An Jung-geun, sometimes spelled Ahn Jung-geun was a Korean-independence activist and pan-Asianist. On October 26, 1909, he assassinated Prince Itō Hirobumi, a four-time Prime Minister of Japan, former Resident-General of Korea, President of the Privy Council of Japan, following the signing of the Eulsa Treaty, with Korea on the verge of annexation by Japan. Ahn was posthumously awarded the Order of Merit for National Foundation in 1962 by the South Korean government, the most prestigious civil decoration in the Republic of Korea, for his efforts for Korean independence. Ahn was born on September 2, 1879, in Haeju, Hwanghae-do, the first son of Ahn Tae-Hun and Jo Maria, of the family of the Sunheung Ahn lineage, his childhood name was Ahn Eung-chil. As a boy, he learned Chinese literature and Western sciences, but was more interested in martial arts and marksmanship. Kim Gu, future leader of the Korean independence movement who had taken refuge in Ahn Tae-Hun's house at the time, wrote that young Ahn Jung-Geun was an excellent marksman, liked to read books, had strong charisma.
At the age of 16, Ahn entered the Catholic Church with his father, where he received his baptismal name "Thomas", learned French. While fleeing from the Japanese, Ahn took refuge with a French priest of the Catholic Church in Korea named Wilhelm who baptized and hid him in his church for several months; the priest had a series of discussions with him. He maintained his belief in Catholicism until his death, going to the point of asking his son to become a priest in his last letter to his wife. At the age of 25, he started a coal business, but devoted himself to education of Korean people after the Eulsa Treaty by establishing private schools in northwestern regions of Korea, he participated in the National Debt Repayment Movement. In 1907 he exiled himself to Vladivostok to join in with the armed resistance against the Japanese colonial rulers, he was appointed a lieutenant general of an armed Korean resistance group and led several attacks against Japanese forces before his eventual defeat. In October 1909, Ahn passed the Imperial Japanese guards at the Harbin Railway Station.
Itō Hirobumi had come back from negotiating with the Russian representative on the train. Ahn shot Itō three times with an FN M1900 pistol on the railway platform, he shot Kawagami Toshihiko, the Japanese Consul General, Morita Jirō, a Secretary of Imperial Household Agency, Tanaka Seitarō, an executive of South Manchuria Railway, who were injured. After the shooting, Ahn yelled out for Korean independence in Russian, stating "Корея! Ура!", waving the Korean flag. Afterwards, Ahn was arrested by Russian guards who held him for two days before turning him over to Japanese colonial authorities; when he heard the news that Itō had died, he made the sign of the cross in gratitude. Ahn was quoted as saying, "I have ventured to commit a serious crime, offering my life for my country; this is the behavior of a noble-minded patriot." Despite the orders from the Bishop of Korea not to administer the Sacraments to Ahn, Fr. Wilhelm disobeyed and went to Ahn to give the Last Sacraments. Ahn insisted that the captors call him by Thomas.
In the court, Ahn insisted that he be treated as a prisoner of war, as a lieutenant general of the Korean resistance army, instead of a criminal, listed 15 crimes Itō had committed which convinced him to kill Itō. Ahn mistakenly believed Itō had ordered the assassination of Empress Myeongseong, an order, attributed to Miura Gorō, although Miura Gorō did send a report to Itō Hirobumi after the assassination. "15 reasons why Itō Hirobumi should be killed.1. Assassinating the Korean Empress Myeongseong 2. Dethroning the Emperor Gojong 3. Forcing 14 unequal treaties on Korea. 4. Massacring innocent Koreans 5. Usurping the authority of the Korean government by force 6. Plundering Korean railroads, mines and rivers 7. Forcing the use of Japanese banknotes 8. Disbanding the Korean armed forces 9. Obstructing the education of Koreans 10. Banning Koreans from studying abroad 11. Confiscating and burning Korean textbooks 12. Spreading a rumor around the world that Koreans wanted Japanese protection 13. Deceiving the Japanese Emperor by saying that the relationship between Korea and Japan was peaceful when in truth it was full of hostility and conflicts 14.
