Richard Mentor Johnson
Richard Mentor Johnson was the ninth vice president of the United States from 1837 to 1841. He is the only vice president elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson represented Kentucky in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate. Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1806, he became allied with fellow Kentuckian Henry Clay as a member of the War Hawks faction that favored war with Britain in 1812. At the outset of the War of 1812, Johnson was commissioned a colonel in the Kentucky Militia and commanded a regiment of mounted volunteers from 1812 to 1813, he and his brother James served under William Henry Harrison in Upper Canada. Johnson participated in the Battle of the Thames; some reported that he killed the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, which he used to his political advantage. After the war, Johnson returned to the House of Representatives; the legislature appointed him to the Senate in 1819 to fill the seat vacated by John J. Crittenden.
As his prominence grew, his interracial relationship with Julia Chinn, an octoroon slave, was more criticized. It worked against his political ambitions. Unlike other upper class leaders who had African American mistresses but never mentioned them, Johnson treated Chinn as his common law wife, he acknowledged their two daughters as his children, giving them his surname, much to the consternation of some of his constituents. The relationship is believed to have led to the loss of his Senate seat in 1829, but his Congressional district returned him to the House the next year. In 1836, Johnson was the Democratic nominee for vice-president on a ticket with Martin Van Buren. Campaigning with the slogan "Rumpsey Dumpsey, Rumpsey Dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh", Johnson fell one short of the electoral votes needed to secure his election. Virginia's delegation to the Electoral College refused abstaining instead. However, he was elected to the office by the Senate. Johnson proved such a liability for the Democrats in the 1836 election that they refused to renominate him for vice-president in 1840.
President Van Buren campaigned for re-election without a running mate. He lost to a Whig. Johnson was defeated, he was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1850, but he died on November 19, 1850, just two weeks into his term. Richard Mentor Johnson was born on October 17, 1780, the fifth of Robert and Jemima Johnson's eleven children, the second of eight sons, his parents had married in 1770. Robert Johnson had purchased lands in what is now Kentucky, but was a part of Virginia, from Patrick Henry and from James Madison, while Jemima Johnson "came from a wealthy and politically connected family." Richard was born in the settlement of "Beargrass", now part of Kentucky. About the time of Richard's birth, the family moved near present-day Lexington; this was a fortified outpost. Johnson's mother was remembered as among the heroic women of the community because what was told of her actions during Simon Girty's raid on Bryan's Station in August 1782. According to reports, with Indian warriors hidden in the nearby woods and the community short on water, Jemima Johnson led the women to a nearby spring and acting unconcerned, the confused attackers allowed them to return to the fort with the water.
The residents were able to beat off the attack. Robert Johnson was absent during the siege, as he had been elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for Fayette County. Beginning in 1783, Kentucky was considered safe enough for settlers that they began to leave the fortified stations to establish farms, the Johnsons settled on the land Robert had purchased at Great Crossing; as a surveyor, Robert Johnson became successful through well-chosen land purchases and being early in the region when huge land grants were made. According to Miles Smith in his doctoral thesis on Richard Johnson, "Richard developed a cheery disposition and seems to have been a happy and content child". Richard lived on the family farm until he was 16. In 1796, he was sent to a local grammar school, to Transylvania University, the first college west of the Appalachian Mountains. While at the Lexington college, where his father was a trustee, he read law as a legal apprentice with George Nicholas and James Brown, he was admitted to the bar in 1802.
Johnson was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1802, opened his office at Great Crossing. He owned a retail store and pursued a number of business ventures with his brothers. Johnson worked pro bono for poor people, prosecuting their cases when they had merit, he opened his home to disabled veterans and orphans. Family tradition holds that Johnson broke off an early marital engagement when he was about sixteen years old because of his mother's disapproval. Purportedly Johnson vowed revenge for his mother's interference. Despite the fact that the engagement was broken off, a daughter named, she was raised by the Johnson family and married to Wesley Fancher, one of the men who served in Johnson's regiment at the Battle of the Thames. After his father died, Richard Johnson inherited Julia Chinn, an octoroon slave, born into slavery around 1790 and a person who had grown up in the same household as him. Johnson treated her as his common-law wife. Chinn was put, the concubine of Johnson having th
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
James Madison Jr. was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution and the United States Bill of Rights, he co-wrote The Federalist Papers, co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, served as the fifth United States Secretary of State from 1801 to 1809. Born into a prominent Virginia planting family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War, he became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation. Madison's Virginia Plan served as the basis for the Constitutional Convention's deliberations, he was one of the most influential individuals at the convention.
Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing The Federalist Papers, a series of pro-ratification essays, considered to be one of the most influential works of political science in American history. After the ratification of the Constitution, Madison emerged as an important leader in the United States House of Representatives and served as a close adviser to President George Washington, he was the main force behind the ratification of the United States Bill of Rights, which enshrines guarantees of personal freedoms and rights within the Constitution. During the early 1790s, Madison came to oppose the economic program and accompanying centralization of power favored by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which was, alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party, one of the nation's first major political parties. After Jefferson won the 1800 presidential election, Madison served as Secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.
In that position, he supervised the Louisiana Purchase. Madison succeeded Jefferson with a victory in the 1808 presidential election. After diplomatic protests and a trade embargo failed to end British attacks against American shipping, he led the United States into the War of 1812; the war was an administrative morass and ended inconclusively, but many Americans saw it as a successful "second war of independence" against Britain. The war convinced Madison of the necessity of a stronger federal government, he presided over the creation of the Second Bank of the United States and the enactment of the protective Tariff of 1816, he retired from public office in 1817 and died in 1836. He is considered to be one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States, historians have ranked Madison as an above-average president. James Madison Jr. was born on March 16, 1751, at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to James Madison Sr. and Nelly Conway Madison. He grew up as the oldest of twelve children, with seven brothers and four sisters, though only six of his siblings would live to adulthood.
His father was a tobacco planter who grew up on a plantation called Mount Pleasant, which he had inherited upon reaching adulthood. With numerous slaves and a 5,000 acres plantation, Madison's father was the largest landowner and a leading citizen in the Piedmont. Madison's maternal grandfather was a prominent tobacco merchant. In the early 1760s, the Madison family moved into a newly built house. From age 11 to 16, Madison was sent to study under Donald Robertson, a Scottish instructor who served as a tutor for a number of prominent planter families in the South. Madison learned mathematics and modern and classical languages—he became proficient in Latin. At age 16, Madison returned to Montpelier, where he began a two-year course of study under the Reverend Thomas Martin in preparation for college. Unlike most college-bound Virginians of his day, Madison did not attend the College of William and Mary, where the lowland Williamsburg climate - thought to be more to harbor infectious disease - might have strained his delicate health.
Instead, in 1769, he enrolled at the College of New Jersey. His studies at Princeton included Latin, Greek and the works of the Enlightenment. Great emphasis was placed on both debate. Along with another classmate, Madison undertook an intense program of study and completed Princeton's three-year bachelor of arts degree in just two years, graduating in 1771, he remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under President John Witherspoon before returning home to Montpelier in early 1772. His ideas on philosophy and morality were shaped by Witherspoon, who converted Madison to the philosophy and modes of thinking of the Age of Enlightenment. Biographer Terence Ball says that at Princeton: He was immersed in the liberalism of the Enlightenment, converted to eighteenth-century political radicalism. From on James Madison's theories would advance the rights of happiness of man, his most active efforts would serve devotedly the cause of civil and political liberty. After returning to Montpelier, who had not yet decided on a specific career, served as a tutor to his younger siblings.
In the early 1770s the relationship between the American colonies a
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft. Some nations require a specific amount of military service from every citizen, except for special cases, such as physical or mental disorders or religious belief. Most countries that use conscription systems only conscript men. For example, Sweden, North Korea, Eritrea, Malaysia and Peru conscript both men and women. However, only Norway and Sweden have a gender-neutral conscription system, where men and women are conscripted and serve on equal formal terms; some nations with conscription systems do not enforce them. Nations which conscript for military service also rely on citizens choosing to join the armed forces as a career; some nations with armed forces do not conscript their personnel. Instead, they promote military careers to select recruits; some of these nations reserve the right in law to conscript personnel in the future. Some smaller, nations have no armed forces at all, or rely on an armed domestic security force.
