Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is an 842-square-mile federally protected marine sanctuary located at the mouth of Massachusetts Bay, between Cape Cod and Cape Ann. It is known as an excellent whale watching site, is home to many other species of marine life; the sanctuary lies within Massachusetts Bay, 25 miles east of Boston, 5 miles east of Gloucester, 5 miles north of Provincetown, Massachusetts. The heart of the sanctuary is Stellwagen Bank, an underwater plateau stretching 19 miles north to south, six miles across at its widest, near the southern end; the bank is, on average, 100 to 120 feet below the surface, while surrounding waters to the west are over 300 feet deep and to the northeast as deep as 600 feet. The steep sides of the plateau cause deep-water currents to rise up. Over 130 species from numerous classes of the animal kingdom call the bank home at least temporarily; some such fish are the Atlantic cod, silver hake, yellow-tail flounder, blue-fin and yellow-fin tuna, striped bass, blue fish and numerous species of shark including the great white shark.
Shellfish such as the American lobster, sea scallops and ocean quahogs are prevalent. Many marine birds call the bank home including gannets, storm petrels, fulmars and razorbills. Reptiles are present being represented by the leatherback sea turtle; the most famous animals on Stellwagen Bank are the mammals. Five species of seals, numerous whale species swim in the waters of Stellwagen. Whale watchers can see humpback whales, minke whales and fin whales. There are occasional sightings of one of the most critically endangered whale species, North Atlantic right whale. Several other whale species can be seen here including the sperm whale, orca, pilot whale, White-beaked dolphin, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, harbor porpoise, blue whale, sei whale. Stellwagen Bank owes much of its existence to the last major ice age. 25,000 years ago, the Laurentide ice sheet advanced over the eastern United States, pushing in front of it large amounts of earth and rocks.
The southern margin of the glaciers formed local geographical features including Cape Cod and Stellwagen Bank. The bank was above water, but subsided over time as the post-glacial rebound subsided. In the 17th century it was observed. Large cod and tuna were caught in the area, whaling ships caught many whales in the area. In 1854, the US Navy map the area, it was known that there was a bank in the area. Sounding could show ships how close they were to the dangerous waters of Boston Harbor, so better maps were needed. Prior to Stellwagen's survey, it was believed there were two small banks in the area: one just to the north of Cape Cod, one in the middle of the entrance to Massachusetts Bay. Stellwagen showed; as a result, the Navy named the bank after him in 1855. On October 7, 1992, Congress designated the area a National Marine Sanctuary. In 1999, the DeepWorker 2000 submersible was used to quantify the species of fish as well as the space resources within the Sanctuary. Remotely operated underwater vehicles were used from 1993 to 2003 to make additional observations of the fish within the Sanctuary and adjacent locations.
The Sanctuary's headquarters is located in Massachusetts. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary homepage
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
An equinox is regarded as the instant of time when the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun. This occurs 23 September. In other words, it is the moment at which the center of the visible Sun is directly above the Equator; the word is derived from aequus and nox. On the day of an equinox and nighttime are of equal duration all over the planet, they are not equal, due to the angular size of the Sun, atmospheric refraction, the changing duration of the length of day that occurs at most latitudes around the equinoxes. Long before conceiving this equality primitive cultures noted the day when the Sun rises due East and sets due West and indeed this happens on the day closest to the astronomically defined event. In the northern hemisphere, the equinox in March is called the Spring Equinox; the dates are variable, dependent as they are on the leap year cycle. Because the Moon cause the motion of the Earth to vary from a perfect ellipse, the equinox is now defined by the Sun's more regular ecliptic longitude rather than by its declination.
The instants of the equinoxes are defined to be when the longitude of the Sun is 0° and 180°. Systematically observing the sunrise, people discovered that it occurs between two extreme locations at the horizon and noted the midpoint between the two, it was realized that this happens on a day when the durations of the day and the night are equal and the word "equinox" comes from Latin Aequus, meaning "equal", Nox, meaning "night". In the northern hemisphere, the vernal equinox conventionally marks the beginning of spring in most cultures and is considered the start of the New Year in the Assyrian calendar and the Persian calendar or Iranian calendars as Nowruz, while the autumnal equinox marks the beginning of autumn; the equinoxes are the only times. As a result, the northern and southern hemispheres are illuminated. In other words, the equinoxes are the only times when the subsolar point is on the equator, meaning that the Sun is overhead at a point on the equatorial line; the subsolar point crosses the equator moving northward at the March equinox and southward at the September equinox.
When Julius Caesar established the Julian calendar in 45 BC, he set 25 March as the date of the spring equinox. Because the Julian year is longer than the tropical year by about 11.3 minutes on average, the calendar "drifted" with respect to the two equinoxes – so that in AD 300 the spring equinox occurred on about 21 March, by AD 1500 it had drifted backwards to 11 March. This drift induced Pope Gregory XIII to create the modern Gregorian calendar; the Pope wanted to continue to conform with the edicts of the Council of Nicaea in AD 325 concerning the date of Easter, which means he wanted to move the vernal equinox to the date on which it fell at that time, to maintain it at around that date in the future, which he achieved by reducing the number of leap years from 100 to 97 every 400 years. However, there remained a small residual variation in the date and time of the vernal equinox of about ±27 hours from its mean position all because the distribution of 24-hour centurial leap days causes large jumps.
This in turn raised the possibility that it could fall on 22 March, thus Easter Day might theoretically commence before the equinox. The astronomers chose the appropriate number of days to omit so that the equinox would swing from 19 to 21 March but never fall on 22 March; the dates of the equinoxes change progressively during the leap-year cycle, because the Gregorian calendar year is not commensurate with the period of the Earth's revolution about the Sun. It is only after a complete Gregorian leap-year cycle of 400 years that the seasons commence at the same time. In the 21st century the earliest March equinox will be 19 March 2096, while the latest was 21 March 2003; the earliest September equinox will be 21 September 2096 while the latest was 23 September 2003. Vernal equinox and autumnal equinox: these classical names are direct derivatives of Latin; these are the universal and still most used terms for the equinoxes, but are confusing because in the southern hemisphere the vernal equinox does not occur in spring and the autumnal equinox does not occur in autumn.
The equivalent common language English terms spring equinox and autumn equinox are more ambiguous. It has become common for people to refer to the September equinox in the southern hemisphere as the Vernal equinox. March equinox and September equinox: names referring to the months of the year in which they occur, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, they are still not universal, however, as not all cultures use a solar-based calendar where the equinoxes occur every year in the same month. Although the terms have become common in the 21st century, they were sometimes used at least as long ago as the mid-20th century. Northward equinox and southward equinox: names referring to the appare
John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site
The John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site is the birthplace and childhood home of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States; the house is at 83 Beals Street in the Coolidge Corner neighborhood of Massachusetts. The property is now owned by the National Park Service; the Kennedy home was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, was established as a National Historic Site on May 26, 1967. The house was purchased by Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr. on 20 August 1914 in preparation for his marriage to Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald on 7 October 1914. John and his sisters Rosemary and Kathleen were born in the upstairs master bedroom; the family lived there until 1920, when the growth of the family motivated the Kennedys to move to a larger home just a few blocks away on the corner of Abbottsford and Naples Roads. The Kennedys sold the Beals Street house to his family; the Kennedys lived in the Abbottsford Road home until 1927, when Joe Kennedy's business interests prompted the family's move to Riverdale, New York.
The Kennedy family was the third owner of the house on Beals Street. It was built in a period of rapid growth in Brookline; the Kennedys moved into the home the last on the street, after returning from their honeymoon in 1914. A few months after they were married, Joe Kennedy purchased a new Model T Ford that he used to commute to downtown, where he worked as the president of the Columbia Trust Bank; the "T" line to Coolidge Corner existed. Rose Kennedy would walk from the Beals Street house down to the shopping district in Coolidge Corner, where there was a S. S. Pierce store -- which replaced the Brothers General Store -- among the other shops. Brookline was a growing suburb of Boston, it appealed to the growing Kennedy family because the suburbs would have more space for the children to play than if they were raised in the crowded inner city of Boston. In 1966, the Kennedy family repurchased the home. From 1966 to 1969, Rose Kennedy restored it to her recollection of its 1917 appearance, she wanted to restore the home to the hour of John's birth, but the home paints a picture of a typical American home 1914–1920.
