Warhammer 40,000 is a miniature wargame produced by Games Workshop. The first edition of the rulebook was published in September 1987; the latest edition is the eighth, published in June 2017. Warhammer 40,000 is the most popular miniature wargame in the world, it is most popular in Britain. As in other miniature wargames, players enact a battle using miniature models of warriors and fighting vehicles; the playing area is a tabletop model of a battlefield, comprising models of buildings, hills and other terrain features. Players take turns to move their model warriors around the battlefield and pretend that they are fighting the other player's warriors; these imaginary fights are resolved using simple arithmetic. Warhammer 40,000 is set in the distant future, where a stagnant human civilization is beset by hostile aliens and malevolent supernatural creatures; the models in the game are a mixture of humans and supernatural monsters, wielding futuristic weaponry and magical powers. Warhammer 40,000 has spawned a number of spin-off tabletop games.
These include Battlefleet Gothic. It has spawned many video games, such as the Dawn of War series, it has spawned a large body of novels and comic books, which develop the fictional setting in detail. Note: The overview here references the 8th edition of the core rulebook, published June 2017 The rulebooks and models required to play Warhammer 40,000 are copyrighted and sold by Games Workshop and its subsidiaries; these and other materials all make Warhammer 40,000 expensive. A new player can expect to spend at least £300 to assemble enough materials for a "proper" game. Games Workshop sells a large variety of gaming models for Warhammer 40,000. Games Workshop does not sell ready-to-play models. Rather, it sells boxes of model parts. Players are expected to paint the miniatures themselves. Games Workshop sells glue and acrylic paints for this purpose. Most Warhammer 40,000 models are made of polystyrene, but some models—those of exotic characters which are made and sold in small volumes—are made of lead-free pewter or epoxy resin.
Each miniature model represents vehicle. In the rulebooks, there is an entry for every type of model in the game that describes its capabilities. For instance, a model of a Tactical Space Marine has a "Move characteristic" of 6 inches, a "Toughness characteristic" of 4, is armed with a "boltgun" with a range of 24 inches. Warhammer 40,000 is meant to be played on a table; the official rulebook recommends a table width of 4 feet. In contrast to board games, Warhammer 40,000 does not have a fixed playing field. Players are expected to construct their own custom-made playing field using modular terrain models. Games Workshop sells a variety of proprietary terrain models, but players use generic or homemade ones too. Unlike certain other miniature wargames, such as Battletech, Warhammer 40,000 does not use a grid system. Players must use measuring tape to measure distances. Distances are measured in inches. Warhammer 40,000 does not have a scale, but the models approximate to a scale ratio of 1:60. For instance, a Land Raider tank model is 17 cm long but conceptually 10.3 m long.
A Space Marine model is about 34 mm tall. Unlike chess, players are not restricted to playing with a specific and symmetrical combination of warriors. However, there are some rules to ensure that, whatever the compositions of the players' respective armies are, they are fair and balanced; the model warriors are classified into "factions". In a matched game, a player can only use warrior models that are all loyal to a common faction, such as "Imperium" or "Chaos". Thus, a player cannot, for example, use a mixture of Eldar and Ork models—that would not make sense, for in the game's fictional setting, these two factions are mortal enemies; each faction has its own strengths and weaknesses due to the particular warriors and weapons it has access to. For instance, the Tau faction favors; the players must agree as to what "points limit" they will play at, which determines how big and powerful their respective armies will be. Each model has a "point value" which corresponds to how powerful the model is, e.g. a Tactical Space Marine is valued at 13 points, whereas a Land Raider tank is valued at 239 points.
The sum of the point values of a player's models must not exceed the agreed limit. 1,000 to 2,000 points are common points limits. In the most recent edition of the game, power levels are assigned to each model, which can be used to simplify or vary the process of creating an army list. At the start of a game, each player places their models in starting zones at opposite ends of the playing field. At the start of their turn, a player moves each model in their army by hand across the field. A model can be moved no farther than its listed "Move characteristic". For instance, a model of a Space Marine can be moved no farther than six inches per turn. If a model can not fly, it must go around obstacles such as trees. Models are grouped into "units", they move and suffer damage as a unit. All models in a unit must stay close to each other. After moving, each unit can attack any enemy unit within range and line-of-fire of whatever weapons and psychic powers its models have. For instance, a unit of Space Marines armed with "boltguns" can shoot any enemy unit within 24 inches.
