Portuguese Restoration War
The revolution of 1640 ended the 60-year rule of Portugal by the Spanish Habsburgs. Spain was involved in the Thirty Years War until 1648 and the Franco–Spanish War until 1659, in the seventeenth century and afterwards, this period of sporadic conflict was simply known, in Portugal and elsewhere, as the Acclamation War. The war established the House of Braganza as Portugals new ruling dynasty and this ended the so-called Iberian Union. When Philip II of Portugal died, he was succeeded by Philip III, taxes on the Portuguese merchants were raised, the Portuguese nobility began to lose its influence at the Spanish Cortes, and government posts in Portugal were increasingly occupied by Spaniards. Ultimately, Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province and this situation culminated in a revolution organized by the nobility and bourgeoisie, executed on 1 December 1640, sixty years after the crowning of Philip I, the first dual monarch. The plot was planned by Antão Vaz de Almada, Miguel de Almeida, the moment was well chosen, Philips troops were, at the time, fighting the Thirty Years War and facing a revolution in Catalonia which became known as the Reapers War.
By 2 December 1640, the day following the coup, John IV, the ensuing conflict with Spain brought Portugal into the Thirty Years War as, at least, a peripheral player. Immediately after assuming the Portuguese throne, João IV took several steps to strengthen his position, on 11 December 1640, a Council of War was created to organize all of the operations. Next, the created the Junta of the Frontiers to take care of the fortresses near the border, the hypothetical defense of Lisbon. A year later, in December 1641, he created a tenancy to assure that all of the fortresses would be upgraded. João IV organized the army, re-established the Military Laws of King Sebastian, after gaining several small victories, João tried to make peace quickly. In 1640, Cardinal Richelieu, the adviser to Louis XIII of France, was fully aware of the fact that France was operating under strained circumstances. In addition, Philip IV controlled large territories in Italy, where he could, at will, Spain had enjoyed a reputation as having the most formidable military force in Europe, a reputation they had gained with the introduction of the arquebus and the so-called Spanish School.
This reputation and tactic had however diminished with the Thirty Years War, the consummate statesman, decided to force Philip IV to look to his own internal problems. In order to divert the Spanish troops besieging France, Louis XIII, on the advice of Richelieu and this was done on the reasoning that a Portuguese war would drain Spanish resources and manpower. To fulfill the common interests of Portugal and France, a treaty of alliance between the two countries was concluded at Paris on 1 June 1641. The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in 1659, under the terms of which France received the portion of Catalonia north of the Pyrenees, known as the Roussillon, most important to the Portuguese, the French recognised Philip IV of Spain as the legitimate king of Portugal. At the time of the revolution in Lisbon, the Portuguese had been at war with the Dutch for nearly forty years, Portugal was in a defensive posture throughout, and it received very little military help from Spain
Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham
Field Marshal Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham PC was a British soldier and Whig politician. During the War of the Quadruple Alliance Temple led a force of 4,000 troops on a raid on the Spanish coastline which captured Vigo, in Parliament he generally supported the Whigs but fell out with Sir Robert Walpole in 1733. He was known for his ownership of and modifications to the estate at Stowe Park and for serving as a political mentor to the young William Pitt. After becoming a captain in Babingtons Regiment in 1689, he fought under William III during the Williamite War in Ireland, promoted to lieutenant colonel on 10 February 1702, he was given his own regiment to command. He fought under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough at the Battle of Venlo in September 1702 and he took part in the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708 and the Siege of Lille in Autumn 1708. For his good conduct at Lille he was sent home to present the despatches to Queen Anne, in Parliament he supported the Whigs and voted for the Foreign Protestants Naturalization Act 1708 which allowed Protestants fleeing from the continent to enter Great Britain.
Promoted to major-general on 1 January 1709, he fought again at the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 and was promoted to lieutenant general on 1 January 1710. In Parliament, in accordance with Whig party policy, he voted for the impeachment of Henry Sacheverell, in recognition of his service in the field, Temple was appointed colonel of the Princess Anne of Denmarks Regiment of Dragoons in April 1710. In 1713 the Harley Ministry stripped Temple of his colonelcy for voting against the Treaty of Utrecht, after George I ascended the throne, Temple became ambassador to Vienna and was created Baron Cobham in October 1714. He became colonel of The Royal Regiment of Dragoons in 1715 and he was made a Privy Councillor in July 1716 and created Viscount Cobham in April 1718. Temple was a mentor and Patron to a number of young Whigs, collectively they became known as Cobhams Cubs. Two of them and Temples nephew George Grenville went on to be Prime Minister. In September 1719 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance Temple led a force of 4,000 troops on a raid on the Spanish coastline which captured Vigo and occupied it for ten days before withdrawing.