About 19% of the artifacts in the home are original to the Kennedy family, either used in the Beals Street residence or in homes and returned to Beals Street during the restoration. Rose Kennedy worked with an interior designer named Robert Luddington as she restored the home, he was in charge of procuring the rest of the items in the home, which are either period antiques or reproductions. Rose Kennedy donated the home to the National Park Service in 1967 as a memorial to her son, it is open to the public and visitors can take a ranger-guided tour or self-guided tours through the home. The house: Visitors can tour each of these rooms by both the ranger led and the self-guided tours; the basement is the visitors' entrance and National Park visitor center. There is a small Eastern National retail shop. Visitors can watch a film. Living room Visitors to the Kennedy home would have been shown into the living room, or parlor as it would have been called when the family lived there. Here, visitors can see both a space for formal entertaining within the home, but a space where the family would relax in the evenings when the children were getting ready for bed and when Joe Kennedy returned from his office in Boston.
The piano dominating the parlor belonged to Rose Kennedy and is one of the original pieces in the home. It was a wedding gift from two of her uncles. Dining room The dining room has the home's most complete collection of Kennedy artifacts; the china was Rose's wedding china. The table would not have been set with a formal place setting for day to day meals. Rose Kennedy sets the table this way because as she is turning the house into a museum, she is expecting company. Meals were a time for the family to have lively discussions about topics that ranged from history, to politics, current events and religion. Rose was fond of saying "history is shaped by those who get their ideas across" and mealtime discussions were a staple in the Kennedy home. Meals were a formal affair, with the family assembling in the dining room and the food brought from the kitchen by a uniformed maid. Master bedroom The master bedroom is where Jack and Kathleen Kennedy were born. Jack Kennedy was born at 3:00pm on May 29, 1917.
Rose Kennedy had seven of her nine children at home, the same doctor, Dr. Good, delivered all of them, as well as the final two who were born in a hospital; the bedroom has several photographs, including the 6 month old baby pictures of Joe Jr. Jack and Kathleen. Nursery The nursery has a bassinet that will hold each of the nine Kennedy children, as well as a christening cap, a number of books and toys Joe Jr. and Jack would have played with. Visitors can see Jack's two favorite books: "King Arthur and his Knights" and "Billy Whiskers and His Kids." Guest bedroom The guest bedroom showcases linens bearing Rose's initials - REF - and Rosemary Kennedy's toiletry set. The guest room was converted to a girl's bedroom as soon as Kathleen were born. Boudoir The boudoir was Rose's private space as well as her office space, she would use the desk to do her correspondence. The desk showcases a card file. Rose kept an index card for each of her children where she would list important milestones in their medical history - things like vaccinations, major illnesses and hospital stays, as well as birthdays and confirmation dates.
Jack Kennedy's card is on the desk. Ki
Salem Maritime National Historic Site
The Salem Maritime National Historic Site is a National Historic Site consisting of 12 historic structures, one replica tall-ship, about 9 acres of land along the waterfront of Salem Harbor in Salem, Massachusetts. Salem Maritime is the first National Historic Site established in the United States, it interprets the Triangle Trade during the colonial period, in cotton, rum and slaves. The National Park Service manages both the National Historic Site and a Regional Visitor Center in downtown Salem; the National Park Service is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. In 2014, the National Park Service, which runs the Salem Maritime National Historic Site, released figures and statistics for 2012: there were 756,038 visitors to Salem who spent an estimated $40,000,000; the National Park Service celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2016. The site preserves and interprets numerous maritime resources in the form of artifacts and structures, including: Derby House – built in 1762 by Captain Richard Derby as a wedding gift for his son, a fine example of Georgian architecture.