In this summary, 195 countries are included. The following 109 countries and territories have been identified as having no enforced conscription: The following ten countries and colonies have been identified as having both compulsory and voluntary military service: The following eleven countries have been identified as having selective conscription: The following fifteen countries have been identified as having a civilian, unarmed or non-combatant service optional alternative to compulsory military service: The following twenty countries have been identified as having compulsory military service limited to 1 year or less: The following 12 countries have been identified to having compulsory military service limited to 18 months or less: The following 27 countries have been identified as having compulsory military service terms longer than 18 months: As of 2019, four countries have been identified as intending to abolish conscription in the near future: Ukraine Kazakhstan Georgia Moldova Cape Verde Chad Eritrea Israel Morocco Norway North Korea China Sweden The following nineteen countries have been identified as having no defense forces or as having no standing army but having limited military forces: * Countries having no standing army, but having limited military forces.
Compulsory military service has declined since 1970. A 2016 study finds "that the probability of a shorter military service time is positively associated with smaller country populations, smaller lagged army sizes, increases in primary schooling among young males, having common law legal origins." Albania had compulsory military service. Albania's armed forces announced an objective to create a professional army by the end of 2010. Argentina suspended military conscription in 1995 and replaced it with a voluntary military service, yet those in service had to finish their time in service; this came as a result of political and social distrust of the military, dwindling budgets which forced the military to induct fewer conscripts every year, the experience of the 1982 Falklands War which proved the superiority of professional servicemen over conscripts and a series of conscription-related brutality scandals which came to a head with the murder of Private Omar Carrasco at an Army base in 1994, following a brutal disciplinary action.
It should be noted. Conscription was known in Argentina as la colimba; the word colimba is a composite word made from the initial syllables of the verbs correr and barrer, as it was perceived that all a conscript did during service was running and sweeping. Conscripts themselves were known and referred to as "colimbas". Voluntary service in the Boer War was from a number of the separate colonies before federation in 1901 and volunteers were deployed as an Australian force. Two conscription referendums were defeated during World War 1. Military service during WW1 was voluntary as was service in WW2. Volunteer militia units were to be used only within the Commonwealth of Australia but in 1942 some militia units were deployed to Papua New Guinea, as it was considered part of Australia at that time, to fight the advancing and withdrawing Japanese invasion army. Various levels of conscription were in force during the 1950s but only for service in Australia during times of conflicts but the saw NS deployed to war with over 500 KIA and thousands WIA with about half of the casualties being NS.
The Vietnam War was lost on 1 May 1975 over three years after the ADF withdrew in late 1971. All forms of conscription were abolished by the Whitlam Government in 1972. Barbados has no conscription; the country has set the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into the Barbados Defence Force at 18. Younger recruits may be conscripted with parental consent. Belgium suspended conscription on 31 December 1992 by amending the 1962 L
Henry Clay Sr. was an American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives, served as 7th speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives, served as the 9th U. S. secretary of state. He received electoral votes for president in the 1824, 1832, 1844 presidential elections and helped found both the National Republican Party and the Whig Party. For his role in defusing sectional crises, he earned the appellation of the "Great Compromiser." Clay was born in Hanover County, Virginia in 1777 and launched a legal career in Lexington, Kentucky in 1797. As a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, Clay won election to the Kentucky state legislature in 1803 and to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1810, he was chosen as speaker of the House in early 1811 and, along with President James Madison, led the United States into the War of 1812 against Britain. In 1814, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent, which brought an end to the War of 1812.
