A wargame is a type of strategy game that simulates warfare realistically, as opposed to abstract strategy games such as chess. Wargames may be miniature figurines on board games or video games, they use a map that depicts various battlefield terrain features such as woods, hills and streams, with a grid or location system superimposed over this to regulate the movement and positions of the games' pieces, each of which represents a specific military formation, such as an infantry brigade or artillery battery. Many wargames recreate specific historic battles, can cover either whole wars, or any campaigns, battles, or lower-level engagements within them. Many simulate land combat. Events based on live action are not considered wargames; some writers may refer to a military's field training exercises as "live wargames", but certain institutions such as the US Navy do not accept this. Activities like paintball are sports rather than wargames. Modern wargaming was invented in Prussia around the turn of the 19th-century, the Prussian military adopted wargames as a way of training their officers and developing doctrine.
After Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War, wargaming was adopted in other countries as both a tool for training and research by military officers and for leisure by military enthusiasts. A military wargame is a wargame, used by a military as a serious tool for training or research. A recreational wargame is one played for fun in a competitive context. Recreational wargames can cover a wide variety of subjects, from pre-historic to modern – fantasy or sci-fi combat. Ones that do not include modern armaments and tactics are of limited interest to the military, though wargames covering famous historical battles can interest military historians; as military wargames are used to prepare officers for actual warfare, there is a strong emphasis on realism and current events. Military organizations are secretive about their current wargames, this makes designing a military wargame a challenge; the data the designers require, such as the performance characteristics of weapons or the locations of military bases, are classified, which makes it difficult for the designers to verify that their models are accurate.
Secrecy makes it harder to disseminate corrections if the wargame has been delivered to the clients. There is the small player base. Whereas a commercial wargame might have thousands or millions of players, military wargames tend to have small player bases, which makes it harder for the designers to acquire feedback; as a consequence, errors in wargame models tend to persist. Although commercial wargame designers take consumer trends and player feedback into account, their products are designed and sold with a take-it-or-leave-it approach. Military wargames, by contrast, are commissioned by the military that plans to use them. If a wargame is commissioned by several clients the designer will have to juggle their competing demands; this can lead to great complexity, high development costs, a compromised product that satisfies nobody. Commercial wargames are under more pressure to deliver an enjoyable experience for the players, who expect a user-friendly interface, a reasonable learning curve, exciting gameplay, so forth.
By contrast, military organizations tend to see wargaming as a tool and a chore, players are bluntly obliged to use whatever is provided to them. Military wargames that are arbitrated by an umpire or the players themselves tend to have simple models and computations compared to recreational wargames. Umpires may be allowed to make arbitrary decisions using their own expertise. One reason for this is to keep the learning curve small. Recreational wargamers tend to have a lot of wargaming experience, so learning a complicated new wargame is easy if it is similar enough to ones they've played. By contrast, military officers have little or no wargaming experience. A second reason is that the technical data required to design an accurate and precise model, such as the performance characteristics of a fighter jet, is classified; the exact definition of "wargame" varies from one writer to the next and one organization to the next. To prevent confusion, this section will establish the general definition employed by this article.