Lloyd Arthur Eshbach was an American science fiction fan and writer, secular and religious publisher, minister. Born in Palm, Eshbach grew up in Reading in the same state, he discovered science fiction at age 15 and began writing letters to the professional magazines started to write his own stories. The third story he wrote sold to Science Wonder Stories in 1929. While still writing his own stories and articles, he published two short-lived magazines during the early 1930s, Marvel Tales and The Galleon, he initiated Fantasy Press, a small press which published the work of authors such as E. E. Smith, Jack Williamson, Robert A. Heinlein and John W. Campbell, Jr.. Fantasy Press published a total of 46 titles in its lifetime, with two additional fantasy titles published under the subsidiary imprint, Polaris Press. Fantasy Press books were produced in limited print runs averaging 3,750 copies each, with between 250 and 500 copies of each title bearing a limited plate inserted after the title page, numbered and autographed by the book's author.
These constituted the first hardcover editions of many of these works available only in used copies of magazines. Eshbach was a church publisher from 1958 to 1962 he was a salesman for the Moody Bible Institute until retirement in 1975. Upon his retirement, he became a pastor in the Evangelical Congregational Church and served churches of that denomination in Pennsylvania in Lancaster County and Womelsdorf. Eshbach was a lifelong science fiction fan, besides creating Fantasy Press he was instrumental in assisting others in the creation and operation of their own fan or specialty presses, including William Crawford of Fantasy Publishing and F. P. C. I. and Thomas Hadley, of first The Buffalo Book Company and Hadley Publishing Company, whom Eshbach instructed and assisted with marketing and sales of his books and organization of his mailing list. His memoirs, Over My Shoulder: Reflections on a Science Fiction Era, were published in 1983. Other books included The Armlet of the Gods, The Land Beyond the Gate, The Sorceress of Scath and The Tyrant of Time.
He edited Of Worlds Beyond: The Science of Science Fiction Writing, the first book-length work on science fiction writing from a professional point of view. An active member of science fiction's First Fandom, he was Guest of Honor at the 1949 World Science Fiction Convention and the 1995 World Fantasy Convention. In his 1982 memoirs, Over My Shoulder: Reflections on a Science Fiction Era, Eshbach quotes L. Ron Hubbard as telling him in 1949, "I'd like to start a religion. That's where the money is." Davin, Eric Leif. Interview with Eshbach, in Pioneers of Wonder: Conversations With the Founders of Science Fiction. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. Lloyd Arthur Eshbach at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Works by Lloyd Arthur Eshbach at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Lloyd Arthur Eshbach at Internet Archive Works by Lloyd Arthur Eshbach at LibriVox
Wensleydale is a style of cheese produced in Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, but now made in large commercial creameries throughout the UK. The term "Yorkshire Wensleydale" can only be used for cheese, made in Wensleydale. Wensleydale is a cheddar-like cheese with a supple, moist texture, which resembles a young Caerphilly; the flavour suggests wild honey balanced with fresh acidity. Wensleydale cheese was first made by French Cistercian monks from the Roquefort region, who had settled in Wensleydale, they built a monastery at Fors, but some years the monks moved to Jervaulx in Lower Wensleydale. They brought with them a recipe for making cheese from sheep's milk. During the 14th century cows' milk began to be used instead, the character of the cheese began to change. A little ewes' milk was still mixed in since it gave a more open texture, allowed the development of the blue mould. At that time, Wensleydale was always blue with the white variety unknown. Nowadays, the opposite is true, with blue Wensleydale seen.
