click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

War of the Castilian Succession

The War of the Castilian Succession was the military conflict contested from 1475 to 1479 for the succession of the Crown of Castile fought between the supporters of Joanna'la Beltraneja', reputed daughter of the late monarch Henry IV of Castile, those of Henry's half-sister, successful. The war had a marked international character, as Isabella was married to Ferdinand, heir to the Crown of Aragon, while Joanna was strategically married to King Afonso V of Portugal, her uncle, after the suggestion of her supporters. France intervened in support of Portugal, as they were rivals with Aragon for territory in Italy and Roussillon. Despite a few initial successes by the supporters of Joanna, a lack of military aggressiveness by Afonso V and the stalemate in the Battle of Toro led to the disintegration of Joanna's alliance and the recognition of Isabella in the Courts of Madrigal-Segovia: "In 1476 after the indecisive battle of Peleagonzalo and Isabella hailed the result as a great victory and called Courts at Madrigal.

The newly gained prestige was used to win municipal support from their allies...". The war between Castile and Portugal alone continued; this included naval warfare in the Atlantic, which became more important: a struggle for maritime access to the wealth of Guinea. In 1478, the Portuguese navy defeated the Castilians in the decisive Battle of Guinea; the war concluded in 1479 with the Treaty of Alcáçovas, which recognized Isabella and Ferdinand as sovereigns of Castile and granted Portugal hegemony in the Atlantic, with the exception of the Canary Islands. Joanna remained in Portugal until her death; this conflict has been called the Second Castilian Civil War, but this name may lead to confusion with the other civil wars that involved Castile in the 14th and 15th centuries. Some authors refer to it as the War of Portugal. At other times the term Peninsular War has been used, but it is confused with the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, part of the Napoleonic Wars; some authors prefer the neutral expression War of 1475–1479.

Joanna la Beltraneja, born in 1462, the first and only daughter of King Henry IV of Castile, was of Asturias. A rumour spread that Princess Joanna was not the daughter of King Henry but rather of Beltrán de la Cueva, the alleged lover of Queen Joan of Portugal. Joanna was thus nicknamed "la Beltraneja", as a mocking reference to her assumed father. Pressure from members of the nobility forced the King to strip her of the title and name his half-brother Alfonso as heir, in 1464. In 1465, a group of nobility assembled in Ávila and overthrew King Henry, replacing him with Alfonso; that led to a war. Henry IV regained the throne, but the title of heir became disputed between Joanna, his daughter, Isabella, his half-sister; that was resolved via the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando, which gave Isabella succession rights but restricted her marriage options. Isabella secretly married Ferdinand in 1469 at the age of 17; the couple gained a larger number of supporters and obtained a papal bull sanctioning their marriage from Pope Sixtus IV in 1472 and gained the support of the powerful Mendoza family in 1473.

When Henry IV died in December 1474, both candidates for the throne were proclaimed Queen of Castile by their respective supporters. Aware of their position of weakness against Isabella's supporters, Joanna's supporters proposed for the 43-year-old King Afonso V of Portugal, a widower for some 20 years, to marry Joanna, his niece, assume the throne of Castile with her; the Kingdom of France and the Crown of Aragon maintained a long-held rivalry for the control of Roussillon and, more for hegemony in Italy. In June 1474, French troops invaded the Aragonese were forced to retreat. On the possibility that the heir to the throne of Aragon would become King of Castile, Louis XI of France positioned himself on the side of Joanna and Afonso in September 1475. France was at war with the Duchy of Burgundy; that made Burgundy into theoretical allies of Isabella's supporters, but in practice, it continued its war against France without coordinating their actions with the Isabella alliance. The Kingdom of England was briefly at war with France with the disembarkation of King Edward IV in Calais in June 1475, but by a quick diplomatic response, Louis negotiated peace with Edward and signed the Treaty of Picquigny in August.