A wargame simulates an armed conflict, be it a campaign, or an entire war. Business wargames, which simulate market competition, may have a similar purpose but their context isn't armed conflict. A wargame is adversarial. There must be two opposing sides. A wargame does not involve the use of actual armaments; this definition is used by the US Naval War College. Some writers use the term "live wargames" to refer to games that use actual troops in the field, but this article shall instead refer to these as field exercises. A wargame must have a setting, based on some historical era of warfare so as to establish what armaments the combatants may wield and the environment they fight in. A historical setting depicts a real historical era of warfare. Among recreational wargamers, the most popular historical era is World War 2. Professional military wargamers prefer the modern era. A fantasy setting depicts a fictional world in which the combatants wield fictional or anachronistic armaments, but it should be similar enough to some historical era of warfare such that the combatants fight in a familiar and credible w
Indra III was the grandson of Rashtrakuta Krishna II and son of Chedi princess Lakshmi. He became the ruler of the empire due to the early demise of his father Jagattunga, he had many titles such as Nithyavarsha, Rattakandarapa and Kirthinarayana. He patronised Sanskrit poet Trivikrama. Indra III was married to princess Vijamba of the Kalachuri dynasty of central India. After coming to power, Indra III had to fight a Paramara ruler, a feudatory of Gurjara Prathihara and routed him out of Govardhana near Nasik. Thereafter the Paramaras became feudatories of the Rashtrakutas; the Gurjara Pratihara ruler Mahendrapala I was experiencing some family feuds and this gave Indra III an opportunity to attack Kannauj in the Ganges - Yamuna doab. Kannauj at this time was under the control of the Pratihara empire. From the writings of Kannada poet Adikavi Pampa it is known that Indra III sent his feudatory, Chalukya king Narasimha II of Vemulavada, in pursuit of Mahipala I the incumbent ruler who fled the area.
Kannauj was "completely destroyed", the Pratihara ruler weakened. The northern campaign of Indra III produced more dramatic results during the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha and Govinda III as the Rashtrakutas were able to hold Kannauj until c.916. A civil war like situation prevailed in Vengi after the defeat of Eastern Chalukya Bhima at the hands of Baddega, a Rashtrakuta feudatory from Vemulavada. A period of intense politics continued when the Rashtrakutas tried to install the king of their choice in Vengi. Indra III's Jain general Sri Vijaya won may wars for his king in the eastern Deccan and the bulk of Vengi was brought under the rule of Indra III for a few years. Sastri, Nilakanta K. A.. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. Kamath, Suryanath U.. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041. Reu, Pandit Bisheshwar Nath.
History of The Rashtrakutas. Jaipur: Publication scheme. ISBN 81-86782-12-5. History of Karnataka, Mr. Arthikaje
The 2012–13 St. Louis Blues season was the 46th season for the National Hockey League franchise, established on June 5, 1967; the regular season was reduced from its usual 82 games to 48 due to the 2012–13 NHL lockout. On January 6, 2013, after a 113-day lockout, the NHL Owners and Players reached a new Collective Bargaining Agreement, ratified on both sides by January 12, 119-days after the lockout; the old CBA expired on September 2012, precipitating the lockout of the players by the owners. The new CBA has to be ratified by both the players before the season can begin. On the same day, team owner Tom Stillman released a statement apologizing to the fans for the more-than-three-month lockout; the Blues and the NHL released the new playing schedules for 2013, covering 48 games instead of the usual 82. The Blues open the season at home on January 19 against the Detroit Red Wings. Fox Sports Midwest will broadcast 41 of the 48 games. NBC/NBC Sports will broadcast the remaining seven. On the eve of the start of the abbreviated 2012–13 season on January 19, the Blues trimmed their roster to 23 by the January 18 deadline.
The first game of the 48-game season scored a first for the Blues: the first shutout in the first game of the season in their 46-year history. A 6–0 shutout of Detroit at home by Jaroslav Halak featured a two-goal game on his first two NHL shots by acclaimed Russian rookie Vladimir Tarasenko, two goals by Chris Stewart and a short-handed goal by T. J. Oshie, with four of the six goals on the power-play, to a standing-room-only crowd of 20,035 in attendance; the opening game was the highest-rated Blues home opener on FOX Sports Midwest. It averaged a 6.0 household rating, making it the highest-rated program in prime time in St. Louis on Saturday; the second game of the season, on Monday January 21 against the Nashville Predators, was the highest-rated regular season Blues telecast on FOX Sports Midwest. The Blues' 4–3 shootout win at Nashville generated a 7.4 household rating in the St. Louis DMA, according to Nielsen Media Research; that tops the previous regular season high of 6.3 set March 13, 2012 at Chicago.