Temple generally supported the government of Sir Robert Walpole once it came to power in April 1721 and was rewarded with the colonelcy of the Kings Own Regiment of Horse that year and he became Governor of Jersey in May 1723 and Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire in March 1728. Temple fell out with Prime Minister Robert Walpole in 1733 and formed a faction in the Whig Party to oppose the Excise Bill which resulted in his being stripped of his colonelcy again and he was promoted to full general on 27 October 1735. Temple provided patronage to the star of the Whig Party, William Pitt. The group of Temples young supporters were known as Cobhams Cubs and included Richard Grenville, George Grenville and George Lyttelton, after Walpoles fall as Prime Minister in 1742, they turned their attacks on his replacement – a government led by Lord Wilmington and Lord Carteret. He died at Stowe Park on 13 September 1749 and was buried there
Spain and the American Revolutionary War
Spains role in the independence of Britains Thirteen Colonies was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Spain actively supported the Thirteen Colonies throughout the American Revolutionary War, beginning in 1776, it jointly funded Roderigue Hortalez and Company, a trading company that provided critical military supplies. Spain provided financing for the final Siege of Yorktown in 1781 with a collection of gold and silver in Havana, smuggling from New Orleans began in 1776, when General Charles Lee sent two Continental Army officers to request supplies from the New Orleans Governor, Luis de Unzaga. Unzaga, concerned about overtly antagonizing the British before the Spanish were prepared for war, Unzaga authorized the shipment of desperately needed gunpowder in a transaction brokered by Oliver Pollock, a Patriot and financier. When Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez was appointed Governor of New Orleans in January 1777, during the Seven Years War, the British had attacked and occupied two of Spains key trading ports and Manila in 1762.
In the peace settlement of 1763 Spain recovered Havana by ceding Florida, including St. Augustine, the Spanish ministers had concerns about Spains geographic neighbor Portugal, an ally of the British, and about Spains immensely wealthy treasure fleet that was due to sail from Havana. Genoese by birth and a shrewdly calculating politician by nature, Grimaldi demurred, You have considered your own situation, the moment is not yet come for us. The war with Portugal — France being unprepared, and our treasure ships from South America not being arrived — makes it improper for us to declare immediately. Meanwhile, Grimaldi reassured Lee, stores of clothing and powder were deposited at New Orleans and Havana for the Americans, by June 1779 the Spanish had finalized their preparations for war. The British cause seemed to be at a low ebb. The Spanish joined France in the war, implementing the Treaty of Aranjuez signed in April 1779, the siege of Gibraltar, June 16,1779 to February 7,1783, was the longest lasting Spanish action in the war.
Luis de Córdova y Córdova was unable to prevent Howes fleet returning home after resupplying Gibraltar in October 1782, in 1780 and 1781, Luis de Córdovas fleet captured America-bound British convoys, doing much damage to British military supplies and commerce. In the Caribbean, the effort was directed to prevent possible British landings in Cuba. Other goals included the reconquest of Florida, and the resolution of logging disputes involving the British in Belize and this secured the southern route for supplies and closed off the possibility of any British offensive into the western frontier of United States via the Mississippi River. When Spain entered the war, Britain went on the offensive in the Caribbean, at the end of the Seven Years War, France gave the Mississippi Valley to her ally Spain, in order to prevent it from coming under British control at the Treaty of Paris. The Spanish assisted the Thirteen Colonies in their campaigns in the American Midwest, in January 1778, Virginia Governor Patrick Henry authorized an expedition by George Rogers Clark, who captured the fort at Vincennes and secured the northern region of the Ohio for the rebels.