Derby was the first millionaire in the New World. Derby Wharf – Salem's longest wharf; when in active use, it was lined with warehouses of goods from around the world. The Derby Wharf Light remains at the end of the wharf. Friendship of Salem – a replica of a 1797 East Indiaman; the original Friendship made 15 voyages during her career: to Batavia, China, South America, the Caribbean, Germany, the Mediterranean, Russia. She was captured as a prize of the War of 1812 by the British in September 1812. Hawkes House – designed by famous Salem architect Samuel McIntire, building was begun in 1780; the unfinished building was completed around 1800 by Benjamin Hawkes. Narbonne House – The part of the house with the high peaked roof was built by butcher Thomas Ives, who added a lean-to the south side and a kitchen lean-to at the back. Around 1740 the southern lean-to was replaced by today's gambrel-roofed addition. From 1750 to 1780, the house was owned by Capt. Joseph Hodges, in 1780 the house was purchased by tanner Jonathan Andrew.
The house was lived in by descendants of the Andrew family from 1780 to 1964, when the house was sold to the National Park Service. Pedrick Store House, a three-story building, constructed around 1770, is a historic rigging and sail loft, relocated to the Salem Maritime National Historic Site from Marblehead, MA in 2007. Salem Custom House – the 13th Customs House in Salem. Taxes were collected on imported cargoes. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the eagle on top of the Custom House in his novel The Scarlet Letter; the eagle was carved by cabinetmaker Joseph True. Other works of his are in the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem. St. Joseph Hall – Original home of The St. Joseph Society, a fraternal society established by Polish immigrants; the first floor was retail space that could be rented out to provide an income for the support of the building. The large hall on the second floor was the site of hundreds of weddings, dances and other social events in the Polish community, which expanded in the late 19th-early 20th-century immigration wave.
On the top floor, the Society built several apartments to house new immigrants until they could get permanently settled. The building now serves as park headquarters. West India Goods Store – Built by Captain Henry Prince about 1804 and was first used as a warehouse, where Prince kept goods imported from the East Indies, such as pepper, water buffalo hides, tortoise shells. By 1836, Charles Dexter had a shop in this building, it was one of many that served the needs of Salem households by selling candles, clothing and glassware. Besides stocking general groceries such as grain, dried beans and rum, the store attracted customers with many foreign imported goods and luxuries from Europe and Africa; the store continued to operate as a retail space throughout the nineteenth century. Occupants included painters, a tobacconist, a wine and liquor merchant. A short walk from the Salem Maritime National Historic Site are the Chestnut Street District, Federal Street District, Downtown Salem District, Bridge Street Neck Historic District, Charter Street Historic District, Crombie Street District, Derby Waterfront District, Essex Institute Historic District, Salem Willows Historic District and the Salem Common Historic District.
List of maritime museums in the United States List of museum ships National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts List of lighthouses in the United States, Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts List of historic houses in Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in the United States Salem Maritime National Historic Site McIntire Historic District The Custom House Washington Square Historic District Architecture in the 17th and 18th Centuries in Salem Massachusetts 3D Model collection
The Concord River is a 16.3-mile-long tributary of the Merrimack River in eastern Massachusetts in the United States. The river drains a small suburban region northwest of Boston. One of the most famous small rivers in U. S. history, it was the scene of an important early battle of the American Revolutionary War and was the subject of a famous 19th-century book by Henry David Thoreau. The river begins in Middlesex County, formed by the confluence of the Sudbury and Assabet rivers at Egg Rock, near the Concord town center, it flows north, from eastern Concord, joining the Merrimack River from the south on the eastern side of Lowell. It is a flowing stream with little variation in topography along most of its route, its drainage basin includes 36 towns within Massachusetts. Native Americans called it the Musketaquid or "grass-grown" river, because its sluggish waters abound in aquatic or semi-aquatic vegetation and its banks are fringed with wild grasses and sedges which stretch for miles along both sides of this placid stream.