Breaking the peace of Asia 15. Assassinating the Emperor Kōmei. I, as a lieutenant general of the Korean resistance army, killed the criminal Itō Hirobumi because he disturbed the peace of the Orient and estranged the relationship between Korea and Japan. I hoped that if Korea and Japan be friendlier and are ruled peacefully, they would be a model all throughout the five continents. I did not kill Itō misunderstanding his intentions." Ahn's Japanese captors showed sympathy to him. He recorded in his autobiography that the public prosecutor, Mizobuchi Takao, exclaimed "From what you have told me, it is clear that you are a righteous man of East Asia. I can't believe. There's nothing to worry about." He was given New Year's delicacies and his calligraphy was admired and requested. After six trials, Ahn was sentenced to death by the Japanese colonial court in Ryojun. Ahn was angered at the sentence, he had hoped to be viewed as a prisoner of war instead of an assassin. On the same day of sentencing at two o'clock in the afternoon, his two brothers Jeong-Geun and Gong-Geun met with him to deliver
Alaska Air National Guard
The Alaska Air National Guard is the air militia of the State of Alaska, United States of America. It is, along with the Alaska Army National Guard, an element of the Alaska National Guard; as state military units, the units in the Alaska Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command unless federalized. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Alaska though the office of the Alaska Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States; the Alaska Air National Guard is headquartered at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson and its commander is Colonel Scott A. Howard. Under the "Total Force" concept, Alaska Air National Guard units are considered to be Air Reserve Components of the United States Air Force. Alaska ANG units are trained and equipped by the Air Force and are operationally gained by a Major Command of the USAF if federalized. In addition, the Alaska Air National Guard forces are assigned to Air Expeditionary Forces and are subject to deployment tasking orders along with their active duty and Air Force Reserve counterparts in their assigned cycle deployment window.
Along with their federal reserve obligations, as state military units the elements of the Alaska ANG are subject to being activated by order of the Governor to provide protection of life and property, preserve peace and public safety. State missions include disaster relief in times of earthquakes, hurricanes and forest fires and rescue, protection of vital public services, support to civil defense; the Alaska Air National Guard consists of the following major units: 168th WingEstablished 1 October 1986. The unit transfers more fuel than any other Air National Guard tanker wing, because nearly all receivers are active duty aircraft, many of which are on operational missions.176th WingEstablished 15 September 1952 Stationed at: Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, Anchorage Components gained by: Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Special Operations Command The 176th Wing is the largest unit of the Alaska Air National Guard. It is a composite wing with multiple missions, including global airlift, air-sea rescue, tactical airlift, NORAD air defense.
Support Unit Functions and Capabilities: 213th Space Warning Squadron, Geographically Separated Unit located at Clear Air Force Station, Denali Borough. Located 40 miles north of Denali and 80 miles south of Fairbanks; the 213th SWS is responsible for providing tactical warning and attack assessment of a ballistic missile attack against the continental United States and southern Canada. Warning data from the unit is forwarded to the North American Aerospace Defense Command inside Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, Colorado; the Alaska Air National Guard was formed in Anchorage in July 1952 when the Alaska Air Division Commander Maj. Gen. Earl T. Ricks announced that the territorial government of Alaska was willing to invest $1.5 million to establish an Air National Guard unit in Anchorage, either at the city's international airport or on Elmendorf Air Force Base. The only condition: that enough people could be recruited to man the unit; the Alaska Air National Guard was organized 15 September 1952 as the 8144th Air Base Squadron.
At its creation, the 8144th included five officers. It had no planes, its headquarters were located in a small office above what was the bus depot on Fourth Avenue in Anchorage. Because the office was so small, the men convened for their first training assembly in a nearby Quonset hut; the unit's first aircraft, a 1941 AT-6D Texan trainer, arrived in February 1953. Soon five more trainers arrived, operating out of Elmendorf AFB Hangar #3. In keeping with the Air Guard's mission to provide national air defense, the pilots began training in earnest for their planned transition to jet fighters; the unit was re-designated as the 144th Fighter-Bomber Squadron on 1 July 1953. In 1969, the 144th Tactical Airlift Squadron was authorized to expand to a group level, the 176th Tactical Airlift Group was established by the National Guard Bureau; the 176th TAG received federal recognition and was activated on 1 April 1969. The 144th TAS was assigned as the new unit's operational squadron. In 1986 the 168th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron designation was transferred from the Illinois ANG to the Alaska Air National Guard.