Clark relied on Gálvez and Oliver Pollock for support to supply his men with weapons and ammunition, the credit lines that Pollock established to purchase supplies for Clark were supposed to be backed by the state of Virginia. However, Pollock in turn had to rely on his own credit and Gálvez
Spanish conquest of Sardinia
The Spanish conquest of Sardinia, known as the Spanish expedition to Sardinia, took place between the months of August and November 1717. It was the first military action between the Kingdom of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire after the War of the Spanish Succession, after the War of the Spanish Succession, with the Treaty of Rastatt, Spain lost all its possessions in Sardinia and the Low Countries. The Kingdom of Sardinia, the Spanish Netherlands, the Duchy of Milan and these territories had been under Spanish rule for nearly two centuries, and their loss was perceived as a great blow to the country in both practical and prestige terms. With this background, and the arrest in Milan of Spanish Grand Inquisitor Jose Molina by the Austrians, in July, the King of Spain ordered the Spanish fleet, prepared in Barcelona, to conquer Sardinia, initiating hostilities with Austria. The bulk of the Spanish expedition sailed from the port of Barcelona on July 24, the fleet, under the command of the Marquis de Mari, consisted of nine ships of the line, six frigates, three galleys, two fireships and 80 transport and merchant ships.
The army was 8,500 infantry and 500 cavalry commanded by the Marquis of Lede, on 22 August, the Spanish forces landed in Sardinia, and in just two months reconquered the whole island, whose defenses were commanded by the Marquis of Rubi. Only the strongholds of Alghero and Castellaragonese and the important city of Cagliari resisted. But soon the Austrian troops in Cagliari commanded by Rubi, in the absence of reinforcements, decided to flee to the north of the island, and on 4 October, the Spanish took the city. A few days later, on 19 October, Spanish troops led by Lede and the Duke of Montemar laid siege to Alghero, Castellaragonese fell on 30 October, and the Spanish victory was complete. The Treaty of Passarowitz ended the war between the Ottoman Empire and Austria, and on 2 August, this led to the formation of the Quadruple Alliance, the Spanish forces captured Palermo on 7 July, and divided their army in two. De Lede followed the coast to besiege Messina between 18 July and 30 September, while the Duke of Montemar conquered the rest of the island, the French and British demanded that the Spanish withdraw from Sicily and Sardinia.
The attitude of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy was ambiguous, as he accepted negotiations with the Spanish Prime Minister, Cardinal Alberoni, armada Española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón. EDAF ISBN 978-84-414-2121-9 Alonso Aguilera, Miguel Ángel, La Conquista y el dominio español de Cerdeña 1717-1720. Historia General de España Madrid Chandler, David G, the Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. Spellmount Limited ISBN 0-946771-42-1 Suárez Fernández, historia general de España y América, La España de las reformas, Hasta el final del reinado de Carlos IV. ISBN 84-321-2119-3 Isabella Farnese List of viceroys of Sardinia List of viceroys of Sicily Triple Alliance Quadruple Alliance
Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spains foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746, from 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent. Elisabeth was born at the Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, daughter of Odoardo Farnese, Elisabeth would become the heiress of her fathers dominions after her uncle Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma and his younger brother both remained childless. Elisabeth was raised in seclusion in an apartment in the Palace in Parma and she had a difficult relationship with her mother, but was reportedly deeply devoted to her uncle-stepfather. She was a student within dance, studied painting under Pierantonio Avanzini and enjoyed music. She survived a virulent attack of smallpox shortly after the War of the Spanish Succession and she was therefore made many marriage proposals. Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont and Francesco dEste, Hereditary Prince of Modena both asked for her hand but negotiations failed, as well as Prince Pio della Mirandola.
The Duchy of Parma would be inherited by her first son, after his accession to the Spanish throne, the title passed on to her third son, Infante Felipe. It was he who founded the modern day House of Bourbon-Parma, on 16 September 1714 she was married by proxy at Parma to Philip V of Spain. The marriage was arranged by the ambassador of Parma, Cardinal Alberoni, with the concurrence of the Princesse des Ursins, Elisabeth was a natural choice for Philip V because of the traditional Spanish interests in Italian provinces, as she was the heir of the Parmesan throne. Elisabeth left Parma in September and traveled to Spain by land in a retinue led by Marquis Schotta, originally intended to travel by sea, she became ill in Genova, and the plans were therefore altered. On her way to Spain, she met the Prince of Monaco and the French ambassador, Elisabeth spent several days in Bayonne in November as guest of her maternal aunt, the Queen Dowager Maria Anna of Spain. At the Franco-Spanish border, she was met by Alberoni, who spent several days warning her against des Ursins, upon entrance to Spain, she refused to part with her Italian retinue in exchange with a Spanish one, as had originally been planned.