This creates a good environment for a variety of fish, including Bass and Alewife, Pickerel and American eel. Native Americans wove sticks in intricate designs to trap Alewives and other migrating fish at the mouths of rivers throughout this region. By 1635, settlers from England began to arrive, they gave the river its present name. On April 19, 1775, the Old North Bridge over the river in the town of Concord was famously the scene of the Battle of Concord; the current version of the bridge is preserved by the National Park Service. Henry David Thoreau wrote his first book, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, in 1849 while living at nearby Walden Pond, his book recounted a seven-day boat trip on the rivers with his brother John. Thoreau recounted his exploration of the natural beauty of the river, his accompanied thoughts on such eternal themes as truth, poetry and friendship. Despite the growth of the suburbs in the vicinity of the river, it remains a popular canoeing destination today.
The last mile of the river in Lowell is serious class 3+/4 whitewater. Dams were built along the Concord River to increase crop production and to provide a source of power for operating mills. By the 19th century, the native population of shad and alewife became extinct, because the dams prevented the mature fish from returning upstream to spawn. Alewife and other anadromous fish are migratory, they hatch in fresh water, make their way to the sea to grow return as adults to fresh water to spawn near where they had hatched. This instinct is imprinted within the fish. So, when the route upstream became blocked, the cycle was broken; the Faulkner Dam in North Billerica is just one of many blockages that caused the alewife population to collapse on the Concord River. At this point, water was diverted north to Lowell and south to Charlestown to run the Middlesex Canal. During the 19th century, the Concord River was near the heart of the US Industrial Revolution. Textile, paper and mining industries all emerged during this period.
Industrial wastes were dumped into the river, along with untreated other organic waste. Industrial development within the watershed peaked in the 1920s; the early 1960s saw an increase in the number of chemical and metal firms, many supporting the electronics industry within the Boston metropolitan area. By the 1960s, the Merrimack River was considered one of the top ten most polluted waterways in America; the Concord River empties into the Merrimack River. The passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 signaled the beginning of US efforts to improve the quality of its waterways; the act imposed stricter controls on point source discharges into other navigable waters. This led to the installation of three wastewater treatment plants on the banks of the Concord River: one in Concord and two in Billerica; these plants have helped to prevent subsequent damage to the river ecosystem when they were able to operate within federally mandated limits. Pollutants such as heavy metals and PCBs remain trapped in the sediment.
Throughout much of the Sudbury River and downstream into the Concord River, fish consumption is banned due to mercury-laden sediments from the Nyanza Superfund site and other sources. Perchlorate was detected in the Concord River in August 2004, it was believed that explosives used in road and building construction were the source of this pollutant. However, an investigation by the town of Billerica determined that the source was a local company that produced surgical and medical materials; the company was using 220 gallons per month of perchloric acid in a bleaching process, rinse water was being discharged into the sewage system. After the company was identified, it voluntarily shut down until ion exchange equipment could be installed in accordance with environmental guidelines. In May 2007, Billerica was the subject of legal action and forced to pay a $250,000 penalty for discharging pollutants into the Concord River; the action was brought by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection because the town of Billerica exceeded allowable effluent limits for phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, ammonia nitrogen.
The town was charged with failing to submit discharge monitoring reports, failing to comply with monitoring requirements, failing to submit infiltration and inflow reporting. According to the EPA, Billerica's discharges of phos
The Assabet River is a small river about 20 miles west of Boston, United States. The river is 34.4 miles long. OARS: the Organization for the Assabet and Concord Rivers, headquartered in West Concord, Massachusetts, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation and enhancement of the natural and recreational features of these three rivers and their watershed; the Assabet and Sudbury Rivers merge in Concord to become the Concord River. The river has had many variations of the same name over the centuries, without anyone knowing for sure what it means; some traditional meanings are associated with the place. Assabet is said to come from the Algonquian word for "the place where materials for making fish nets comes from." Other traditional meanings are "at the miry place" or "it is miry." It is possible to decode this name in the southern New England branch of Algonquian, spoken by the Nipmuc, Native Americans who once fished there. The name is segmented assa-pe-t from assa, "turn back", pe, a short form of nippe, "water", used in compounds, a locative suffix, -t, a shorter form of -et after the vowel.