It was re-designated as the 168th Air Refueling Squadron, extended federal recognition and reactivated on 1 October 1986. The 168th would operate at Eielson Air Force Base, Fairbanks, it was equipped with KC-135E Stratotankers and assume an air refueling mission, supporting military aircraft over Alaska and the northern Pacific Region. In 1987, the Air Force announced the 71st Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron would be inactivated; the 71st ARRS had a history dating to 1946 as the 10th Air Rescue Squadron, an active duty squadron organized at Elmendorf Field and manned by Alaskans. However, the tradition of Arctic search and rescue would continue; the 210th Air Rescue Squadron received federal recognition from the National Guard Bureau on 4 April 1990 and the unit activation ceremony was held at Kulis Air National Guard Base on 11 August
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Ellington Airport (Texas)
Ellington Airport is a public and military use airport in Harris County, United States. It is located 15 nautical miles southeast of downtown Houston. Known as Ellington Field Ellington Air Force Base again as Ellington Field it is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation reliever airport; the airport does not have scheduled commercial passenger service. On October 17, 2018, the City of Houston approved Phase 1 of the Houston Spaceport project on the Ellington Airport site. Established by the Army Air Service on May 21, 1917, Ellington Field was one of the initial World War I Army Air Service installations when aviation was in its infancy, it is named for 1st Lt. Eric Ellington, a U. S. Army aviator, killed in a plane crash in San Diego, California in 1913. Created as a training facility, Ellington Airport is used by military, commercial, NASA aircraft and general aviation sectors. Ellington Airport is one of the few airfields built for World War I training purposes still in operation today.
For additional history related to Ellington's status as a military airfield, see Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base. The City of Houston annexed Ellington Field in the late 1960s. In January 2009, a name change from Ellington Field to Ellington Airport was approved by the Houston City Council. In August 2011, the city announced that the facility would be renamed Ellington International Airport. However, as of May 2013, it is still listed as Ellington Airport by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Houston Airport System. In April 2014, Sierra Nevada Corporation signed an agreement with Houston Airport System officials to explore development of Ellington as a commercial Spaceport; the ultimate goal of the agreement is to use Ellington as a landing site for the company's Dream Chaser space plane. A feasibility study found it would cost US$48 million to $122 million to equip Ellington for landing and launching small space vehicles on a regular basis. With federal approval in June 2015, Ellington Airport was granted a Launch Site License from the Federal Aviation Administration that established the airport as the 10th commercial spaceport in the United States.
On October 17, 2018, the city council approved Phase 1 funding of $18.8 million for improvements to streets, wastewater, electrical power distribution facilities and communications facilities on the site. In September 2017, the Lone Star Flight Museum moved from Galveston's Scholes International Airport at Galveston to Ellington, a move, in the works since the aftermath of Hurricane Ike in 2008; the Museum built a brand new facility at Ellington to house its airworthy and static aircraft, as well as its Texas Aviation Hall of Fame. The facility is complete with training centers and administrative space, allowing the Museum to operate from Ellington. Ellington Airport consists of three active runways; the airport supports the operations of the United States military, NASA and a variety of general aviation tenants. The field is a base for NASA's administrative, cargo transport and high-altitude aircraft, which includes NASA's fleet of T-38 Talon jets bailed to the agency from USAF, Gulfstream Shuttle Training Aircraft, a former USN C-9 nicknamed the "Weightless Wonder VI" which replaced the former USAF NKC-135 aircraft known as the Vomit Comet, a zero-g trainer.