Edward IV accepted a truce of nine years, in exchange for significant economic compensation, returned to England. The Kingdom of Navarre was experiencing an intermittent civil war, the Muslim Kingdom of Granada remained neutral despite Portuguese efforts to draw it into the war. Throughout the 15th century, merchants and fishermen of Portugal and Castile had been penetrating further into the Atlantic Ocean; the possession of the Canary Islands was a point of contention between the two Crowns. On, the control of commerce with the territories of Guinea and Elmina, rich in gold and slaves, grew to a dispute of greater importance. During the first half of the century, Castile staged the conquest of a few of the Canary Islands by feudal pacts, first with Norman knights and with Castilian nobles. Portugal opposed Castilian authority on the islands and continued the exploration of Guinea, with significant commercial benefits. Beginning in 1452, Pope Nicholas V and his successor, Callixtus III, modified the previous policy of the

Harrison Institute

Founded in 1930, the Harrison Institute is a UK charity that specialises in mammal taxonomy and biodiversity studies in the Old World tropics and subtropics southern and southeast Asia and eastern Africa. The Harrison Institute seeks to promote and facilitate biodiversity conservation through: Collaborative scientific research Training staff and students from UK and foreign institutions Promoting international scientific networksThe Harrison Institute provides training for counterparts from a range of Eurasian and African countries. Capacity building and skills development are offered in a series of subjects including project design, field survey techniques, analysing data, preparing scientific reports and publications and the conservation and management of zoological collections; the Harrison Institute is home to over 50,000 scientific specimens. Its collection includes 18,000 recent birds; the fossil mammal collection is growing and contains holdings of national and international importance.

These include Quaternary faunas from the UK and Poland and Tertiary faunas from the UK. The Recent bird collection is the oldest collection in the Institute with some specimens prepared in the first half of the 19th century; the collection was obtained by James and Jeffery Harrison and is focused on the Palaearctic region, with an emphasis on wildfowl. It includes some of the Hastings Rarities. In the last 50 years the Harrison Institute has organised or participated in over 75 field surveys and expeditions to 36 countries in 5 continents; each has been concerned with an aspect of natural history and was part of a wider programme of conservation or wildlife studies involving scientific institutions from the host country. The Harrison Institute was founded by James Harrison in 1930. Based at Bowerwood House in Sevenoaks, some 40 km from central London, the Institute focused on the study of British and Palaearctic birds. In 1971, its zoological collections were recognised as being of national and international importance and it became a charitable trust.

In 1986, it was further recognised as a Registered Scientific Institution by the Department of the Environment, a UK Government Department and was listed under CITES. Under the leadership of David Harrison, the Institute focused on the study and conservation of mammals. Conservation initiatives were concentrated in Arabia and scientific publications were concerned with the Old World tropics and subtropics. More the Institute has been involved in research and scientific expeditions to East Africa, the Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asia, it researches the Tertiary and Quaternary UK mammal faunas. George Bristow Hastings Rarities Bates, Paul. Myanmar: an illustrated guide to the country and its wildlife. ISBN 0-9517313-2-7. Bates, Paul. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. ISBN 0-9517313-1-9. Harrison, David; the Mammals of Arabia. ISBN 0-9517313-0-0. Harrison, David; the Mammals of Arabia. Volume 3: Lagomorpha, Rodentia. ISBN 0-510-39952-5. Harrison, Jeffery; the Thames Transformed. ISBN 0-233-96840-7. Http://www.harrison-institute.org/

Jessica González

Jessica González is an American politician. Affiliated with the Democratic Party, she was first elected to the Texas House of Representatives from District 104 in November 2018. District 104 includes parts of Dallas, Grand Prairie, Cockrell Hill, Irving in Dallas County. González was raised in Dallas, Texas, she received her Bachelor of Arts in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Texas at Arlington. She attended Western Michigan University Cooley Law School. Prior to serving in the Texas Legislature, González was a legislative assistant at the U. S. House of Representatives and a White House Intern, she practices personal injury at her law firm, Gandara & González, PLLC, located in Oak Cliff, Dallas. González assumed office on January 8, 2019, she defeated Democratic incumbent Roberto Alonzo in the Democratic primary election 62.5% to 37.5%. The Dallas Morning News recommended Jessica González saying "We believe her smarts and dedication offer a fresh start and more promise for the residents of the district than an ineffectual incumbent, unreachable and unresponsive."González authored legislation in the 86th legislative session focused on reforming our criminal justice system, expanding voting rights, fighting for affordable housing.

