The War of the First Coalition is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the Kingdom of the French and the French Republic that succeeded it. They were only allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Relations between the French revolutionaries with neighbouring monarchies had deteriorated following the Declaration of Pillnitz in August 1791. Eight months following a vote of the revolutionary-led Legislative Assembly, France declared war on the Habsburg Monarchy on 20 April 1792. In July 1792, an army under the Duke of Brunswick and composed of Prussians joined the Austrian side and invaded France, only to be rebuffed at the Battle of Valmy in September. One day the new French Republic was proclaimed. Subsequently these powers made several invasions of France by land and sea, with Prussia and Austria attacking from the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhine, the Kingdom of Great Britain supporting revolts in provincial France and laying siege to Toulon in October 1793.
France responded with draconian measures. The Committee of Public Safety formed and the levée en masse drafted all potential soldiers aged 18 to 25; the new French armies counterattacked, repelled the invaders, advanced beyond France. The French established the Batavian Republic as a sister republic and gained Prussian recognition of French control of the Left Bank of the Rhine by the first Peace of Basel. With the Treaty of Campo Formio, the Holy Roman Empire ceded the Austrian Netherlands to France and Northern Italy was turned into several French sister republics. Spain made a separate peace accord with France and the French Directory carried out plans to conquer more of the Holy Roman Empire. North of the Alps, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen redressed the situation in 1796, but Napoleon carried all before him against Sardinia and Austria in northern Italy near the Po Valley, culminating in the Treaty of Leoben and the Treaty of Campo Formio; the First Coalition collapsed. For the full article, see French Revolution As early as 1791, other monarchies in Europe were watching the developments in France with alarm, considered intervening, either in support of Louis XVI or to take advantage of the chaos in France.
The key figure, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, brother of the French Queen Marie Antoinette, had looked on the Revolution calmly. He became concerned as the Revolution grew more radical, although he still hoped to avoid war. On 27 August 1791, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with émigré French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which declared the concern of the monarchs of Europe for the well-being of Louis and his family, threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Although Leopold saw the Pillnitz Declaration as a way of taking action that would enable him to avoid doing anything about France, at least for the moment, Paris saw the Declaration as a serious threat and the revolutionary leaders denounced it. In addition to the ideological differences between France and the monarchical powers of Europe, disputes continued over the status of Imperial estates in Alsace, the French authorities became concerned about the agitation of émigré nobles abroad in the Austrian Netherlands and in the minor states of Germany.
In the end, France declared war on Austria first, with the Assembly voting for war on 20 April 1792, after the presentation of a long list of grievances by the newly appointed foreign minister Charles François Dumouriez. Dumouriez prepared an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. However, the revolution had disorganized the French army, which had insufficient forces for the invasion, its soldiers fled at the first sign of battle, deserting en masse, in one case murdering General Théobald Dillon. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganized its armies, an allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Koblenz on the Rhine; the invasion commenced in July 1792. Brunswick's army, composed of Prussian veterans, took the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun; the Duke issued a declaration on 25 July 1792, written by the brothers of Louis XVI, that declared his intent to restore the French King to his full powers, to treat any person or town who opposed him as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law.
This motivated the revolutionary army and government to oppose the Prussian invaders by any means necessary, led immediately to the overthrow of the King by a crowd which stormed the Tuileries Palace. The invaders continued on, but at the Battle of Valmy on 20 September 1792 they came to a stalemate against Dumouriez and Kellermann in which the professional French artillery distinguished itself. Although the battle was a tactical draw, it bought time for the revolutionaries and gave a great boost to French morale. Furthermore, the Prussians, facing a campaign longer and more costly than predicted, decided against the cost and risk of continued fighting, determined to retreat from France to preserve their army. Meanwhile, the French had been suc
The Paschal Greeting known as the Easter Acclamation, is an Easter custom among Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Anglican Christians. It is found among some Christians from liturgical Protestant denominations, such as certain Lutherans. In place of "hello" or its equivalent, one is to greet another person with "Christ is Risen!" or "The Lord is Risen!", the response is "Truly, He is Risen," "Indeed, He is Risen," or "He is Risen Indeed". In some cultures, such as in Russia and Serbia, it is customary to exchange a triple kiss of peace on the alternating cheeks after the greeting. Similar responses are used in the liturgies of other Christian churches, but not so much as general greetings. Greek – Χριστὸς ἀνέστη! Ἀληθῶς ἀνέστη! Church Slavonic – Хрїсто́съ воскре́се! Вои́стинꙋ воскре́се! List of translations of the Paschal greeting The Origin and Meaning of the Paschal Greeting, Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Washington, DC
Jordon Hodges is an American actor and producer known for his role as Noah Daly in the 2014 drama film Sand Castles. Jordon Hodges was born in Goshen and attended Northridge High School, he relocated to Los Angeles to pursue his acting career in 2010. Hodges made his debut in 2008’s comedy film Fraternity House alongside actors Johnny Lechner and Joel Paul Reisig, which became part of the German franchise College Animals and is now known as College Animals 3. Hodges starred in the 2011 thriller film opposite actors Emme Rylan and Robert Miano. In 2011, he appeared in the horror film Deadly Karma. In 2012, he starred in the historical drama film Mary’s Buttons, based on a true story and follows the criminal trial of Mrs. August Govare, who ordered her 15-year-old-son to shoot Sheriff Matthews of Macomb County, Michigan in December 1910. In 2014, Hodges appeared in Sand Castles, opposite actors Anne Winters, Saxon Trainor and Clint Howard, which premiered in Los Angeles in June 2014 during Dances With Films at the TCL Chinese Theatre.
The role of Noah Daly earned Hodges multiple awards and nominations including: Winner for "Best Lead Actor" at New York City's Visionfest and the Horse of Leonardo da Vinci nomination for "Best Lead Actor" and winner for "Best Ensemble Cast" at Milan, Italy's MIFF Awards. Hodges is set to star in Chris Faulisi's upcoming 80s adventure The Shade Shepherd, a film set to release in early 2019. In 2014, Hodges became the Director of Programming of the River Bend Film Festival in his hometown of Goshen, Indiana after pitching an idea to the committee to relocate it there from South Bend, Indiana where it had been the previous 14 years; the attendance more than tripled in its first year, bringing filmmakers in from all over the United States. Jordon Hodges on IMDb Jordon Hodges on Twitter River Bend Film Festival