of service lasted for life. Along with the institution of the archigallus came the Phrygianum sanctuary as well as the rite of the taurobolium as it pertains to the Magna Mater, two aspects of the Magna Mater’s cultus that the archigallus held dominion over. Domitian reaffirmed that Roman citizens were forbidden to practice eviratio; the galli castrated themselves during an ecstatic celebration called the Dies sanguinis, or "Day of Blood", which took place on March 24.
At the same time they put on women's costume yellow in colour, a sort of turban, together with pendants and ear-rings. They wore their hair long, bleached, wore heavy makeup, they wandered around with followers, begging for charity, in return for which they were prepared to tell fortunes. On the day of mourning for Attis they disheveled, they performed dances to the music of pipes and tambourines, and, in an ecstasy, flogged themselves until they bled. Being a Roman citizen, as well as being employed by the Roman State, meant that the archigallus had to preserve the traditions of Cybele's cult while not violating Roman prohibitions in religious behavior. Hence, some argue that the archigallus was never a eunuch, as all citizens of Rome were forbidden from emasculation. However, under Claudius Roman citizens were permitted to be castrated up until the reign of Domitian; the signs of their office have been described as a type of crown a laurel wreath, as well as a golden bracelet known as the occabus.
In the 4th century, some currents of extreme asceticism in Christianity advocated self-castration. This practice was attacked as a return to the religious excesses of the galli by Basil of Ancyra. John Chrysostom in 390 attacked self-castrating Christians of being Manichaean heretics. Augustine phrased his opposition to self-castration as an attack on the galli. By extension, Luther would use the same comparison in his attack on clerical celibacy; because the galli castrated themselves and wore women's clothing and makeup, some modern scholars have interpreted them as transgender. The following are quotations from the English translation of the Greek Anthology by W. R. Paton. To thee, my mother Rhea, nurse of Phrygian lions, whose devotees tread the heights of Dindymus, did womanish Alexis, ceasing from furious clashing of the brass, dedicate these stimulants of his madness— his shrill-toned cymbals, the noise of his deep-voiced flute, to which the crooked horn of a younger steer gave a curved form, his echoing tambourines, his knives reddened with blood, the yellow hair which once tossed on his shoulders.
Be kind, O Queen, give rest in his old age from his former wildness to him who went mad in his youth. Greek Anthology, Book VI, 51 Clytosthenes, his feet that raced in fury now enfeebled by age, dedicates to thee, Rhea of the lion-ear, his tambourines beaten by the hand, his shrill hollow-rimmed cymbals, his double-flute that calls through its horn, on which he once made shrieking music, twisting his neck about, the two-edged knife with which he opened his veins. Greek Anthology, Book VI, 94 The priest of Rhea, when taking shelter from the winter snow-storm he entered the lonely cave, had just wiped the snow off his hair, when following on his steps came a lion, devourer of cattle, into the hollow way, but he with outspread hand beat the great tambour the whole cave rang with the sound. Nor did that woodland beast dare to support the holy boom of Cybele, but rushed straight up the forest-clad hill, in dread of the half-girlish servant of the goddess, who hath dedicated to her these robes and this his yellow hair.
Greek Anthology, Book VI, 217 A begging eunuch priest of Cybele was wandering through the upland forests of Ida, there met him a huge lion, its hungry throat dreadfully gaping as though to devour him. In fear of the death that faced him in its raving jaws, he beat his tambour from the holy grove; the lion shut its murderous mouth, as if itself full of divine frenzy, began to toss and whirl its mane about its neck. But he thus