The Monday telecast peaked at a 9.1 rating during the shootout. The Blues Live postgame show followed with an impressive 4.7 rating. On January 27, the Blues honored the late St. Louis Cardinals' baseball Hall of Famer Stan Musial, who died in Ladue, Missouri, on January 19 at the age of 92; the Blues wore number 6 on their warmup jerseys that were autographed and auctioned to benefit Cardinals Care and the St. Louis Blues 14 fund. On February 4, Blues' forward Vladimir Tarasenko was named by the NHL as January's Rookie of the Month, as he led all rookie forwards with nine points in seven games in the month. On February 13, goaltender Jake Allen made his first start in goal, against the Detroit Red Wings at Joe Louis Arena, where his team beat Detroit 4–3 in overtime, stopping 15 of 18 shots. Vladimir Tarasenko was the early favorite to win the Calder Memorial Trophy as Rookie of the Year after the one-quarter mark of the season, scoring six goals and five assists in 13 games, playing only 14:27 average per game.
On February 22, he was placed on the injured reserve list after getting hit on the head in the February 20 game in Colorado. His five points in his first two games tied him with Wayne Babych for the best start by a rookie in Blues' history. On February 23 at home, Barret Jackman became the all-time Blues' leader in games played by a defenseman with his 616th game played since his debut on April 14, 2002, he has 22 goals and 121 assists for 143 points in his career and a plus-minus rating of +37. This season, he passed Barclay Plager, Al MacInnis, Larry Patey and Chris Pronger. Only forwards Bernie Federko, Brian Sutter, Brett Hull and Garry Unger have played in more games than Jackman. After starting out with a 6–1 record in January, the Blues skidded to a 4–7–1 record in February, with a 1–5–1 record at home. Rookie goaltender Jake Allen earned his first NHL shutout at home against the Phoenix Coyotes, stopping all 28 shots on March 14, it boosted his record to 7–1 in his first eight games. Goaltender Jaroslav Halak tied Glenn Hall for the Blues' franchise record of 16 career shutouts when Halak shut-out the Edmonton Oilers on March 23, stopping all 19 shots on net.
It was his 25th career shutout in the NHL. Roman Turek is third on the franchise list with 13 shutouts. A freefall at the end of March, losing four of five games, dropped the Blues to eighth place in the Conference, just hanging on to a playoff spot. A few days before the NHL trade deadline, the Blues, on March 30, picked up a left-shooting defenseman Jordan Leopold in a trade with the Buffalo Sabres to bolster its defense. In his second trade in two days, on April 1, general manager Doug Armstrong, after pushing for 10 months acquired left-shooting defenseman Jay Bouwmeester from the Calgary Flames. In his final trade, his third in four days, just before the deadline on April 3, Armstrong traded defenseman Wade Redden to the Boston Bruins for a conditional seventh-round draft pick in 2014. April 16 saw head coach Ken Hitchcock earn his 600th NHL win with the 2–1 shootout victory over the Vancouver Canucks, he became the 11th NHL coach to reach that milestone. Of the 11, only two have higher career point percentages: Scotty Bowman and Joel Quenneville, with Hitchcock at.595.