The only two WB-57F aircraft used for atmospheric research and reconnaissance still flying in the world today are housed at Ellington. The Texas Air National Guard, Texas Army National Guard and the U. S. Coast Guard maintain a presence at the base; the Coast Guard facility known as Coast Guard Air Station Houston operates 3 Eurocopter MH-65C "Dolphin" Short-Range Recovery helicopters for search and rescue and port security roles. Ellington Field is home to the largest flying club in Texas and the annual "Wings Over Houston" airshow. Ellington Field once had scheduled commercial air service: Continental Express flights between Ellington Airport and George Bush Intercontinental Airport in north Houston ended in 2004. Prior to the cessation of commercial air service, the route flown between Bush Intercontinental and Ellington Field was the shortest fixed-wing route flown in the United States at only 25 nmi. Flight times were as short depending on direction of departure. To this day, Ellington Field serves as a reliever airport for both Bush Intercontinental and the William P. Hobby Airport, handles diverted aircraft from those two airports during bad weather events and peak traffic times.
A Terminal Aerodrome Forecast is produced for the airfield 365 days a year at 20Z, 04Z, 12Z by the 26th Operational Weather Squadron, a USAF weather squadron. Ellington Field covers an area of 2,362 acres at an elevation of 32 feet above mean sea level, it has three runways with concrete surfaces: 4/22 is 8,001 by 150 feet. For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2009, the airport had 126,702 aircraft operations, an average of 347 per day: 70% general aviation, 22% military, 6% air taxi, 2% scheduled commercial. At that time there were 197 aircraft based at this airport: 46% single-engine, 28% jet, 12% multi-engine, 12% military, 2% helicopter, 1% glider; the Lone Star Flight Museum, located at Scholes from 1985 until 2017, maintains a fleet of airworthy warbirds including: Lockheed Vega, B-17 Flying Fortress, North American B-25 Mitchell Bomber, Douglas SBD Daunt
Eglin Air Force Base
Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in western Florida, located about three miles southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County. The host unit at Eglin is the 96th Test Wing; the 96 TW is the test and evaluation center for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems. Eglin AFB was established 84 years ago in 1935 as the Valparaiso Gunnery Base, it is named in honor of Lt. Col. Frederick I. Eglin, killed in a crash of his Northrop A-17 attack aircraft on a flight from Langley to Maxwell Field, Alabama. Eglin is an Air Force Materiel Command base serving as the focal point for all Air Force armaments. Eglin is responsible for the development, testing and sustainment of all air-delivered non-nuclear weapons; the base plans and conducts test and evaluation of U. S. and allied air armament and guidance systems, command and control systems. Severe-weather testing of aircraft and other equipment is carried out here at the McKinley Climatic Laboratory.
The residential portion of the base is a census-designated place. Eglin Air Force Base has 2,359 military family housing units. Unmarried junior enlisted members live in one of Eglin’s seven dormitories located near the dining hall, base gym, enlisted club, bus lines on base; each individual unit handles dormitory assignments. Bachelor officer quarters are not available. Several units and one dormitory were being renovated in 2011; the base covers 463,128 acres. Eglin is one of the few military air bases in the U. S. to have scheduled passenger airline service as the Destin–Fort Walton Beach Airport is co-located on the base property. The 96 TW is the test and evaluation wing for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems; the Eglin Gulf Test Range provides 130,000 square miles of over water airspace. The 96 TW supports other tenant units on the installation with traditional military services as well as all the services of a small city, to include civil engineering, logistics, computer, security.
The 96 TW reports to the Air Force Test Center at Edwards AFB. The 33d FW "Nomads" is the largest tenant unit at Eglin; the 33 FW is a joint graduate flying and maintenance training wing for the F-35 Lightning II, organized under Air Education and Training Command's 19th Air Force. First established as the 33d Pursuit Group, the wing’s contribution to tactical airpower during its 50-year history has been significant with participation in campaigns around the world, while flying various fighter aircraft. Reactivated at Eglin on 1 April 1965 with F-4C Phantom IIs, the wing operated, successively, F-4D and E models into the 1970s before transitioning to the F-15 Eagle; as of 1 October 2009, the 33d FW transitioned to a training wing for the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The final F-15s assigned to the 33d departed the base in September 2009; as the first of its kind in the Department of Defense, the joint wing is responsible for F-35 JSF pilot and maintainer training for the Air Force, Marine Corps and the Navy.