The meaning would be "at the place where the river turns back." During floods the Assabet River reaches peak height sooner than the Sudbury River, so that at the junction of the two rivers the Sudbury's direction of flow can be temporarily reversed. A counter-argument is. On various historic maps and documents the name has been spelled as Asibath, Asabett, Elizbeth, Elizabet and Isabaeth; the form of spelling was not uniform until at least 1850. Historic maps up to 1830 are showing Elizabeth River, but by 1856 Assabet River. In present-day Stow, the Elizabeth Brook flows into the Assabet River; the Assabet rises at a swampy area in Westborough and flows northeast 34 miles, starting at an elevation of 320 feet and descending through the towns of Northborough, Berlin, Stow, Maynard and Concord, where it merges with the Sudbury River at Egg Rock to form the Concord River, at an elevation of 100 ft. As of 2017 there are nine dams on the Assabet River. Seven were built to power mills. Present-day names: Aluminum City, Allen Street, Gleasondale, Ben Smith and Damonmill/Westvale.
Two are modern dams for flood control: Tyler. The Damonmill Dam is breached, so it does not retain water, although it slows flow at flood times. A tenth mill dam, the Paper Mill Dam, in Maynard, was destroyed by the 1927 flood; as of 2017, 39 road bridges, two Assabet River Rail Trail bridges, one abandoned railroad bridge and one active railroad bridge cross the river. Its watershed covers 177 square miles; the Assabet marshes in Stow total about 900 acres, the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge and environs in Stow, Maynard and Marlborough total about 2,600 acres. The Powdermill dam was constructed for the American Powder Mills complex of 40 buildings on 400 acres along both sides of the river through the towns of Acton, Concord and Sudbury; these buildings were used for manufacture of gunpowder from 1835 to 1940. Evidence of the 23 recorded explosions during that period remains at a few locations along the river; this dam is owned by Acton Hydro Company Inc., in the process of renovating the hydropower facility in order to generate electricity.
None of the other historic mill dams have any current function. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote in its praise: "Rowing our boat against the current, between wide meadows, we turn aside into the Assabeth. A more lovely stream than this, for a mile above its junction with the Concord, has never flowed on earth." Henry David Thoreau took his students, including Louisa May Alcott on educational boat trips up the Assabet River," and he wrote a poem entitled "The Assabet" to a love interest stating: "Up this pleasant stream let's row, For the livelong summer's day, Sprinkling foam where'er we go, In wreaths as white as driven snow". The portion of the river upstream from the Ben Smith Dam in Maynard offers five miles of flat water for boating and fishing. Below the dam, the portion flowing through Maynard is rated as class I-II whitewater, suitable for beginning whitewater canoeists. Find out from experienced canoeists and kayakers the safe water depth for this passage. Too low and boats will ground in the shallows.
Too high and it will be impossible to get under the seven bridges. Search on USGS Assabet for real-time water conditions. According to U. S. Geological Survey records. February and April average > 300 cubic feet per second. July and September average <100 cfs, with weeks at a time < 40 cubic feet per second. Five municipal wastewater treatment plants discharge cleaned water into the Assabet River. In summer months this cumulative contribution of more than 10,000,000 US gallons per day can be more than half of the river's total volume; the official designation of major flooding on the Assabet River is a water depth of more than seven feet and a flow rate of 2,300 cfs at the gauge maintained by the U. S. Geological Survey on a site in the river behind McDonald's Restaurant. Last two major floods were 2010 and 1987; the gauge site is downstream of 114 of the 177 square miles making up the Assabet River drainage. Major tributaries below the gauge, which can contribute to downstream flooding, are Fort Pond and Nashoba Brooks