After the war, Clay returned to his position as speaker of the House and developed the American System, which called for federal infrastructure investments, support for the national bank, protective tariff rates. In 1820, he helped bring an end to a sectional crisis over slavery by leading the passage of the Missouri Compromise. Clay finished with the fourth-most electoral votes in the multi-candidate 1824 presidential election, he helped John Quincy Adams win the contingent election held to select the president. President Adams appointed Clay to the prestigious position of secretary of state. Despite receiving support from Clay and other National Republicans, Adams was defeated by Democrat Andrew Jackson in the 1828 presidential election. Clay won election to the Senate in 1831 and ran as the National Republican nominee in the 1832 presidential election, but he was defeated by President Jackson. After the 1832 election, Clay helped bring an end to the Nullification Crisis by leading passage of the Tariff of 1833.
During Jackson's second term, opponents of the president coalesced into the Whig Party, Clay became a leading congressional Whig. Clay sought the presidency in the 1840 election but was defeated at the Whig National Convention by William Henry Harrison, he clashed with Harrison's running mate and successor, John Tyler, who broke with Clay and other congressional Whigs after taking office in 1841. Clay resigned from the Senate in 1842 and won the 1844 Whig presidential nomination, but he was defeated in the general election by Democrat James K. Polk, who made the annexation of the Republic of Texas his key issue. Clay criticized the subsequent Mexican–American War and sought the Whig presidential nomination in 1848, but was defeated by General Zachary Taylor. After returning to the Senate in 1849, Clay played a key role in passing the Compromise of 1850, which resolved a crisis over the status of slavery in the territories. Clay is regarded as one of the most important and influential political figures of his era.
Henry Clay was born on April 1777, at the Clay homestead in Hanover County, Virginia. He was the seventh of nine children born to the Reverend John Elizabeth Clay, his father, a Baptist minister nicknamed "Sir John", died in 1781, leaving left Henry and his brothers two slaves each. Clay was of English descent and his ancestor, John Clay, settled in Virginia in 1613. Clay was a distant cousin of Cassius Clay, a prominent anti-slavery activist active in the mid-19th century; the British raided Clay's home shortly after the death of his father, leaving the family in a precarious economic position. However, the widow Elizabeth Clay married Captain Henry Watkins, an affectionate stepfather and a successful planter. Elizabeth would had seven more children with Watkins, bearing a total of sixteen children. After his mother's remarriage, the young Clay remained in Hanover County, where he learned how to read and write. In 1791, Henry Watkins moved the family to Kentucky, joining his brother in the pursuit of fertile new lands in the West.
However, Clay did not follow, as Watkins secured him temporary employment in a Richmond emporium, with the promise that Clay would receive the next available clerkship at the Virginia Court of Chancery. After Clay worked in the Richmond emporium for one year, a clerkship opened up at the Virginia Court of Chancery. Clay adapted well to his new role, his handwriting earned him the attention of William & Mary professor George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, mentor of Thomas Jefferson, judge on Virginia's High Court of Chancery. Hampered by a crippled hand, Wythe chose Clay as his secretary and amanuensis, a role in which Clay would remain for four years. Wythe had a powerful effect on Clay's worldview, Clay embraced Wythe's belief that the example of the United States could help spread human freedom around the world. Wythe arranged for Clay a position with the Virginia attorney general, Robert Brooke, with the understanding that Brooke would finish Clay's legal studies. Under Brooke's tutelage, Clay was admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1797.
On April 11, 1799, Clay married Lucretia Hart at the Hart home in Kentucky. Her father, Colonel Thomas Hart, was early settler of a prominent businessman. Hart proved to be an important business connection for Clay, as he helped Clay gain new clients and grow in professional stature. Hart was the namesake and grand-uncle of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton, was related to James Brown, a prominent Louisiana politician, Isaac Shelby, the first Governor of Kentucky. Clay and Lucretia w
William Lowndes (congressman)
William Jones Lowndes was an American lawyer and politician from South Carolina. He represented the state in the U. S. Congress from 1811 to May 8, 1822, when he resigned for health reasons; the son of Rawlins Lowndes, multi-term legislator and governor of South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War, William Lowndes was one of three children born to Rawlins Lowndes' third wife, the former Sarah Jones, daughter of Col. Charles Jones of Georgia, his paternal grandfather, Charles Lowndes, had moved his family from St. Kitts in the British West Indies in 1730 to South Carolina, but his extravagant spending led to financial ruin. After he committed suicide, his sons Charles and Rawlins were placed in the care of Robert Hall the provost-marshal of South Carolina. Rawlins Lowndes succeeded Hall in 1745 but resigned for health reasons in 1754. In addition to his legal practice and civic duties, Rawlins Lowndes acquired plantations through marriage, which he farmed using enslaved labor, he acquired his first plantation along the Stono River in St. Paul Parish in 1748, although that wife died in childbirth in 1850.