On 23 December at Jadraque, Elisabeth met the Princesse des Ursins, the princess had sent out spies who reported that Elisabeth was in fact not at all a timid person who would be easy to control. Elisabeth received des Ursins and asked to speak with her privately, shortly after, the party could hear the sounds of a violent argument, after which des Ursins was arrested and immediately escorted over the border to France. There have been different versions of this incident, and different suggestions as to how it occurred. Her chief adviser was Alberoni, who guided her as how to protect the interests of herself and Parma, while he himself, Queen Elisabeth quickly obtained complete influence over Philip, who himself wished to be dominated. Reportedly she had physical charm and purposefulness, she was intelligent and could converse, be gay and charming, the king did not live in his own apartments but in the queens, where he spent the whole night
War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a vast global empire, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled the governments of Europe, the English, the Dutch and the Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708, the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured victory in the Spanish Netherlands and in Italy, France faced invasion and ruin, but Allied unity broke first. With the Grand Alliance defeated in Spain and with its casualties mounting and aims diverging and British ministers prepared the groundwork for a peace conference, and in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. The Dutch and German states fought on to strengthen their own negotiating position, the Treaty of Utrecht and the Treaty of Rastatt partitioned the Spanish empire between the major and minor powers. The European balance of power was assured, in the late 1690s the declining health of King Charles II of Spain brought to a head the problem of his succession, a problem which had underlain much of European diplomacy for several decades.
The empire was in decline, but remained the largest of the European overseas empires, unlike the French crown, the Spanish crowns could all be inherited by, or through, a female in default of a male line. The next in line after Charles II, were his two sisters, Maria Theresa, the elder, and Margaret Theresa, the younger, Maria Theresa had married Louis XIV in 1660 and by him she had a son, Dauphin of France. The testament of her father, Philip IV, reiterated this waiver and bequeathed the reversion of the whole of the Spanish dominions to his younger daughter, Margaret Theresa. However the French, using in part the excuse that the dowry promised Maria Theresa was never paid, nor was it clear whether a princess could waive the rights of her unborn children. Leopold I married Margaret Theresa in 1666, at her death in 1673 she left one living heir, Maria Antonia, who in 1685 married Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. Shortly before her death in 1692, she gave birth to a son, if he chose, Louis XIV could attempt to assert his will on Spain by force of arms, but the Nine Years War had been an immense drain on Frances resources.
To seek a solution and gain support, Louis XIV turned to his long-standing rival William of Orange. England and the Dutch Republic had their own commercial and political interests within the Spanish empire, the Maritime Powers were in a weakened state and both had reduced their forces at the conclusion of the Nine Years War. Louis XIV and William III, sought to solve the problem of the Spanish inheritance through negotiation, based on the principle of partition, to take effect after the death of Charles II. However, the bulk of the empire – most of peninsular Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, the Spanish Empire was now divided between the three surviving candidates. By this new treaty Archduke Charles would receive most of Spain, the Spanish Netherlands and the overseas empire. For Leopold I, control of Spain and its empire was less important than Italy
Count Claude Florimond de Mercy
Count Claudius Florimund de Mercy was an Imperial field marshal, born at Longwy in Lorraine, now in France. Mercy entered the Austrian army as a volunteer in 1682 and he won his commission at the great Battle of Vienna in the following year, and during seven years of campaigning in Hungary rose to the rank of Rittmeister. A wound sustained at this time permanently injured his sight, with this he took part in the Rhine campaign of 1703, and the Battle of Friedlingen, and his success as an intrepid leader of raids and forays became well known to friend and foe. He was on that account selected early in 1704 to harry the dominions of Maximilian II Emanuel and he was soon afterwards promoted to Generalfeldwachtmeister, in which rank he was engaged in the Battle of Schellenberg. In the rest of the war he was distinguished by his fiery courage. He rose to be general of cavalry in the course of ten years. His resolute leadership was conspicuous at the Battle of Peterwardein and he was afterwards made commander of the Banat of Temesvar.
At the great Battle of Belgrade he led the line of left wing cavalry in a brilliant. After the peace he resumed the administration of the Banat, which more than 150 years of Turkish rule needed a capable governor. But before his work was done he was once more called away to a command in the field, this time in southern Italy, for eleven years more he administered the Banat, reorganizing the country as a prosperous and civilized community. Mercy was killed on 29 June at the Battle of Parma while personally leading his troops and he left no children, and his name passed to Count Argenteau, from whom came the family of Mercy-Argenteau. He was the father of Florimund Count de Mercy dArgenteau. On 3 August 2009 a bust of the count was unveiled in Central Park and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed