A warlord is a leader able to exercise military and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces. These armed forces considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the state regime. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political and social structure of states or ungoverned territories; the first appearance of the word "warlord" dates to 1856, when used by American philosopher and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson in a critical essay on the aristocracy in England, "Piracy and war gave place to trade and letters. The term "Jun Fa" is applied retroactively to describe the leaders of regional private armies who, throughout China's history, threatened or used violence to expand their political rule over additional territories, including those who rose to lead and unify kingdoms. Although warlords were present in either pre-modern states or "weak state" societies, in countries designated "fragile states" or "failed states" in modern times, there is a tremendous degree of variance in the political and societal organization and institutions in states where warlordism exists.
There is a divergence of opinion within the field of political science as to what constitutes warlordism in the context of the historical setting. There are two major functional distinctions when considering warlords and their relationship with a state; the first is one in which the warlord functions within the political framework through a degree of bargaining with the state regime so that the warlord, sometimes individually and sometimes in a coalition with other warlords, is acting with the explicit consent of or at least in accord with the regime. This can be viewed as "cooperative warlord politics"; the other is one in which the warlord is operating independently of the state and is viewed as a rebel, insurgent or strategic political competitor of the regime. This is viewed as "ungoverned warlordism". Warlords can fall into a hybrid category, temporarily joining a warlord coalition in collusion with the regime or defecting for political expedience—transitioning from one paradigm to the other based upon strategic interests.
The other major consideration in categorizing warlords is through the lens of history. Warlordism was a widespread, dominant political framework that ordered many of the world's societies until the modern state became globally ubiquitous. Warlord governance in pre-modern state history was constructed along tribal or kinship lines and was congruent with early perceptions of "nation". In colonial empires warlords served in both cooperative political capacities and as leaders of rebellions. In modern states the presence of warlords is seen as an indicator of state weakness or failure. American historian David G. Herrmann noted, "Warlordism is the default condition of humanity." Economist Stergios Skaperdas views warlordism as a default—albeit inefficient—competitive economic model that emerges in states where state capacity is low, but that innately evolves into an institution governing political order that uses violence or the threat of it to secure its access to "rent"-producing resources. It may have a stabilizing effect on a region.
In both cases there is an inherent inefficiency in the model, as "resources are wasted on unproductive arming and fighting." However, the functionality is sustainable because it presents citizens with no choice but to accept rent levies in exchange for protection. Charles Tilly, an American political scientist and sociologist, theorized that organized crime can function as a means for war and state making, he argues that the monopoly of crime by the state—in this case being the warlords—is in order to receive protection from external rivals as well as internal political rivals. Political scientist Jesse Driscoll uses the term "redistribution politics" to classify the bargaining process between warlords and the regime in states where cooperative warlord politics prevails, when that bargaining leads to accords or informal arrangements concerning the extraction of rent—which can refer to natural resources, labor, revenue or privilege. In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, Driscoll cites "land reform, property ownership and transfers, privatization in non-transparent closed-bid settings, complex credit swaps cemented via marriages, money laundering, price fixing schemes, bribery", as principal sources of exchange in redistribution politics.
Noted theorist Max Weber suggested that classic feudalism in pre-modern-state Europe was an example of warlordism, as the state regime was unable to "exercise a monopoly on the use of force within its territory" and the monarch relied on the commitment of loyal knights and other nobility to mobilize their private armies in support of the crown for specific military campaigns. As noted French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville and political scientists such as E. J. Hobsbawm and Theda Skocpol observed in their analyses of the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution and democratization in Europe, that commitment was contingent upon a bargaining process in which the king or queen had to guarantee additional territory, status or other privileges
Dukhovnitsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-eight in Saratov Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast; the area of the district is 2,000 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the urban locality of Dukhovnitskoye. Population: 12,951; the population of Dukhovnitskoye accounts for 41.2% of the district's total population. Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №46-ЗСО от 2 июня 2005 г. «Устав Саратовской области», в ред. Закона №54-ЗСО от 28 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Саратовской области». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Неделя области", Спецвыпуск, №38, 4 июня 2005 г.. Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №78-ЗСО от 23 декабря 2004 г «О муниципальных районах». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №267–268, 29 декабря 2004 г.. Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №92-ЗСО от 27 декабря 2004 г. «О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Духовницкого муниципального района».
Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №4–5, 14 января 2005 г
Ultra Japan is an outdoor electronic music festival, a part of Ultra Music Festival's worldwide expansion, which has now spread to twenty countries. Ultra Japan made its debut as a two-day festival during 27–28 September 2014, took place at the Tokyo Odaiba Ultra Park in Tokyo, Japan; the inaugural edition of Ultra Japan took place at the Tokyo Odaiba Ultra Park and featured three stages—the Main Stage, Ultra Worldwide Arena, the UMF Radio Stage. The lineup included the likes of Morgan Page, W&W, Martin Garrix, Steve Angello, Sunnery James & Ryan Marciano, Fedde Le Grand, Axwell & Ingrosso, Pig & Dan, Kaskade, UMEK, Gina Turner, Mark Knight, Brass Knuckles, Darren Emerson, many more. Ultra Japan's first edition drew an attendance of over 42,000 people. For the following year, Ultra Japan expanded into a three-day festival and was once again held at Tokyo's Odaiba Ultra Park during the weekend of 19–21 September 2015; this edition included the same stages from the year before. Artists on the lineup included Dash Berlin, Justin Oh, Robin Schulz, David Guetta, DJ Snake, Mija, Skrillex, Zeds Dead, Pendulum and Status, Nic Fanciulli, John Digweed, Gorgon City and many more.
90,000 people were in attendance at Ultra Japan's second edition. 2016 marked Ultra Japan's third year taking place at the Tokyo Odaiba Ultra Park. The festival took place during the weekend of 17–19 September 2016 and it was confirmed via the Phase 1 lineup that deadmau5, Martin Garrix, Nero, DJ Snake and Marshmello were the first announced to play the three-day festival. Ultra Japan is a festival for those twenty years old and over; the third edition of Ultra Japan had a Resistance stage for its second year in a row. The lineup for the Resistance stage included Dubfire, Art Department, Nic Fanciulli, Nicole Moudaber, Yotto, Takkyu Ishino and many more; the Phase 2 lineup for Ultra Japan was released on 3 August 2016 and included Knife Party, Tiesto, Galantis, Shogun, Thomas Jack, W&W, Carnage, Fedde Le Grand, more. The festival featured three stages—Mainstage, Live Stage, the Resistance stage; the 2016 edition of Ultra Japan welcomed 120,000 people in attendance to the Tokyo Odaiba Ultra Park.
The festival, which took place from 16–18 September, saw performances by Alesso, Carl Cox, Kygo, KSHMR, SHRKTOPS, Steve Aoki, The Chainsmokers and Tiesto. List of electronic dance music festivals Ultra Music Festival Russell Faibisch Ultra Australia Ultra Brasil Ultra Buenos Aires Road to Ultra Ultra Korea Ultra Chile Ultra Bali Ultra Singapore Ultra South Africa Ultra Europe Ultra Worldwide Ultra Japan Ultra Music Festival Resistance