The first of 59 F-35s arrived from Fort Worth, Texas on 14 July 2011. The 58th FS "Mighty Gorillas" are authorized to operate 24 assigned F-35A aircraft and executing a training curriculum in support of Air Force and international partner pilot training requirements; the F-35A is a conventional-takeoff-and-landing low-observable multi-role fighter aircraft, designed with 5th-generation sensors and weapons, is able to perform air superiority, air interdiction and close air support missions. The F-35A made its first flight on 15 December 2006; the VFA-101 "Grim Reapers" are authorized to operate 15 assigned F-35C aircraft and executing a training curriculum in support of Navy aviator training requirements. The F-35C is a carrier-capable low-observable multi-role fighter aircraft; the F-35C bears structural modifications from the other variants, necessitated by the increased resiliency required for carrier operations. The 53 WG is headquartered at Eglin and serves as the Air Force’s focal point for operational test and evaluation of armament and avionics, aircrew training devices, chemical defense, aerial reconnaissance improvements, electronic warfare systems, is responsible for the QF-4 Phantom II Full Scale Aerial Target program and subscale drone programs.
The wing tests every fighter, unmanned aerial vehicle, associated weapon system in the Air Force inventory. The wing reports to the USAF Air Warfare Center at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, a Direct Reporting Unit to Headquarters, Air Combat Command. Squadron attached to the 53d Wing but located at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana)The squadron plans and reports ACC's weapon system evaluation programs for bombers and nuclear-capable fighters; these evaluations include operational effectiveness and suitability and control, performance of aircraft hardware and software systems, employment tactics, accuracy and reliability of associated precision weapons. These weapons include air-launched cruise missiles, standoff missiles, gravity bombs. Results and conclusions support acquisition decisions and development of war plans; the unit performs operational testing on new systems and tactics development for the B-52. The Armament Directorate, located
Hiller OH-23 Raven
The Hiller OH-23 Raven was a three-place, light observation helicopter based on the Hiller Model 360. The Model 360 was designated by the company as the UH-12, first flown in 1948; the OH-23 trainer was jokingly nicknamed the "Hiller Killer" by US Army Aviation student pilots who had to fly it. In 1947, United Helicopters developed the prototype Model 360X helicopter. A year on 14 October 1948 the CAA issued a production certificate for the Model 360. United Helicopters began producing the Model 360 as the UH-12. In 1949, the UH-12 became the first helicopter to make a transcontinental flight from California to New York; when Hiller upgraded the engine and the rotor blades, the company designated the new model as the UH-12A. It was the UH-12A that would be adopted by both the French and United States militaries, as well as being used by civil commercial operators in several countries; the H-23 Raven performed as a utility and MedEvac helicopter during the Korean War. Model numbers ranged A through D, F and G.
The H-23A had a sloping front windshield. The H-23B was used as a primary helicopter trainer. Beginning with the UH-23C, all models featured the "Goldfish bowl" canopy similar to the Bell 47; the Raven used Hiller's "Rotor-Matic" cyclic control system, with two small servo rotor paddles offset 90 degrees to the main rotor blades. The paddles were attached to the control column, so that movement of the column would cause the pitch of the servo paddles to change, loading the main rotor blade so that the desired cyclic changes to the rotor occurred; the OH-23 had a top speed of 97 mph. The Raven had a metal two-bladed tail rotor. Both the OH-23B and the OH-23C were powered by one Franklin O-335-5D engine; the OH-23D was a purely military version with a more reliable transmission. Most OH-23Ds were replaced by the OH-23G, the most common version of the Raven, with a more powerful Lycoming O-540-9A six-cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled 305 hp engine; the OH-23G could seat three. The MEDEVAC version pods.