Rawlins Lowndes' second wife, Mary Cartwright Lowndes bore seven children, including future Congressman Thomas Lowndes before her death. Like his elder half-sibling, William Lowndes received a classical education appropriate to his class in South Carolina and England studied law. In 1802, William Lowndes married Elizabeth Pinckney, daughter of plantation owner and Federalist leader Thomas Pinckney, they would have son Thomas Pinckney Lowndes and daughter Rebecca Motte Lowndes Rutledge. Admitted to the bar in 1804, William Lowndes began his legal practice in Charleston, he owned several rice plantations on South Carolina's Atlantic coast, which he operated using enslaved labor. William J. Lowndes first served in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1804 to 1808. Elected to the Twelfth United States Congress as a Representative from the Charleston area, Lowndes was a key member of the'War Hawk' faction along with Speaker of the House Henry Clay, future President of the Second Bank of the United States Langdon Cheves, Tennessee representative Felix Grundy, future Vice President and South Carolina Senator John C.
Calhoun. The War Hawks agitated throughout the Congressional session for declaration of the War of 1812, which they achieved on June 19. Lowndes roomed at the same boardinghouse as Calhoun in Washington, D. C. and they became close friends. He authored and shepherded through Congress the Tariff of 1816 in consultation with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Dallas, he rose to chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Treasury Department. His reputation for financial expertise made Lowndes a chief lieutenant of Calhoun in authorizing the Second Bank of the United States during the Fourteenth Congress. Well-respected by his colleagues and the press, Lowndes was offered several Cabinet positions by both James Madison and his successor James Monroe, including Secretary of Treasury and Secretary of War; when Lowndes refused the latter, it was offered to Calhoun, who accepted the position and held it until his inauguration as Vice President in 1825. Staying in the House, Lowndes was a major player in the negotiations surrounding what would become the Missouri Compromise.
William Lowndes developed the Lowndes Apportionment Method, which would have given more power to smaller states, but could not secure its passage in Congress. In 1821, Lowndes was nominated for President of the United States for the 1824 election by the South Carolina legislature over the more ambitious Calhoun, which impeded Calhoun's own incipient candidacy. Perennially ill after an accident in his youth, Lowndes' health took a serious downturn just a year and he resigned from Congress. At his wife's urging, the Lowndes family embarked for a recuperative visit to England, but William died en route on October 27, 1822 at the age of 40, he was buried at sea, although a cenotaph in his honor stands at Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. C.. Following Lowndes' resignation in 1822, South Carolina Governor James Hamilton, Jr. replaced him in Congress. During the Nullification Crisis and John C. Calhoun had led the states' forces for Nullification in support of slavery. Lowndes's most recent biographer, considers the juxtaposition of these two figures and Lowndes's position as one of the last Southern nationalists a "transition of Southern politics."In March–April 1824, electors from South Carolina honored William Lowndes posthumously with a single vote at the Democratic-Republican Party Caucus, as the party's candidate for the Office of U.
S. Vice President for the upcoming election; as shown by a historical marker, South Carolina was named in his honor. Lowndes County, Georgia was named in his honor in 1825 and Alabama and Mississippi both named counties in his honor in 1830. Http://www.hillmanc.fsnet.co.uk/lowndes.htm Genealogy of the Lowndes family in South Carolina http://www.dobrinkman.net/lowndes/lowndes.htm Ravenel, Harriet H. The Life and Times of William Lowndes of South Carolina. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1901. Vipperman, Carl. William Lowndes and the Transition of Southern Politics. Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1989