She serves at Vice-Chair of the Texas House LGBTQ Caucus and the Vice-Chair of the National Hispanic Convention of State Legislators' Human and Civil Rights Task Force. González was a co-founder of the Texas House LGBTQ Caucus during the 86th legislative session. González called the Save-Chick-Fill-A bill, she said, "As the vice-chair of the House LGBTQ caucus, I will continue to fight against any legislation that attacks Texans for who they love or how they identify." During the 86th legislative session, González passed one bill allowing the redevelopment of property in Oak Cliff owned by Oak Farms Dairy. In addition, she fought for an amendment dealing with the price of natural gas to consumers; the amendment passed after Senator Royce West picked it up in the Senate. Representative González serves on the House Committee on Criminal Jurisprudence and the House Committee on Urban Affairs. In addition, she was the Co-Founder of the Texas Criminal Justice Reform Caucus, is a member of the Texas Women's Health Caucus, the Texas Veterans Caucus, she is the Secretary of the Young Legislator Group.

In 2019, she led a redistricting panel at the MAP Conference

Live at Fingerprints

Live at Fingerprints is an EP of acoustic music performed live by the Hold Steady on October 15, 2006 at the Fingerprints record shop in Long Beach, CA. The release was limited to 5000 copies distributed by Junketboy to independent record shops throughout the United States; the album features acoustic versions of three songs featured in Hold Steady's 2006 Boys and Girls in America album, including "Chips Ahoy", "You Can Make Him Like You" and "Citrus". All tracks written by Craig Finn. Cattle and the Creeping Things– 4:19 Chips Ahoy! – 4:50 You Can Make Him Like You – 3:00 Citrus – 3:57 You Gotta Dance with Who You Came to the Dance With – 2:44 "The Hold Steady to release acoustic EP". NME.com. IPC MEDIA. 2007-03-21. Retrieved 30 November 2008. "Hold Steady Unplug for'Live at Fingerprints'". SPIN.com. SPIN MEDIA LLC. 2007-03-22. Retrieved 30 November 2008. Live at Fingerprints at AllMusic Junketboy, independent distributor Fingerprints, record shop

December 17 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

December 16 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - December 18 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on December 30 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar. For December 17th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on December 4. Holy Prophet Daniel and the Three Holy Youths: Ananias and Misael. Monk-martyrs Patermuthius and Coprius, Martyr Alexander the Soldier, of Egypt Martyr Bacchus, from Triglia, by the sword. Venerable Daniel the Confessor of Spain and Egypt Saints Athanasius and Anthony, disciples of Athanasius the Athonite and founders of Vatopedi monastery, Mt. Athos Saint Maxentiolus, a disciple of St Martin of Tours in France, he founded Our Lady of Cunault Saint Tydecho of Wales, brother of Saint Cadfan Saint Briarch, born in Ireland, became a monk in Wales with St Tudwal, whom he accompanied to Brittany, built a monastery in Guingamp and reposed in Bourbiac Saint Judicaël, son of Hoel and king of Domnonia and Brittany, much loved by his people, spent the last twenty years of his life in the monastery of Gäel near Vannes Saint Begga and Abbess of a convent in Andenne on the Meuse in Belgium Saint Sturm and Apostle of Saxony, founder of Fulda Monastery Saint Eigil of Fulda, the fourth abbot of Fulda New Martyr Nicetas of Nyssa Saint Dionysios of Zakynthos, Archbishop of Aegina Saint Misael of Abalatsk, Hieromonk New Hieromartyrs Paisius, Abbot of Trnava and Abbacum, Deacon, at Belgrade.

New Hieromartyr Sergius Florinsky, Priest of Rakvere, Estonia New Hieromartyr Nicholas Beltiukov, Protopresbyter of Perm New Hieromartyr Alexander Savelov, Priest of Perm New Hieromartyr John Zemlyani, Priest of Alma-Ata New Hieromartyr Peter Pokrovsky, Priest Repose of Elder Hadji George of Mt. Athos Repose of Hiero-schemamonk Daniel, poet of Romania Repose of lay elder Panagis of Ilami, Cyprus December 17/30. Orthodox Calendar. December 30 / December 17. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. December 17. OCA - The Lives of the Saints; the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas. St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press. P. 94. December 17. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome; the Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. Greek Sources Great Synaxaristes: 17 ΔΕΚΕΜΒΡΙΟΥ.

ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. Συναξαριστής. 17 Δεκεμβρίου. ECCLESIA. GR.. Russian Sources 30 декабря. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла.. 17 декабря 30 декабря 2013. Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей

Medium Mark III

The Medium Mark III was a medium tank developed in the United Kingdom during the Interwar period. The tank was unsuccessful with only 3 built; the design did not directly derive from that of the earlier Medium Mark II tank. In 1926, the British War Office wanted to replace their existing Mark II tanks with a new design. In May the Royal Tank Corps Centre was asked for its opinion. One of the requirements was a weight limit of 15.5 long tons, which led to the nickname "16-tonners". Other specifications included that it could transported by rail, a sufficient supply of lubrication oil to match the range of the tank, a wireless set, a gun capable of defeating enemy armour at a range of at least a 1,000 yd, fuel tanks external to the main compartments and bottom armour sufficient to withstand heavy machine-gun fire, when exposed climbing a crest. Furthermore the machine should be as silent as possible, as with previous types the engine noise tended to incapacitate the crew; the War Office added some extra requirements: a separate engine compartment.

In September Vickers, given the order to build a prototype, proposed a first design based on the Vickers A1E1 Independent, with the fighting compartment in front and the engine compartment at the back. There would be a central two-man turret with a coaxial machine-gun. In the front of the hull were to be placed two secondary machine-gun turrets, each with a twin Vickers machine gun. A third machine-gun turret was intended to be mounted at the back of the vehicle, behind the main turret, which would be armed with an anti-aircraft weapon. A crew of seven men was needed. Maximum armour would be basis armour 6.5 mm, limiting the weight to fourteen tons. Riveted plates were used; the total fuel supply would be 120 imp gal: ten in gravity feeding the engine. Two engine options were indicated a 120 hp engine would allow for a speed of 14 mph and a 180 hp engine would raise this to 20 mph; the result was called A6. In March 1927 a wooden mock-up was presented and after approval a second and prototype were ordered which had to incorporate the new hydraulically operated Wilson epicyclic steering gearbox, the predecessor of the Merrit-Brown gearbox.

By June 1928, A6E1 and A6E2 were presented to the Mechanized Warfare Experimental Establishment for trials. Vickers was on this occasion ordered to add armour skirts but keep within the weight limit if it meant removing armour elsewhere. A6E1, A6E2 and A6E3 were fitted with an Armstrong Siddeley air-cooled V8 180 hp engine giving a maximum speed of 26 mph. A6E2 was fitted with the Ricardo CI 180 hp engine but this was not satisfactory and the Armstrong-Siddeley was refitted. A6E3 was re-engined with the Thornycroft 6V 500 hp, a slow revving marine engine, it was proposed to combine two Rolls-Royce Phantom engines with the Wilson transmission system on the A6E1 but this was rejected on grounds of expense. A6E2 was refitted with the AS V8 180 hp; the guns were proved that the twin-machine gun arrangement was unworkable. The A6E3, under construction, was fitted with a simplified design with a single machine-gun; the AA-turret was removed from A6E1 but the suspension and the gunnery arrangements were distinctly inferior to those of the Mark II.

It was decided to discontinue the type and use the three vehicles as test-beds for the automotive parts. In 1929, Vickers submitted three alternative suspension designs which were fitted to the respective prototypes. Only in 1934 was a satisfactory type; the disappointment of the A6 led to the "Medium Mark III", being ordered in 1928 and constructed from 1930. It featured a new turret and improved armour; the turret had a bulge at the back to hold the radio set. The secondary machine-gun turrets were moved more to the front to shift the centre of gravity of the vehicle forward to improve its stability and larger brakes were fitted. In 1933 trials were completed of the first two prototypes; the failings of the suspension continued. Three Mark IIIs, E1, E2 and E3, were built, one by Vickers and two by the Royal Ordnance Factory at Woolwich; the third had an improved suspension and in 1934, the vehicles were taken into use by the HQ of the Tank Brigade. No orders followed due to its high price. One Mark III was fitted as a command vehicle with an extra radio aerial around the turret.

This was used by Brigadier Percy Hobart for the Salisbury Plain exercises during 1934. Duncan, N. W.. Mediums Marks I–III. AFV in Profile No. 12. Windsor: Profile