The Raven saw service as a scout during the early part of the Vietnam War before being replaced by the OH-6A Cayuse in early 1968. A Raven piloted by Hugh Thompson, Jr. played a crucial role in curtailing the My Lai Massacre. When a Raven of the 59th Aviation Company strayed north of the Korean DMZ in August 1969 it was shot down and the crew were kept prisoner until released on December 2; the Raven could be armed with twin M37C.30-caliber machine guns on the XM1 armament subsystem or twin M60C 7.62 mm machine guns on the M2 armament subsystem. The XM76 sighting system was used for sighting the guns; the Royal Navy's No. 705 Training Squadron used Hiller HTE-2s for several years from 1953 and operated Hiller 12E's for many further years as its basic helicopter trainer based at RNAS Culdrose located in Cornwall, England. YH-23 One Model UH-12A, modified with two-seat cabin and 178 hp Franklin engine for US Army evaluation. H-23A Initial production version with 178 hp Franklin O-335-4 piston engine and two-seat cockpit, 100 built for the US Army and 5 for evaluation by the US Air Force.
H-23B H-23A with skid/wheel undercarriage and 200 hp O-335-6 engine, re-designated OH-23B in 1962, 273 built for the US Army and 81 for military export. H-23C Model UH-12C with three-seat cabin, one-piece canopy and metal rotor blades, 145 built for the US Army. Re-designated OH-23C in 1962. H-23D H-23C with new rotor, transmission and 250 hp Lycoming VO-435-23B engine, 348 built for US Army. Re-designated OH-23D in 1962. H-23E Model UH-12E, not bought H-23F Model UH-12E-4, four-seat model with 25-inch cabin extension and a 305 hp VO-540-A1B engine, redesignated OH-23F in 1962, 22 built for US Army. H-23G Three-seat dual control version of H-23F, redesignated OH-23G in 1962, 793 built. HTE-1 US Navy version of the Model UH-12A with Franklin O-335 engine, two-seater with dual controls, wheeled tricycle undercarriage, 17 built. HTE-2 US Navy version of H-23B with Franklin O-335-6 engine, 35 built. Hiller HT Mk 1 Royal Navy designation for 20 former US Navy HTE-2s. Hiller HT Mk 2 UH-12Es for Royal Navy.
21 supplied. CH-112 Nomad Canadian military designation. UH-12A Original production model for the US Army, powered by a six cylinder fan-cooled Franklin 6V4-178-B33 engine with a maximal power of 178hp at 3000 rpm; the main rotor blades are of solid wood laminations. The body of the blade is in fact made up of numerous strip and block wooden laminations designed to provide a strong but flexible blade; the entire blade surface is covered with fiberglas cloth with the leading edge covered with an additional stainless steel sheet. The tail rotor is of all metal construction. UH-12B Training version for the US Navy. US Navy designation HTE-2 prior to 1962. UH-12C Three-seat version, equipped with wood rotor blades and one-piece'goldfish bowl' canopy. US Army designation H-23C. UH-12D Improved version of the H-23C for the US Army. US Army designation H-23D. UH-12E Three-seat dual-control version of the H-23D. UH-12ET Turbine-powered version of the UH-12E, fitted with an Allison 250 turboshaft engine. UH-12E-3 New three-seat production version.
UH-12E-3T New turbine-powered production version. UH-12-E4 Four-seat civilian version. US Army designation H-23F. VO-540 powered. Conversion kit available for E-12 models. UH-12E-4T Four-seat turbine-powered production version. UH-12L-4 Lengthened version with wider cabin windows. ArgentinaArgentine Army Aviation Buenos Aires Provincial Police CanadaCanadian Army ChileChilean A
A turtle ship known as Geobukseon, was a type of large Korean warship, used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navy during the Joseon dynasty from the early 15th century up until the 19th century. It was used alongside the panokseon warships in the fight against invading Japanese naval ships; the ship's name derives from its protective shell-like covering. This design is recognized as the first armored ship in the world; the first references to older, first generation turtle ships, known as gwiseon, come from 1413 and 1415 records in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, which mention a mock battle between a gwiseon and a Japanese warship. However, these early turtle ships soon fell out of use as Korea's naval preparedness decreased during a long period of relative peace. Turtle ships participated in the war against Japanese naval forces supporting Toyotomi Hideyoshi's attempts to conquer Korea from 1592 to 1598. Korean Admiral Yi Sun-Shin is credited with designing the ship, his turtle ships were equipped with at least five different types of cannons.