Bowman and Quenneville were both former Blues' coaches. The Blues clinched a playoff spot in the top eight teams in the Western Conference after their 3–1 home win a
Bhoot Unkle is an Indian supernatural comedy film which released on 6 Oct 2006. The film was directed by Mukesh Saigal starring Jackie Shroff in the lead Jackie Shroff as Bhoot Unkle Akhilendra Mishra as MLA Sheela David as MLA's Wife Dev K. Kantawall as Shyam Anurag Prapanna as Mama Rasika Joshi as Mami Dinesh Kaushik as Principal Shallu Singh as Principal's Wife Shehzad Khan as Robert KK Goswami as Tingu Sheena Bajaj as Geeta Jai Kanani as S. K. Mil Gaya Saathi Koi Apna, Bhoot Unkle - Baba Sehgal Mil Gaya Saathi Koi Apna, Bhoot Unkle - Baba Sehgal Happy Birthday To You - Tarannum Mallik Hawa Hawa Nee Ho Maa - Baba Sehgal Oh My Mom Ya Toh - Baba Sehgal Udd Ke Jaana Hai - Tarannum Mallik Bhoot Unkle at Bollywood Hungama Bhoot Unkle on IMDb
Kavali Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 10 constituencies in the Nellore district, it is part of the Nellore Lok Sabha constituency along with another six Vidhan Sabha segments, Kandukur in Prakasam district, Kovuru, Nellore City, Nellore Rural and Udayagiri in Nellore district. 1951 - B. Ramakrishna Reddy - Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party 1955 - B. Ramakrishna Reddy - PRAJA PARTY 1962 - YALAMPALLI PENCHALAIAH - Indian National Congress 1967 - G. SUBBANAIDU - Swatantra Party 1972 - GOTTI PATI KONDAPA NAIDU - independent 1978 - KALIKI YANADI REDDY - Indian National Congress 1983 - PATALLAPALLI VENGAL RAO - Telugu Desam Party 1985 - KALIKI YANADI REDDY - Indian National Congress 1989 - Kaliki Yanadi Reddy - Indian National Congress 1994 - Kaliki Yanadi Reddy - Indian National Congress 1999 - Vanteru Venugopal Reddy - Telugu Desam Party 2004 - Magunta Parvathamma - Indian National Congress 2009 - Ramireddy Pratap Kumar Reddy - Indian National Congress 2014 - Ramireddy Pratap Kumar Reddy - YSR Congress Party 2019 - Ramireddy Pratap Kumar Reddy - YSR Congress Party List of constituencies of Andhra Pradesh Vidhan Sabha
Richard Metzger is a television host and author. He was the host of the TV show Disinformation, The Disinformation Company and its website, Disinfo.com. He is the host of the online talk show Dangerous Minds. For several years Metzger hosted a talk show, The Infinity Factory, broadcast on Manhattan public-access television cable TV and distributed online through Pseudo.com. It was similar in tone and appeal to Art Bell and George Noory's paranormal Coast to Coast AM radio show, on which Metzger had been a guest. Many of the interview subjects on this show would go on to be features in the Channel 4 series. Metzger was the host of the TV show Disinformation, which aired for two seasons on Channel 4 in the UK as part of their late night "4Later" programming block. According to interviews, Metzger was told just twelve days prior to the first specials' air-date that he would have to cut 50% of the material from the show in order to pass the USA Network's corporate lawyers' scrutiny; those four shows have subsequently been released on a DVD with a second bonus disc presenting highlights of The DisinfoCon, a 12-hour event featuring shock rocker Marilyn Manson via pre-Skype video chat, underground filmmaker Kenneth Anger, painter Joe Coleman, Douglas Rushkoff, Mark Pesce, Grant Morrison, Robert Anton Wilson, others.
Metzger created the "Disinformation" website in 1996, was able to regain control of the intellectual property rights and a $1.2 million investment by the site's original backer, cable giant TCI after TCI CEO John Malone had demanded funds be cut off when news of Metzger's "anarchist bullshit" reached him. In 1997 he co-founded The Disinformation Company, which joined with Avenue A/Razorfish, became part of the RSUB Network until 2001, he is the author of two books. Disinformation: The Interviews features unedited interviews with several of the characters and thinkers who were guests on the series such as Douglas Rushkoff, Joe Coleman, Paul Laffoley, Grant Morrison, Duncan Laurie, Peter Russell, Kembra Pfahler, Genesis P-Orridge and Howard Bloom. "Book of Lies: The Disinformation Guide To Magick & The Occult" is an anthology of occult essays. According to a footnote in Disinformation: The Interviews, Metzger is the uncredited male-voice interviewing Japanese pop singer Maki Nomiya of Pizzicato 5 on their song "This Year's Girl #2".