When the monastery was dissolved in 1540, the local farmers continued making the cheese until the Second World War, during which most milk in the country was used for the making of "Government Cheddar". After rationing ceased in 1954, cheese making did not return to pre-war levels. Wensleydale Creamery in the town of Hawes has been hand-making cheese for more than 100 years. In May 1992, Dairy Crest, a subsidiary of the Milk Marketing Board, closed the Hawes creamery with the loss of 59 jobs. Dairy Crest transferred production of Wensleydale cheese to Yorkshire's traditional rival, Lancashire. Six months in November 1992, following many rescue offers, a management buyout took place, led by local businessman John Gibson and the management team. With the help of eleven members of the former workforce, cheese making recommenced in Wensleydale. Wensleydale Dairy Products sought to protect the name Yorkshire Wensleydale under an EU regulation; the business moved to its current location in Hawes in 2015 and still handcrafts the eponymous cheese with a staff of 230.
In 2017, the company made a £ 5 million investment in its cheese making facilities. In the financial year ending March 2017, the company sold 4,664 tonnes of cheese; the company estimated revenues of £27.5 million and pre-tax profits of around £1 million in their financial year ending in March 2018. Exports make up about 15% of the revenues and visits by tourists another 10%; the creamery has become a tourist attraction, visited by up to 300,000 people each year. In January 2018, the company appointed David Salkeld as its new Chairman, replacing Matthew Gribbin, with the Creamery for ten years. Wensleydale Creamery has won many prestigious cheese awards, including Supreme Champion in 2018 for its new Yorkshire Cheddar at The Great Yorkshire Show's Cheese and Dairy Show. Yorkshire Wensleydale took the Reserve Supreme Cheese title; the company received ten gold, four silver and four bronze awards and four Best of Category trophies. In 2017, the creamery had won 22 awards. In mid 2019, an announcement indicated that cheese waste from the Creamery, which makes 4,000 tonnes of cheese per year, would help heat 4,000 Yorkshire homes with renewable "green gas".
The Leeming biogas plant will use anaerobic digestion to turn the waste into methane biogas which will be burned for conversion into electricity. Any whey residue remaining after the process will be spread in the area to improve the soil; the main categories of cheese produced by the Wensleydale Creamery include: Yorkshire Cheddar Yorkshire Wensleydale Blended Cheese Waxed Truckles Blue Cheese Traditional English Smoked Cheese Sheep's Milk CheeseReal Yorkshire Wensleydale is shaped in a variety of weight moulds ranging in size from a small flat disc known as a "truckle", pressed and preserved in wax, to several larger cheeses—it is a mild cheese with an acidic, honeyed flavour. Mature Wensleydale is a harder, more flavoured version of the Real Yorkshire Wensleydale. Extra Mature Wensleydale is the strongest Wensleydale cheese, matured for nine months. Blue Wensleydale is produced in range of sizes, it is flavoured but less salty than the classic British blue Stilton. Oak Smoked Wensleydale is cold smoked to produce a cheese with texture.
Cold smoking involves lower temperatures in the smoking process. Winter Warmer is Wensleydale with mulled wine and festive spices for the winter holidays; the flavour of Wensleydale is suited to combination such as fruit. A popular combination available in many restaurants and delicatessens is Wensleydale containing cranberries. In Yorkshire, apple pie may be accompanied by white Wensleydale, giving rise to the saying'an apple pie without the cheese is like a kiss without the squeeze'. In Yorkshire and North East England it is eaten with fruit cake or Christmas cake. In his essay "In Defence of English Cooking", George Orwell rates Wensleydale as second only to Stilton among British cheese varieties. In the popular 1962 novel "Hornblower and the Hotspur" the title character makes "an epoch-making discovery, that Wensleydale cheese and port were a pair of heavenly twins". Wensleydale was one of the cheeses named by John Cleese in the Monty Python sketch "The Cheese Shop", which appeared in a 1972 episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus.
In addition, the shop owner, played by Michael Palin, was named'Henry Wensleydale', which caused some confusion between the two when the cheese was mentioned. Wensleydale appears in