Their most distinguishable feature was a dragon-shaped head at the bow that could launch cannon fire or flames from the mouth. Each was equipped with a covered deck to protect against arrow fire, musket-shots, incendiary weapons; the deck was covered with iron spikes to discourage enemy men from attempting to board the ship. According to the Nanjung Ilgi, Yi's wartime diary, Yi decided to resurrect the turtle ship in 1591 from pre-existing designs after discussing the matter with his subordinates. Once concluding that a Japanese invasion was possible, if not imminent, Yi and his subordinate officers, among whom Na Dae-yong is named as the chief constructor and built the first modern turtle ship. Yi's diary, along with the book entitled Hangnok written by his nephew Yi Beon, described numerous important details about the structures, construction progress, the use of turtle ships in battle, as well as the testing of weaponry used in the ships; the mounted weapons, Korean cannons with ranges from about 300 to 500 metres, were tested on March 12, 1592.
Yi completed his first turtle ship and launched it on March 27, 1592, one day before the Siege of Busanjin and the Battle of Dadaejin. Many different versions of the turtle ships served during the war, but in general they were about 100 to 120 feet long, resembled the panokseon's bottom structure; the turtle ship was technically a hull, placed on top of a panokseon with a large anchor held in the front of the ship and other minor modifications. On the bow of the vessel was mounted a dragon head which emitted sulfur smoke to hide its movement from the enemy in short distance combat; the dragon head, considered the most distinguishing feature of the vessel, was large enough for a cannon to fit inside. The dragon head served as a form of psychological warfare, with the aim of striking fear into the hearts of Japanese sailors. Early versions of the turtle ship would burn poisonous materials in the dragon's head to release a poisonous smoke. In the front of the ship was a large anchor. Below the anchor was a wooden crest, shaped like a face, these were used to ram into enemy ships.
Similar to the standard panokseon, the turtle ship had two sails. Oars were used for maneuvering and increased speed. Another advantage the turtle ship had was; the turtle ship had 11 cannon portholes on each side. There was one cannon porthole in the dragon head's mouth. There were two more cannon portholes on the back of the turtle ship; the heavy cannons enabled the turtle ships to unleash a mass volley of cannonballs. Its crew complement comprised about 50 to 60 fighting marines and 70 oarsmen, as well as the captain. Sources indicate that sharp iron spikes protruded from hexagonal plates covering the top of the turtle ship. An advantage of the closed deck was that it protected the Korean sailors and marines from small arms and incendiary fire; the spikes discouraged Japanese from engaging in their primary method of naval combat at the time, grappling an enemy ship with hooks and boarding it to engage in hand-to-hand combat. Korean written descriptions all point to a maneuverable ship, capable of sudden bursts of speed.
Like the panokseon, the turtle ship featured a U-shaped hull which gave it the advantage of a more stable cannon-firing platform, the ability to turn within its own radius. The main disadvantage of a U-shaped bottom versus a V-shaped bottom was a somewhat slower cruising speed. There are sources that state in a generic form that the turtle ship was covered with metal plates, making it a form of ironclad warship, the first known ship of this kind in history. Sources that question claims of iron plating exist. While it is clear from the available sources that the roof of the ship was covered with iron spikes to prevent boarding, there is split opinion among historians on whether the turtle ship was iron clad. One Japanese chronicle mentions a clash in August 1592 which involved three Korean turtle ships "covered in iron". However, according to Samuel Hawley, this phrase does not indicate that the vessels were covered with iron plates. Stephen Turnbull, points out the fact that the Japanese government ordered in February 1593 the military to use iron plate in building ships